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FAU - SCI 108 - life science study guide for exam 3 - Study Guide

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FAU - SCI 108 - life science study guide for exam 3 - Study Guide

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background image Life Science Study Guide 2  Cell division  1st, cells must copy their DNA  We each have 46 chromosomes  The bacteria ecoli has a single circular chromosome  In eukaryotes, chromosomes are uncondensed before cell division They are copied and become condensed in preparation for division Makes it easier to move them around and decreases potential damage to the 
DNA in the dividing cell
Sister chromatids duplicated chromosomes held together at the centromere  Nucleotides are connected one­by­one to produce a new strand based on the old one DNA polymerase enzyme that replicates DNA  Moves along unwound DNA and helps new strands  Covalent bonds are formed between new complementary nucleotides added to 
the growing strand 
Cell cycle and Mitosis  Mitosis cell division in eukaryotic cells (followed by Cytokinesis)  Interphase cell functions normally, grows, and replicates DNA  Cell spends most of its time here  Cytokinesis stage where two daughter cells are formed  3 checkpoints during cell replication: G1, G2, and metaphase  Growth factors stimulate cells to divide  Mutations  Carcinogens cause cancer from excess mutation  Proto­oncogenes genes that code for the cell cycle control proteins  Tumor suppressor genes stop cell division if conditions aren't right  Metastasis Cancerous cells break away from a malignant tumor and start a new cancer 
at another location in the body
An travel through body via circulatory/lymphatic system  Skin cancer  3 common forms Basal  cell carcinomas Squamous cell carcinomas Malignant melanomas (very deathly)  Basal and squamous cell carcinomas together are known as nonmelanoma skin 
cancer 
50% more common in males rather than females  Cancer travels through the circulatory system  Pathogens can cause cancer  Meiosis  Form of cell division in gonads to produce gametes  Reduces # of chromosomes in each cell by ½  Gametes are haploid  Have only 1 of each chromosome  Meiosis 1 
background image Homologous chromosomes are paired up and then separated the into 2 separate
cells
Crossing over exchange of equivalent portions of chromosomes between 
members of a homologous pair
Linked genes cross over together Meiosis 2  Separates the sister chromatids in each of the two cells produced from meiosis I 
in order to produce 4 haploid cells in total
Nondisjunction failure of homologues to separate normally during meiosis Trisomy 21  Down syndrome Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during meiosis Have 3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of the normal 2 Water  Helps maintain blood pressure  Important in body temperature regulation  Involved in cell processes   Nutrients  substances that provide structural materials or energy All organisms need them to survive  Macronutrients nutrients that are required in large amounts consist of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats Proteins Polymers of amino acids Body can synthesize (make) many of the amino acids it needs for 
proteins
Essential amino acids those we cannot make ourselves must obtain them from food Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids needed Essential fatty acids we can’t make these   Fats energy storage molecules  Act as cushions and insulate body  Consist of glycerol w 3 fatty acid tails attached  Polyunsaturated fats Have many double bonds between various carbons in fatty acid tails 
preventing them from tightly packing
Typically liquid at room temperature Hydrogenation Industrial treatment process that adds hydrogen atoms to 
unsaturated fats
Complete hydrogenation turns unsaturated fats to saturated Typically solid at room temperature Trans fats produced by incomplete hydrogenation, prolonged heating, or many 
cycles of cooling and heating
Most are thought to negatively affect health Saturated fats  fatty acid tail carbons are bound to as much hydrogen as they can hold Lack double covalent bonds between carbons of fatty acid tails

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School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Life Science
Course: Life Science
Professor: Baronas-Lowell
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: life science study guide for exam 3
Description: this study guide covers material that will be on exam 3 including nutrients, cell cycles, and key vocab terms
Uploaded: 03/26/2018
4 Pages 43 Views 34 Unlocks
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