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UA / Criminal Justice / CJ 240 / What are the crime rates by gender?

What are the crime rates by gender?

What are the crime rates by gender?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Juvenile Delinquency
Professor: Joshua wakeham
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam Part 2
Description: Stuff on the exam
Uploaded: 04/05/2018
12 Pages 67 Views 3 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Study Guide


What are the different rates of crime by gender?



Monday, April 2, 2018 5:52 AM

What are the different rates of crime by gender?

- Men tend to commit more crimes than that of females

- Female delinquents make up only 29% of total arrest and 14%og confined juveniles nationally

What are some possible reasons that boys are arrested more than girls?

- Socialization

○ Girls blame themselves for problems and are socially aggressive while boys are more physically aggressive and externalize ang er - Cognitive

○ Males are have more spatial and math ability while females have a higher verbal and can be deceptive about their bad behavior - Personality


What is the gender-schema theory?



○ Males have higher self-esteem, are materialistic, and lower attention spans while females have lower self-esteem are self-aware and better attention spans - Emotional

○ Males externalize emotions and express anger while females internalize emotions and express sadness and anxiety If you want to learn more check out What are the forms of a business entity?

What is the Gender-schema theory?

- Boys and girls have gender "scripts" that they follow.

What is a gender script?

- How a boy or a girl is supposed to act in different situations

What is gendered socialization?

- Girl vs Boy culture

What are the main trends for genders and crime rates?

It seems as if more females are committing crimes but are actually continuing on the same pattern that they have done since the beginning of time. The only problem  


What is early puberty and precocious sexuality?



-

is that there has been a reclassification of crimes within the households and has caused girls to start being taken to jail for domestic violence.

- Females tend to be younger when they start in the juvenile delinquency system compared to that of males

- Girls are more likely to be status offenders

Do girls run away more than guy? Why?

- Yes, girls have a stronger association with victimization than boys and more likely to report abuse as the reason that they ran away Don't forget about the age old question of How is a policy made?

What are some older theories about female offending?

- Lombroso masculinity hypothesis

○ Women are lower on the evolutionary scale and those that do commit crime have evolved to that of being closer to their male c ounterparts  - Freud - Penis Envy If you want to learn more check out Where and when did clay pots become popular?

○ Women commit crime because they are envious of men's penis'

What are some of the Contemporary Trait Views?

- Early puberty and Precocious Sexuality We also discuss several other topics like What curve is produced by the logistic growth model of population?

- Male Hormones

- Home Life

What is early Puberty and precocious sexuality?

As the name suggest, early puberty is when a woman goes through puberty at an earlier age than some other counterparts. This "early blooming" cause the older  

-

males to gain attention and increases the chances of victimization.

Why do some girls mature early?

- Girls whose fathers abandon the family are more likely to mature early.

- Genetics

What do increased male hormone levels do to young females?

- Causes them to be more delinquent and maybe develop masculine traits .

What are the contemporary psychological views

- Traumatic intimate relationships

- Mood Disorders

- Personality Disorders

What are the Contemporary Socialization views?

- The more supervision that young girls have reduces the chance of delinquency

- Poor home life has a more profound effect on girls than boys

○ Abuse can lead girls to delinquency

What are the feminist Theories?

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 1

What are the feminist Theories? We also discuss several other topics like What does iconography connote in the field of sculpture and art?

- Liberal feminism

- Critical feminism

What is Liberal feminism If you want to learn more check out How do we reconstruct what happened during the k/t event?

- The social roles that girls are forced to play don't allow them to become delinquent as often as their male counterparts

What is Critical feminism?

- Focuses on unequal power of women and that girls are exploited and that their exploitation can help lead to delinquency

What are some of the various pathways from family to delinquency?

- Family Structure  

- Genetics  

- Family Breakup  

- Family Conflict

- Family Competence  

- Family Deviance  

What is the biological/genetics argument?

- Parents can pass on genetic traits that make children more likely to be delinquent like that of aggression or low IQ. How can the family breakup lead children to become delinquents?

For some reason different family structures work better than others. The best structure is that of the traditional nuclear family: One man, One woman (biologically  

-

related to the child) living under the same roof as the child in somewhat of a peaceful situation.

- Single parent households generally result in the worse outcomes for the kids

- Broken homes have a strong connection to delinquency

- Blended Families are less likely to have delinquent children but more likely than the traditional nuclear family

What are the costs of the family breakup on children?

