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FAU / Sociology / SYG 1000 / Define conformity.

Define conformity.

Define conformity.


School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Sociology
Course: Sociological Perspectives
Professor: Stacy pope salerno
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: sociology, poverty, and crime
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes will cover what will be on exams 2.
Uploaded: 04/02/2018
4 Pages 49 Views 2 Unlocks

Sociological Perspectives (SYG 1000)

Define conformity.

Chapter 5  Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure 

∙ Social aggregate: A collection of people who happen to be together in the same place at the same time

­not considered a group

­Example: people in a restaurant

∙ Social category: people who share a common characteristic

­not considered a group

­Example: people who share the same eye color, people who are born in the same  place, etc.

∙ In­groups: any group or category in which people feel they belong ­Example: religions, cultures, age groups, sports team, etc.

∙ Out­groups: any group or category in which people feel they do not belong ­Example: sports teams that aren’t your own, people of different ages of you,  someone of a different religion, etc. 

What is a desire to predict what will happen in the future?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are some benefits of orienting employees?

∙ Primary groups: small group categorized by intimate, face­to­face association and  cooperation

­Goal: the relationships

­Example: Close friends and family 

∙ Secondary groups: formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy  or mutual understanding

­Goal: exchanges in explicit commodities such as labor for wages, and services for  payment

­Example: university classes, athletic teams, groups of coworkers, etc.  ∙ Reference group: any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating  themselves and their own behavior If you want to learn more check out What is postcolonial literature?

­Example: families, peer groups, labor unions, etc. 

∙ What is conformity? Going along with a group or following orders from authority   ∙ Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy:

How does the u.s. compare to other nations in the number of people relative to the population it imprisons?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the benefits and costs of specialization and trade?

1. Division of labor

2. Hierarchy of Authority

3. Written Rules and Regulations

4. Impersonality

5. Employment based on technical qualifications

∙ Rationalization

o Efficiency: achieving the maximum results with a minimum amount of effort o Predictability: a desire to predict what will happen in the future

o Calculability: a concern with numerical data, i.e. statistics and scoring o Dehumanization: employing technology as a means to control human behavior  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four perspectives on politics and sport?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of perfect competition?
If you want to learn more check out What is an illegal practice of trading on the stock exchange to your advantage through having special access to confidential information?

∙ Ritzer’s McDonaldization of Society (see text and lecture) – know his main  argument (all aspects of human life, not just fast­food restaurants, are becoming  increasingly regulated / rationalized / impersonal) 

Chapter 7  Deviance, Crime, and Social Control 

∙ Deviance: behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group  or society

∙ Deviance = social constructed

­what is defined as deviant varies across time and place

­Example: tattoos, were once unacceptable but are now becoming more common and more acceptable

∙ External social control: sanctions

­Example: individuals conform because an authority figure threatens sanctions if the  individual disobeys

∙ Internal social control: generalized other

­Example: an individual’s own sense of right or wrong 

∙ Sociological Explanations of Deviance: 

o Strain Theory:

­probably going to do something deviant when you feel strained

o Control Theory:

­more likely to do something deviant when 

o Cultural Transmission Theory

­can be involved with not only friends but family 

­example: falling in with the wrong crowd

o Labeling Theory

­deviance exists when some members of a society or group labels someone as  deviant

1. Primary Deviation: first deviant act (first mess up)

2. Secondary Deviation: you are caught, you are labeled by people around you as  deviant, and over time start to believe that the label is true

3. Self­fulfilling Prophecy: go on to do more deviant behavior

­Example: good kid starts to get in with the wrong crowd, gets in trouble for  stealing things off of cars, gets caught by a police officer, other kids start to say  things about this kid for doing these things and getting caught, kid slowly starts to go downhill and do worse and worse. 

∙ Crime in the US

­FBI Uniform Crime Reports: data are volunteered by police departments across  the US (is not the most reliable because it is voluntary)

o Street Crime

­included in the FBI UCR

­street crimes = crimes committed against a person or their property ­examples: burglary, assault, rape, murder, arson, sexual assault, etc. o White Collar Crime

­NOT included in the FBI UCR

­white collar crimes = crimes committed by people in the upper class, usually has  to do with their business activities 

­example: insider trading­ illegally obtaining information about a company going  down and getting rid of you stocks

o Corporate Crime

­NOT included in the FBI UCR

­corporate crimes = crimes committed by businesses

­example: firing someone for being a certain race, selling faulty products,  hazardous working conditions

∙    What is the problem with focusing primarily on street crime? It results in an  inaccurate image of criminals  

∙ Which costs more (money and human life) – street crime, or white collar and  corporate crime? White collar crime and Corporate Crime 

∙ Prison in the US: 

­How does the U.S. compare to other nations in the number of people relative to the  population it imprisons? The U.S. is the worlds incarceration leader   ­Does prison work?  i.e., does it help prevent crime? No, prison should help prevent  crime in the first place, should help prevent future crime, which it does not ­How do you know this?  (i.e., what is recidivism, and what is the rate of recidivism  in U.S. prisons?): Recidivism is the rearrests and sending back to prison. The rate of  recidivism is 3/4    

­What are some possible reasons why prison does not seem to be an effective  method of crime control? Insufficient re­socialization (beating, rape, assault, etc.),  transitioning from one environment into another, insufficient rehabilitation, and the  labeling of a criminal  

 * Alternative to prison: victim­offender mediation programs 

    ­how do these programs work? It addresses the issues and concerns they have or have  had surrounding the crime they committed, and there consequences

Chapter 8 

∙ Stratification: structured systems of social inequality 

∙ Official poverty line: annual income in which people are considered officially poor ∙ How does the government compute this line? 

­Government computes the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet and multiplies by  three 

∙ What are some criticisms of the poverty line? 

­Formula outdated, ignores that fact that cost of living varies geographically

­Ignores health care cost differences between people

­Misses entire groups of people

­Does not successfully adjust from inflation  

∙ According to the poverty line, how many Americans are considered officially poor?   ­43 million people officially poor in the US (13.5%)

∙ Who are poor in the U.S.? 

­race/ethnicity: blacks, Hispanics, Asians, whites (in order)

­gender: women 

­nativity: 12%

­family structure: married (6%), single dads (14%), 

­age: children and young adults 

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