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MSU - BIOL 1144 - Class Notes - Week 11

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MSU - BIOL 1144 - Class Notes - Week 11

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas Holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Biology
Name: biology II Week 11
Description: These notes will be on exam 4.
Uploaded: 04/04/2018
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background image BIO 1144 Exam 4 material  3/27/18­3/29/18 I. Respiratory Systems  a. Key concepts i. Physical properties of gases 1. O2 and CO2 ii. Types of respiratory systems  iii. Structure and function of the mammalian respiratory system  II. Gas exchange a. Process of moving O2 and CO2 in opposite directions between environment,  bodily fluid, and cells  b. Respiratory system – all structures that contribute to this process 
c. Diffusion – high to low concentration 
d. O2 and CO2 diffuse into cells and tissues  III. Physical properties of gases  a. Air is: i. 21% O2  ii. 78% nitrogen  iii. Approx. 1% carbon dioxide and other gases  b. Nitrogen gas usually ignored because it’s not part of the respiratory system  IV. Solubility of gases  a. Gases dissolve in water – whether fresh water, sea water, or bodily fluid 
b. Most gases dissolve 
poorly in water  c. Factors influencing solubility  i. Pressure of the gas: higher pressures will result in more gas solution, up 
to a limit for each gas @ given temp
ii. Temp of water: cold water holds more gas than warm water iii. Presence of other solutes: other solutes decrease the amount of gas that 
dissolves into solution 
V. Gas exchange  a. Ventilation – process of bringing oxygenated water or air into contact with a gas­ exchange organ  b. All respiratory organs share common features: i. Moist surfaces on which gases dissolve and diffuse  (internal or external)  ii. High surface area for gas exchange iii. Extensive blood circulation  (capillary beds)  iv. Thin, delicate area  (simple epithelial tissue)  VI. Water­breathing and air­breathing  a. Different challenges for gas exchange  b. Aquatic animals: i. Less available O2 – need for greater efficiency  (1% of O2 in air) 
background image ii. When temps change in water, O2 availability also fluctuates  iii. Moving dense water over respiratory membranes takes more energy than  moving water  1. Water also removes hear from gill surfaces and can create osmotic  movement  c. Terrestrial animals  i. Deal with drying out (desiccation) of respiratory membrane  VII. Vertebrate gas exchange types   a. 1. Gills – fish, some amphibians, some invertebrates i. *aquatic organisms – difficult die to low O2 concentration  ii. Air – about 21% O2  iii. Water – O2 concentration is  <1% of air  b. Design must be effective and efficient to get enough O2 and maximize gas  exchange  VIII. Gills  a. Specialized respiratory structures in water­breathing animals  b.           External gills  i. UNCOVERED extensions from body surface  ii. Found in many invertebrates and larval form of amphibians  iii. Vary widely in appearance but also have a  large surface area  with  extensive projections  c. Limitations  i. Unprotected and subject to damage  ii. Energy is required to wave gills back and forth  iii. Appearance and motion may attract predators  d. FIGURE 48.4 IX. Internal gills  a. Gills of fishes, many with a cover called operculum  (gill flap)   b. Gill arches – main support structure  i. Contain filaments, which are composed of lamellae  c. Blood vessels run length of filaments  i. Oxygen poor blood travels through afferent vessel  ii. Oxygen rich blood travels through efferent vessel  d. * Countercurrent exchange  of water and blood flow maximizes O2 diffusion into  blood e. FIGURE 48.5  X. Gill design (typical) 

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School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas Holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Biology
Name: biology II Week 11
Description: These notes will be on exam 4.
Uploaded: 04/04/2018
6 Pages 61 Views 48 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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