- Behavior problems

- Boys are more affected by father's absence

- Girls are more affected by post-divorce conflict

- Children from cultures with lower divorce rates have it worse than those of regular cultures

What is family conflict?

- The wellness of the relationships among those that live in the household

How can family conflict contribute to delinquency?

- Domestic violence drastically increases the chances that a child will become delinquent - Child's perception of parent's happiness is also an indicator on whether or not a child will become delinquent

What is family competence?

- The quality of parenting

What does a competent family look like?

- Honest, empathetic, cooperative, peaceful, cheerful

- Promote social behavior and academic success

What are the 4 key factors to good parenting

- Clarity - clear example

- Consistency - in applying rules

- Flexibility - for the needs of the children

- Love - love

How does Teen Motherhood affect delinquency?

- Teen Mother hood strongly relates to having a delinquent child.  

- 90% of these teens are unmarried, are impoverished and have other social problems

What are some forms of informal Social Control?

- Parents have friends who look after their children when they are at work

- Neighbors call each other to tell on their children

What is the difference in Discipline vs Punishment

- Discipline is more for scheduling and structure

- Punishment is a reaction to the breaking of the rules

What is problematic discipline?

- Too strict, Lax, or inconsistent discipline

What does research on corporal punishment suggest?

- Doesn't work

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 2

How does sibling deviance affect delinquency?

- Those that have siblings that are delinquents are more likely to become delinquent themselves

What are some types of abuse?

- Physical

- Emotional

- Sexual

What is neglect

- Passive neglect of the basic necessities that a child would need

What are the different types of neglect?

- Physical

- Educational

- Emotional/Psychological

- Medical

- Abandonment  

What did Troxel v. Granville State

- Ensures due process protections in place for parents

Santosky v. Kramer?

- Children have the right to be free from abuse and sets out guidelines for taking away children

What is the relationship between peers and delinquency?

- Peers influence each other to become delinquents

- Peers can help prevent other friends from becoming delinquents

How do romantic relationships and delinquency relate?

- Romantic relationships based on sex lead to delinquency, while those based in love may help prevent delinquency

What is the definition of a gang?

- A self-recognition of being different from the outside world and the commitment to criminal activity How have gangs evolved?

Gangs started out as children immigrants who stuck together to protect each other and would at worse smoke cigarettes and drink. Now they are mostly made up of  

-

adults that sell drugs.

What are some general characteristics of gangs?

- Locally run

- Vary in size organization and criminal involvement

What are Fagan's different types of gangs?

- Social Gang

- Party Gang

- Serious Delinquent Gang

- Organization gang

What is a social gang

- Gang that commits crime rarely and are together more for social reasons

What is a party gang

- A gang that sells drugs to buy more drugs

What is a serious delinquent gang

- Doing serious delinquent things but on average not messing with drugs

What is an organizational gang

- Greatly involved in criminal activity

How many youth gang members are there?

- 750k+

What is the general makeup of gangs in America

- Mostly male

- 50% Latino, 32% Black, 10% white, 8% other

- More Urban and disorganized neighborhoods

- 60% are over 18

- Usually racially and ethnically homogenous

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 3

What are the three hypothesis on why gang members commit more crime than those who are not affiliated with gangs?

- Selection Hypothesis

- Facilitation Hypothesis

- Enhancement Hypothesis

What are some of the reasons that gangs act in the way that they do?

- Anthropological - belonging

- Social disorganization - dysfunctional neighborhoods

- Anomie/Alienation - Economic and social changes encourage gangs to develop

- Psychological -those with psychological issues are more likely to end up in gangs

- Rational choice - Members join for personal reasons

What are some relevant school educational practices that can contribute to delinquency?

- Tracking

- Standardized Testing

What is tracking?

- Placing students based on perceived ability. Can cause students to not get an adequate education compared to that of their counterparts.

What are some sources of alienation in schools?

- School Size

- Irrelevant curriculum

- Lack of payoff

- Class Bias

What are the costs of Alienation

- Truancy

- Dropouts

- Dropout factories

○ Schools where it is common for students to drop out before graduation

What is the relationship between schools and crime?

- Lots of crime can and is committed at school

What is the relationship between violence in school vs violence outside of school?

- Generally children are about 100X more likely to be victims of violence off-campus

How is bullying relevant to juvenile delinquency?

