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LUC - PSYC 202 - Neuroscience Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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LUC - PSYC 202 - Neuroscience Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image 1)   Neural and hormonal communication work together to  coordinate behavior. Provide support for this statement by 
describing the milk letdown reflex in detail (including the 
names of the critical cell groups, hormones and pathways).  The milk letdown reflex is the contraction of mammary gland cells that ejects milk into 
the breast ducts. It exemplifies the relationship between behavior and hormone release. 
When an infant suckles, the nipple stimulation (sensory stimulation) activates receptors in
the skin, which transmit information through a chain of neurons (going through the 
pituitary stalk) and synapses to hypothalamic cells that contain oxytocin (these are 
neuroendocrine cells). Once these cells are sufficiently stimulated, the oxytocin is 
released from the posterior pituitary and travels via the bloodstream to mammary glands 
where it produces a contraction of the tissues storing milk, making it available at the 
nipple.  2) The organizational effects of androgen exposure around the 
time of birth masculinize reproductive behaviors in rats and 
determine the activational effects of hormones later in life. 
Evaluate this statement by discussing the experimental 
evidence discussed in class. Clearly explain the experimental 
manipulation and behavioral outcome. What are activational 
and organizational effects in the first place (i.e. provide a 
definition)? Be sure to clearly explain the “default” relation 
between organizational and activational effects in non­
experimentally manipulated male and female rats as well.
  3) The ability of nicotine to increase forebrain dopamine levels 
and the reinforcing effects of nicotine are importantly 
mediated through the actions of this drug on β2 subunit­ containing acetylcholine receptors? What justifies this 
statement? Discuss the experimental evidence from both gene 
knockout mice and gene rescue studies in detail.  Nicotine excites midbrain dopamine systems and acts on 
reinforcement behaviors. The B2 subunit containing Ach receptors 
background image are important for the reinforcing properties of nicotine; they are 
found in the VTA of the brain, where the dopamine pathway 
known for reinforcing behaviors is located. Experimental evidence 
is used to back up these findings. Scientists took B2 knockout mice
(knocked out the gene that makes the protein for this receptor so 
they cannot make the Ach receptor subunit). These mice still can 
make other types of Ach receptor subunits but not B2. They then 
looked at the ability of nicotine to serve as a reinforcer by having 
the experimenter inject nicotine into the mice. For wild­type 
genetically unaltered mice, you can see the ability of nicotine 
increasing forebrain dopamine levels. As nicotine doses increase, 
so does dopamine levels. In mutant knockout mice, none of the 
nicotine doses elicit any increase in forebrain dopamine; these 
mice have lost the ability to activate this dopamine system using 
nicotine. Next they looked at the results of self­administration. In 
order to teach the rats self administration they have animals 
administer cocaine to get them hooked and then change them to 
saline or nicotine.  The wild type animal maintains self­
administrating levels of nicotine after they switch it from cocaine, 
showing that the reinforcement dopamine system is still using 
nicotine. The control wild­type animal that administers saline stops
pressing the lever over the course of a few days.  The mutant 
knock out mice with no B2 subunit nicotinic ACh receptors acts 
the same way as the control WT saline mouse and stops pressing 
the lever/self­administrating the nicotine, suggesting that nicotine 
is not reinforcing the animal anymore. The problem with this 
experiment is that it's a systematic knock out, so B2 receptors are 
knocked out in the VTA and other areas as well; to be sure that it is
the b2 receptors in the VTA and not another brain area causing 
reinforcing behaviors, they reintroduce the genetic material 
required to make B2 protein only in the VTA and no where else. 
This is called a rescue study. They found that re­expressing B2 
nicotinic subunits in the VTA rescues nicotine induced dopamine 

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School: Loyola University Chicago
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro to Neuroscience
Professor: Stephan Steidl
Term: Spring 2018
Name: Neuroscience Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These are some of the essay question answers on our study guide for the second exam. We need to know all 6 for the exam because 3 of them will be on there. Two of them I am still working on!
Uploaded: 03/26/2018
5 Pages 65 Views 52 Unlocks
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