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CSU - PSY 320 - Class Notes - Week 11

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CSU - PSY 320 - Class Notes - Week 11

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background image Psychosis o Inability to differentiate between what is real and unreal
o Spectrum – 5 domains that define psychotic
Positive symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized 
thoughts/speech, disorganized nontypical behavior
Negative symptoms #, severity, duration of symptoms distinguish psychotic behavior o Positive symptoms Additional behaviors/thoughts/perceptions to normal behavior Delusion: believe something to be tre but highly unlikely even 
4 types o Bizarre
o Non-bizarre (more possible than bizarre, but still 
no) Hallucinations: unreal perceptual experiences Auditory/tactile/visual Formal thought disorder: change topics with little coherent 
Loose associations or derailment Disorganized behavior: unpredictable and apparently 
untriggered agitation
o Negative symptoms Loss of qualities Restricted affect: reduction/absence of emotional expression Catatonia: unresponsive to environment Waxy flexability Avolition: inability to initiate or persist at goal-directed activities Cognitive deficits – attention, memory, processing speed o Schizophrenia Severe form of psychosis Alternate between Clear thinking/communication, proper functioning Active phase of illness disorganized thinking and speech, 
loss of reality, difficulty caring for self
Diagnostic criteria 2 or more symptoms Decreased functioning Persists at least 6 months Rule out other disorders with psychotic features Not caused by a substance/medical condition DIAGNOSIS PICTURE Prognosis Prehospitalization rates between 50 to 80% Stabilize after first episode within 5 to 10 years Gender and age factors o Women develop the disorder later
background image Milder symptoms, more favorable course, a 
little easier
o Functioning improves as they get older o Other Psychotic disorders Schizoaffective disorder – schizophrenia + a mood disorder Schizophreniform disorder – Meets A/D/E criteria for 
schizophrenia but symptoms only last 1 to 6 months
Brief psychotic disorder – delusions, hallucinations, etc between 
1 day and 1 month, can be self-induced and usually alleviates 
Delusional disorder – delusions that last at least one months 
regarding situations that occur in real life
Schizotypal personality disorder – lifelong pattern of significant 
oddities to self-concept, ways to relating to others, and thinking 
and behavior
o Schizoaffective disorder diagnostic criteria Uninterrupted period of illness during which there is a major 
mood episode
Delusions/hallucinations for 2 or more weeks in absence of mood
episode during the illness
Symptoms of major mood episode present for the majority of the
active/residual portions
The disturbance is not attribute to the effects of a substance or 
another medical condition
o Biological theories Birth complications/prenatal exposure to viruses affect brain 
Neurotransmitter theories – excess levels of dopamine 
contribute to schizophrenia
Phenothiazines or neuroleptics: block reuptake of 
Drugs that increase dopamine tend to increase positive 
Neuroimaging studies – presence of more dopamine 
receptors = higher levels of dopamine
Genetic transmission Biological relative – 1 st  degree increases risk Adoption studies – schizophrenic parent causes stressful 
environment for child
Twin studies – genetic predisposition plus biological and 
environmental factors influence manifestation of the 
Anatomical abnormalities Enlargement of lateral ventricles Smaller that normal total brain volume Cortical atrophy Widening of third ventricle
background image Smaller hippocampus Mesolimbic pathways: subcortical processing of salience and 
Antipsychotics bind to a specific type of dopamine 
receptor common in the mesolimbic system, blocking the 
action of dopamine
Unusually low dopamine activity in the prefrontal area of 
the brain
Serotonin neurons regulate dopamine neurons in the 
mesolimbic system
Psychosocial perspectives Social drift: downward drift in social class as opposed to 
o Schizophrenic symptoms interfere with completion  of school/job o Stress increase risk and linked to relapse
o Families limit growth of the autonomous sense of 
self o Expressed emotion: shown by family members are  associated with multiple episodes and relapse Cognitive perspectives Difficulties in attention, inhibition, and adherence to the 
rules of communication
Delusions – explain strange perceptual experiences Hallucinations – hypersensitivity to perceptual input, 
tendency to attribute experiences to external sources
Negative symptoms – expect social interactions to be 
aversive and so conserve scarce cognitive resources
Biological treatments Drugs o Effective on positive symptoms
o Chlorpromazine: belongs to a class called the 
phenothiazines, calms agitation and reduces 
hallucinations and delusions
o Blocks receptors for dopamine, reducing its action  in the brain o Side effects: akinesia/akathesis Tardive dyskinesia: neurological disorder 
where there is involuntary tongue, face, 
mouth, and jaw movement
o Atypical antipsychotics: binds to D4 dopamine  receptor, and influences several other 
neurotransmitters like serotonin
Side effects Dizziness, nausea, sedation, seizures, 
hypersalivation, weight gain, and 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Martha Amberg
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology, abnormal, and Lecture Notes
Name: Week 11
Description: Study guide will be uploaded later this week!
Uploaded: 04/02/2018
12 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
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