- More schools are treating bullying seriously  

- Cyber bullying is a big issue because it is outside of adults' supervision

- Bullying decreases with age

- More likely to happen to girls

What is in loco parentis

- Schools are supposed to act in place of the parents which means they are allowed to act in the best interest of the child

What is a zero tolerance policy?

- A mandatory sentence that gives no latitude on certain infractions

How have police in schools affected juvenile delinquency?

- Issues that once could have been handled with discretion by teachers are now handled by arresting kids. Giving rise to the idea of the school-to-prison pipeline

What is the school-to-prison pipeline?

- The idea that taking kids to jail is causing children that were not going to be criminals to become criminals.

Why should we be skeptical about the school-to-prison pipeline idea?

- Because there is evidence that these students would have become criminals anyway.

What is the logical reason that delinquency should be prevented?

- It cost a lot of money to jail and police delinquents

What is the difference in a risk factor and a protective factor

- A risk factor is something that makes someone more likely to become a delinquent

- A Protective factor is something that shields a child from becoming a delinquent

What are 5 types of risk factors

- Individual

- Family

- School

- Peers

- Community

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 4

- Community

What are the 3 different types of delinquency prevention

- Primary - Broad

- Secondary - At Risk

- Tertiary - In the system

What are program evaluations

- They evaluate how well prevention programs are working by comparing a treatment group to a control group

Why is it hard to measure recidivism?

- How does one know when to start calling something recidivism or just a different crime/new conviction

- What types of crimes need to be measured

- Should we use self-reports or only official reports

What are some famous social programs that failed

- D.A.R.E

- Scared Straight

- Juvenile Bootcamps

What is Iatrogenic harm

- Doing more harm than good through these different prevention programs

What are the different types of drugs?

- Anesthetics, inhalants, sedatives and barbiturates, tranquilizers, hallucinogens, stimulants, steroids, designer drugs, and cigarettes

What are anesthetic Drugs?

- Drugs that are central nervous system depressants

What are inhalants?

- Drugs that are inhaled and produce a sense of euphoria

What are Sedatives and barbiturates?

- Drugs that depress the central nervous system into a sleeplike state

What are Tranqulizers?

- Designed to help people with psychosis

What are hallucinogens?

- Produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing the viewer's consciousness

What are stimulants?

- Synthetic drugs that stimulate action in the Nervous System

What are steroids?

- Drugs used to gain physical advantage in sports or to gain a substantial amount of muscle in a short amount of time

What are Designer Drugs?

- These are lab created drugs that are created to get around drug laws

What are the developmental concerns with teen drug use?

- There are concerns that drugs can curb the development of teens' brains. There is also the concern that kids may become addicted to these drugs. The major dangers  that follow the use of these drugs can also lead to death or overdose which can have long lasting effects.  

What are the major trends in teen drug and alcohol use

- Drug use in American children has been on a downward trend

- There has also been a decline in the use of alcohol by younger kids

- Adolescent males tend to use illicit drugs at a greater rate than their female counterparts

- Females are more likely to abuse non-medical use psychotherapeutic drugs

- In cities almost half of all juveniles arrested are arrested for drugs

What is the Monitoring the Future survey (MTF)?

- Survey that monitors teen use of drugs and alcohol and overall substance abuses

Why are some racial statistics reguarding drug use?

- Minorities sometimes use drugs based on the social disorganization and seeming hopelessness of their situations.

What are some family statistics regarding drug use?

- Most people that use drugs had unhappy child hoods

- Females and whites who were abused as children are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol while this does not really affect African Americans and males - Substance abusers are often found in large families

- Lax rules can lead children to try drugs.

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 5

- Lax rules can lead children to try drugs.

Are those that are in poverty more likely to use drugs?

- Yes

What is problem behavior syndrome

- Syndrome that some children have that makes them have a deviant lifestyle at allows them to engage in delinquent acts at an early age. - They are also more likely to abuse drugs

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 6

Exam 2 Study Guide

Monday, April 2, 2018 5:52 AM

What are the different rates of crime by gender?

- Men tend to commit more crimes than that of females

- Female delinquents make up only 29% of total arrest and 14%og confined juveniles nationally

What are some possible reasons that boys are arrested more than girls?

- Socialization

○ Girls blame themselves for problems and are socially aggressive while boys are more physically aggressive and externalize ang er - Cognitive

○ Males are have more spatial and math ability while females have a higher verbal and can be deceptive about their bad behavior - Personality

○ Males have higher self-esteem, are materialistic, and lower attention spans while females have lower self-esteem are self-aware and better attention spans - Emotional

○ Males externalize emotions and express anger while females internalize emotions and express sadness and anxiety

What is the Gender-schema theory?

