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OSU - MICRBIO 4000 - Spring 2018 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Schools > Ohio State University > Microbiology > MICRBIO 4000 > OSU - MICRBIO 4000 - Spring 2018 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

OSU - MICRBIO 4000 - Spring 2018 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Ohio State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Basic and Practical Microbiology
Professor: Tammy Madhura Pradhan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Microbiology, adaptive immunity, and Innate Immunity
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: an outline of all the slides given in lecture with additional spoken notes!
Uploaded: 04/03/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 5 of a 30 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Study Guide Chapter 14- Innate Immune System o Introduction o Block Barriers blocking entry o Detect If breach = sensor systems detect o Destroy Work to destroy invaders o First Line Defense o Block entry through inside and outside physical and chemical  barriers Skin Largest organ in body Repels water/ dry environment Continual slough off along with attached microbes Mucous membranes Digestive, respiratory, genitourinary tracts Bathed in secretions that trap and wash off 
pathogens
o Mucociliary escalator Propels microbes upwards to the throat Either swallow and die in stomach 
acid
Coughed and expelled from the 
body
o Peristalsis Intestinal contents result in defecation Antimicrobial substances Salt o On skin Stomach acid Lysozyme o Degrades peptidoglycan  Peroxidase enzyme o H2O2 to form antimicrobials Lactoferrin o Protein that binds to iron which is a major  element for microbes AMPs o Antimicrobial peptides
o Defensins
Form pores in microbial membranes
background image Normal microbiota/flora Competitive exclusion of pathogens o Cover attachment sites
o Consume available nutrients
Production of toxic compounds Disruption of normal microbiota with antibiotic use  o Cells of the Immune System  o Secondary defense when pathogen penetrates
o Starts with hemtopoetic in bone marrow to form different 
defense cells o Move around body Through circulatory systems Always found in blood Increase with infection o 3 general categories  Red blood cells Erythrocytes Platelets Thrombocytes White blood cells Leukocytes  Can move against the flow of blood and lymph to 
reach infection
Move through capillaries  3 different types o Granulocytes 3 different kinds  Eosinophil o Found mostly in tissues
o Allergic reactions, 
inflammation and combatting
parasites 
Basophil o Allergic reactions and  inflammation o Release heparin Blood thinner o Release histamine Increase permeability 
of capillaries
Neutrophil o 60% of WBC
o Most important in 
inflammation
background image o Destroys by phagocytosis or  antimicrobial enzymes 
(netsosis)
o First to arrive at scene Have granules in them that differentiate 
them from other cells 
o Leukocytes  Macrophage Largest WBC “scouts” Phagocytic cells o Engulf and destroy  Dendritic cell Link the two immune systems o Degrade pathogen and  present it to the adaptive 
immune system 
“scouts” Phagocytic cells Effector T cell From T cell  Plasma cell  From B cell  o Lymphocytes Natural killer cell Blood, spleen, and lymph nodes Destroy infected cells and tumor 
cells
Lack specificity o Attack body cells showing  abnormal proteins T cell & B cell  Highly specific  Generally, in lymph nodes and 
lymphatic tissues
Adaptive immune response  o Cell communication Cytokines Main chemical messenger “voices” of cells Regulate immune response o Intensity and duration Produced by immune cells 
background image o Mostly from Th Cells Initiate response o Recruitment
o Growth 
o Differentiation
o Movement
o Cell death
Types o Chemokines
o Colony-stimulating factors
o Interleukins
o Interferons
o Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) o Detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) 
o Induce response to destroy invader
o Location
Cell surface Internal membranes  Cytoplasm o Categories Toll-like receptors Anchored to the membranes Monitor cell’s surroundings Monitor phagosome material Detection of PAMPs o Permit cytokine synthesis
o Inflammatory response 
o Antiviral response 
NOD-like receptors and RIG-like receptors  Cytoplasm  Detect bacterial and viral components = breach in 
cell
DAMPs o Damage Release cytokines  o Complement System o Enhances activities of the adaptive immune system 
o Proteins C1 through C9
o Activated in 3 different ways
Alternative  C3b Lectin Mannose-binding lectin (MBLs) Classical
background image Antibodies  o C3 Splits into C3a and C3b with C3 convertase o Major outcomes Inflammatory response C3a and C5a Opsonization by C3a Phagocytosis Lysis of foreign cells by MACs C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9  o Phagocytosis o Engulf and digest pathogens
o Steps
Chemotaxis Recognition and attachment Engulfment Phagolysosome formation Destruction and digestion Elimination by exocytosis  o The Inflammatory Response o Triggered by inflammatory mediators Cytokines Histamine o Purpose Contain site of damage Localize response Eliminate invader Restore tissue function o Results Swelling, redness, heat, pain o Cascade of events Capillaries Vasodilation  Increased permeability Migration of leukocytes from bloodstream to tissues Neutrophils = first responders Phagocytosis and destruction of invaders o Fever o Moderate temp rise increase rates of enzymes Chapter 15 – Adaptive Immune System o Introduction o Acquired specific immunity
o Develops throughout life

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School: Ohio State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Basic and Practical Microbiology
Professor: Tammy Madhura Pradhan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Microbiology, adaptive immunity, and Innate Immunity
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: an outline of all the slides given in lecture with additional spoken notes!
Uploaded: 04/03/2018
30 Pages 74 Views 59 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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