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UB - NTR 108 - Nutrition 108 Exam 2 - Study Guide

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UB - NTR 108 - Nutrition 108 Exam 2 - Study Guide

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background image Nutrition 108 Exam 2 Study Guide Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids:  1. Essential amino acids (9 of them) cannot be made by the body.  They must be included in the diet to maintain optimal protein 
status. They provide a source of nitrogen for other compounds 
and can be used as an energy source.
2. Non-essential amino acids (11 of them) can be made by the  body. They also provide a source of nitrogen for other compounds
and can be used as an energy source.
Nitrogen and Urea: Nitrogen is lost in feces, skin, hair, nails, and 
urine (Urea). Excess nitrogen is synthesized into urea in the liver, and 
urea is transported to the kidney and excreted in the urine.
Protein Requirements: Based on balance = intake minus output. 1. Intake (into the body and used): amount of protein, better usage  when lower (to a point), but poorer usage when high (used for 
energy). Protein Quality (rating the protein) digestibility effects 
quality, and amino acid content determines protein quality. The 
amino acid score is based on the amount of EAA in the lowest 
proportion. 
2. Output: Feces (depends on digestibility) of digestion, mostly,  Urine (depends on intake and quality) and Insensible losses (not 
very controllable) such as skin, hair, swear, nails, and others.
3. Adult: 0.8 g of protein X kg body weight/day. This is based on the  average loss of nitrogen per day, calculation of how much protein
is required to replace N losses, protein quality, adjustment for 
population variability.
Incomplete, complete, and complementary proteins:  1. Incomplete proteins are missing or having a low amount of  one or more EAA’s.  2. Complete proteins have all the EAA’s in the optimal ratios.
3. Complementary proteins are two proteins that have a high 
amount of the EAA that is low in the other. It’s a combination 
of the proteins that leads to a high-quality protein intake.
Amino Acid Absorption: All protein must be absorbed as amino acids
or dipeptides. In the small intestine, they are taken up in to the 
enterocyte (cell lining GIT). This occurs through secondary active 
transport, carried with sodium similarly to glucose. Transportation 
depends on R-group. It can affect protein quality if very unbalanced. 
Amino acids are released into capillaries, capillaries to the portal vein, 
and the portal vein to the liver.
Transamination and deamination:  1. Transamination: The transfer of an amine group from an  amino acid to the carbon skeleton to form a new (different)
background image amino acid. This is used for the formation of nonessential 
amino acids, and vitamin B6 is needed.
2. Deamination: The removal of amino group from amino  acid. Used for the excretion of amine + energy productive 
from amino acid.
Protein Deficiency: Anemia, convulsions, depression, confusion. 
Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition) is impaired growth, stunting, mental
retardation, an impaired immune system, edema, and intestinal 
malabsorption. Marmusus (protein-energy malnutrition) is hunger and 
famine, looking starved and wasted, growth stunting, and increased 
illness and infection
Types of vegetarians:  1. Vegan = no amino products.
2. Lacto-vegetarian = milk products.
3. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian = milk products, egg products.
4. Pseudo-vegetarian =
Concerns with vegan diets: Can be low in iron, calcium, low energy 
and protein density for children and pregnant women, low in B12 
(vegans only)
Appetite: Psychological drive to eat. Hunger: Physiological drive to eat. ATP:  Role of B vitamins:
1. Thamin: 
Water soluble vitamin known as B1, and is a coenzyme for
energy metabolism, and plays a role in the metabolism of 
neurotransmitters.
2. Riboflavin: Water soluble vitamin known as B2, and transfers  energy to ATP. 3. Niacin: Water soluble vitamin known as B3, transfer of energy from  ATP + formation of fatty acids. 4. Pantothenic acid: Water soluble vitamin known as B5, aerobic  energy metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. 5. Biotin: Water soluble vitamin known as B7, aids in energy  metabolism Iodide Function: Trace mineral that synthesizes thyroid hormones, 
regulates body temperature and metabolic rate.
BMI: Weight (lbs)/height +2(inchesXinches))X703. An increased BMI is 
associated with a greater risk for obesity related diseases. There are 
limitations to BMI, and it’s Not useful for those with higher muscle 
mass and people older than 65. Body composition is not considered, 
and also it does not consider where fat is located (if there is excessive 
fat).
Degree of Risk
BMI Range Underweight <18.5 Healthy weight 18.5-24.9

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School: University at Buffalo
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition
Professor: J Temple
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Nutrition 108 Exam 2
Description: These notes are majority of the material that were recommended to study.
Uploaded: 03/31/2018
4 Pages 26 Views 20 Unlocks
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