- Boys and girls have gender "scripts" that they follow.

What is a gender script?

- How a boy or a girl is supposed to act in different situations

What is gendered socialization?

- Girl vs Boy culture

What are the main trends for genders and crime rates?

It seems as if more females are committing crimes but are actually continuing on the same pattern that they have done since the beginning of time. The only problem  

-

is that there has been a reclassification of crimes within the households and has caused girls to start being taken to jail for domestic violence.

- Females tend to be younger when they start in the juvenile delinquency system compared to that of males

- Girls are more likely to be status offenders

Do girls run away more than guy? Why?

- Yes, girls have a stronger association with victimization than boys and more likely to report abuse as the reason that they ran away

What are some older theories about female offending?

- Lombroso masculinity hypothesis

○ Women are lower on the evolutionary scale and those that do commit crime have evolved to that of being closer to their male c ounterparts  - Freud - Penis Envy

○ Women commit crime because they are envious of men's penis'

What are some of the Contemporary Trait Views?

- Early puberty and Precocious Sexuality

- Male Hormones

- Home Life

What is early Puberty and precocious sexuality?

As the name suggest, early puberty is when a woman goes through puberty at an earlier age than some other counterparts. This "early blooming" cause the older  

-

males to gain attention and increases the chances of victimization.

Why do some girls mature early?

- Girls whose fathers abandon the family are more likely to mature early.

- Genetics

What do increased male hormone levels do to young females?

- Causes them to be more delinquent and maybe develop masculine traits .

What are the contemporary psychological views

- Traumatic intimate relationships

- Mood Disorders

- Personality Disorders

What are the Contemporary Socialization views?

- The more supervision that young girls have reduces the chance of delinquency

- Poor home life has a more profound effect on girls than boys

○ Abuse can lead girls to delinquency

What are the feminist Theories?

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 1

What are the feminist Theories?

- Liberal feminism

- Critical feminism

What is Liberal feminism

- The social roles that girls are forced to play don't allow them to become delinquent as often as their male counterparts

What is Critical feminism?

- Focuses on unequal power of women and that girls are exploited and that their exploitation can help lead to delinquency

What are some of the various pathways from family to delinquency?

- Family Structure  

- Genetics  

- Family Breakup  

- Family Conflict

- Family Competence  

- Family Deviance  

What is the biological/genetics argument?

- Parents can pass on genetic traits that make children more likely to be delinquent like that of aggression or low IQ. How can the family breakup lead children to become delinquents?

For some reason different family structures work better than others. The best structure is that of the traditional nuclear family: One man, One woman (biologically  

-

related to the child) living under the same roof as the child in somewhat of a peaceful situation.

- Single parent households generally result in the worse outcomes for the kids

- Broken homes have a strong connection to delinquency

- Blended Families are less likely to have delinquent children but more likely than the traditional nuclear family

What are the costs of the family breakup on children?

- Behavior problems

- Boys are more affected by father's absence

- Girls are more affected by post-divorce conflict

- Children from cultures with lower divorce rates have it worse than those of regular cultures

What is family conflict?

- The wellness of the relationships among those that live in the household

How can family conflict contribute to delinquency?

- Domestic violence drastically increases the chances that a child will become delinquent - Child's perception of parent's happiness is also an indicator on whether or not a child will become delinquent

What is family competence?

- The quality of parenting

What does a competent family look like?

- Honest, empathetic, cooperative, peaceful, cheerful

- Promote social behavior and academic success

What are the 4 key factors to good parenting

- Clarity - clear example

- Consistency - in applying rules

- Flexibility - for the needs of the children

- Love - love

How does Teen Motherhood affect delinquency?

- Teen Mother hood strongly relates to having a delinquent child.  

- 90% of these teens are unmarried, are impoverished and have other social problems

What are some forms of informal Social Control?

- Parents have friends who look after their children when they are at work

- Neighbors call each other to tell on their children

What is the difference in Discipline vs Punishment

- Discipline is more for scheduling and structure

- Punishment is a reaction to the breaking of the rules

What is problematic discipline?

- Too strict, Lax, or inconsistent discipline

What does research on corporal punishment suggest?

- Doesn't work

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 2

How does sibling deviance affect delinquency?

