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University of Central Florida - BIOL 2010 - Class Notes - Week 9

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University of Central Florida - BIOL 2010 - Class Notes - Week 9

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background image Biology Notes on Chapter 12 and 13 Cellular Basis of Reproduction and 
Inheritance
 
Eukaryotic cell division Have large, complex, multiple chromosomes Just prior to division, chromosomes become visible Somatic cell= body cell These cells need to contain the full set of chromosomes Diploid number in humans = 46 (2n=26) Diploid means the full number in a body cell  Sex cells (Gametes) Have half the number of chromosomes of a body cell (23)  Are haploid (n=23) We get one set of chromosomes 1-23 from each parent We have 23 pairs of chromosomes  Replicated chromosomes= two sister chromatid together Unreplicated chromosomes= single chromatid Chromosomes Chromosomes are duplicated before cell division 2 sister chromatids are attached at the centromere Once sister chromatids separate they are called chromosomes again Cell Cycle Is regulated by many chemicals inside the cell Like an alarm clock telling the cell when and what to do Results in cell division Interphase reps 90% of cell cycle time o G 1  – the cell grows and increases supply of proteins and organelles Makes proteins, duplicate organelles, cell grows, o S – DNA synthesis  Copy the DNA o G – cell preps for division, increases supply of necessary proteins,  checks DNA Make more protein, checks for DNA damage o G 0  – cell stops, will not divide; allows the cell to not have to go into  division if it’s not ready yet Think of it like a rest stop Very important phase of cell activity Nerve tissue never divides in adults Your liver has different signaling pathway for repair, the physical kind A kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from 
ATP to another molecule
background image Mitosis  Prophase = spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves o Diploid and replicated  Metaphase = chromosomes aligned with centromeres on metaphase plate o Diploid and replicated Anaphase = sister chromatids separate and move to the poles o Diploid and replicated at beginning, diploid and unreplicatied at end Telophase/Cytokinesis = nucleus reappears, cytoplasm divides, relaxes again o Diploid and unreplicated In animals, cytokinesis happens from the outside in, forms a cleavage furrow In plants, cytokinesis happens inside out, vesicles fuse from inside out 
forming cell plate
Telomeres are the “cell clocks” o Govern cell longevity
o Shorten with each division
o After about 50 times they reach a critical length and a division 
cessation signal is given Checkpoints 3 major checkpoints o G1, G2, and M phase Release of chemical signals allows cell cycle to continue Factors affecting cell division Surface anchorage dependence = cells will die off if not attached to where 
they need to be
o Cancer cells are not anchorage dependent Density dependent inhibition = division usually stops when a single layer of 
cells formed and cell touch
o Cancer cell don’t do this Cell death 2 ways o Necrosis- from damage, poisons, hypoxia, starvation, ATP depletion
o Apoptosis- genetically programmed cell death; often normal in 
developmental pathways Sunburned cells Extends damage after a stroke Cancer cell loose ability to carry out apoptosis P53 is the master tumor suppressor in our bodies You get one from each of your parents Meiosis Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs

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School: University of Central Florida
Department: Biology
Course: Biology I
Professor: Pamela Thomas
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology
Name: Biology Chapter 12 and 13 notes
Description: Notes on chapter 12 and 13 from class
Uploaded: 03/26/2018
3 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
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