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UVM - BIOL 004 - Class Notes - Week 10

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UVM - BIOL 004 - Class Notes - Week 10

School: University of Vermont
Department: Biology
Course: The Human Body
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Week 10 Notes
Description: We talked about muscles, ATP, myosin, and lots of other fun stuff
Uploaded: 03/30/2018
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background image The Human Body Bio
Week 10 Class Notes
March 29 Types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle tissue o Is striated (banded) and is composed of long tubular and multi-
nucleated muscle cells. Contraction leads to a shortening of the 
overall muscle
Cardiac muscle tissue o Is also striated. Composed of elongated and branched cells. 
Allows the tissue to surround a chamber. Here, contraction 
generates pressure on the fluid contained in the chamber, 
inducing its motion
Smooth muscle tissue o Unlike the other two, is composed of a large number of 
independent mono-nuclear cells which do not show striations. 
Each cell is highly elongated and is capable of generating longer 
term force than the other two. Contraction of these cells, which 
usually surround tubes, can either generate pressure (blood 
vessels) or the slow movement of the tube contents (intestines)
He’s talking about connective tissues?
Slide 6
From his lecture notes:
Cartilage and Bone 
The Human "skeleton" is composed of two types of "connective" tissues: 
cartilage and bone. 
1) Cartilage is a strong but elastic (bendable) tissue composed primarily of a 
protein web. It is found in the ear, nose, vertebral discs and as the smooth 
ends of movable bones. In addition, most of our skeleton starts out as 
cartilage and is then converted to mineralized bone. 
2) Bone - Composed primarily of Calcium Phosphate salts which give it its 
rigidity and Collagen Fibers which provide overall form and toughness, as 
well as several types of cells.
Slide 7
Sacs (sarcoplasmic reticulum) release calcium into bundle of protein
Lecture notes:
D) The Contractile Mechanism 
1) Activation 
a) Nerve impulse travels down a motor neuron to the Neuromuscular Junction
- a nerve to muscle synapse.
background image b) The transmitter acetylcholine brings the signal to the muscle membrane 
(sarcolemma).
c) The electrical impulse travels along the sarcolemma and into the cell 
interior on the T-Tubule. 
d) The T-Tubule electrical signals induce the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum to 
release Ca++ into and around the sarcomere. 
e) Ca++ binds to troponin, activating the microfilament for contraction (it 
moves tropomyosin out of the way, allowing myosin to bind actin).
You build two walls. Series of small balls of proteins on those walls. These are
active proteins, forming a rod. You have a number of these rods on these 
walls. 
|
| |ooooooo oooooo| | | |(active protein rod) | |ooooooo            oooooo| | | (see slide 8)
Weird Myosin shape in the middle of that ^, which can wack the balls out of 
place. It reaches the balls from either side and pulls them in, so the walls 
collapse in.
The entire cell gets shorter. This is how muscles contract (i think, he wasn’t 
super clear)
Slide 9
Slide 10
Positive charge opens the doors and allows calcium to go down
Slide 11
Myosin uses ATP
Calcium opens myosin somehow and allows it to do its thing Muscle twitch 9 individual muscle fibers
How to active them all?
Motor unit- one neuron connecting / activating 3 muscle fibers at once
Second nerve fiber activates another 3
Three remaining are activated by a third neuron
From his lecture notes:
1) The contractions of skeletal muscle is controlled by nerve activation. A 
nerve containing one or more neurons will innervate each muscle. 

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School: University of Vermont
Department: Biology
Course: The Human Body
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Week 10 Notes
Description: We talked about muscles, ATP, myosin, and lots of other fun stuff
Uploaded: 03/30/2018
4 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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