- Those that have siblings that are delinquents are more likely to become delinquent themselves

What are some types of abuse?

- Physical

- Emotional

- Sexual

What is neglect

- Passive neglect of the basic necessities that a child would need

What are the different types of neglect?

- Physical

- Educational

- Emotional/Psychological

- Medical

- Abandonment  

What did Troxel v. Granville State

- Ensures due process protections in place for parents

Santosky v. Kramer?

- Children have the right to be free from abuse and sets out guidelines for taking away children

What is the relationship between peers and delinquency?

- Peers influence each other to become delinquents

- Peers can help prevent other friends from becoming delinquents

How do romantic relationships and delinquency relate?

- Romantic relationships based on sex lead to delinquency, while those based in love may help prevent delinquency

What is the definition of a gang?

- A self-recognition of being different from the outside world and the commitment to criminal activity How have gangs evolved?

Gangs started out as children immigrants who stuck together to protect each other and would at worse smoke cigarettes and drink. Now they are mostly made up of  

-

adults that sell drugs.

What are some general characteristics of gangs?

- Locally run

- Vary in size organization and criminal involvement

What are Fagan's different types of gangs?

- Social Gang

- Party Gang

- Serious Delinquent Gang

- Organization gang

What is a social gang

- Gang that commits crime rarely and are together more for social reasons

What is a party gang

- A gang that sells drugs to buy more drugs

What is a serious delinquent gang

- Doing serious delinquent things but on average not messing with drugs

What is an organizational gang

- Greatly involved in criminal activity

How many youth gang members are there?

- 750k+

What is the general makeup of gangs in America

- Mostly male

- 50% Latino, 32% Black, 10% white, 8% other

- More Urban and disorganized neighborhoods

- 60% are over 18

- Usually racially and ethnically homogenous

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 3

What are the three hypothesis on why gang members commit more crime than those who are not affiliated with gangs?

- Selection Hypothesis

- Facilitation Hypothesis

- Enhancement Hypothesis

What are some of the reasons that gangs act in the way that they do?

- Anthropological - belonging

- Social disorganization - dysfunctional neighborhoods

- Anomie/Alienation - Economic and social changes encourage gangs to develop

- Psychological -those with psychological issues are more likely to end up in gangs

- Rational choice - Members join for personal reasons

What are some relevant school educational practices that can contribute to delinquency?

- Tracking

- Standardized Testing

What is tracking?

- Placing students based on perceived ability. Can cause students to not get an adequate education compared to that of their counterparts.

What are some sources of alienation in schools?

- School Size

- Irrelevant curriculum

- Lack of payoff

- Class Bias

What are the costs of Alienation

- Truancy

- Dropouts

- Dropout factories

○ Schools where it is common for students to drop out before graduation

What is the relationship between schools and crime?

- Lots of crime can and is committed at school

What is the relationship between violence in school vs violence outside of school?

- Generally children are about 100X more likely to be victims of violence off-campus

How is bullying relevant to juvenile delinquency?

- More schools are treating bullying seriously  

- Cyber bullying is a big issue because it is outside of adults' supervision

- Bullying decreases with age

- More likely to happen to girls

What is in loco parentis

- Schools are supposed to act in place of the parents which means they are allowed to act in the best interest of the child

What is a zero tolerance policy?

- A mandatory sentence that gives no latitude on certain infractions

How have police in schools affected juvenile delinquency?

- Issues that once could have been handled with discretion by teachers are now handled by arresting kids. Giving rise to the idea of the school-to-prison pipeline

What is the school-to-prison pipeline?

- The idea that taking kids to jail is causing children that were not going to be criminals to become criminals.

Why should we be skeptical about the school-to-prison pipeline idea?

- Because there is evidence that these students would have become criminals anyway.

What is the logical reason that delinquency should be prevented?

- It cost a lot of money to jail and police delinquents

What is the difference in a risk factor and a protective factor

- A risk factor is something that makes someone more likely to become a delinquent

- A Protective factor is something that shields a child from becoming a delinquent

What are 5 types of risk factors

- Individual

- Family

- School

- Peers

- Community

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 4

- Community

What are the 3 different types of delinquency prevention

- Primary - Broad

- Secondary - At Risk

- Tertiary - In the system

What are program evaluations

- They evaluate how well prevention programs are working by comparing a treatment group to a control group

Why is it hard to measure recidivism?

- How does one know when to start calling something recidivism or just a different crime/new conviction

- What types of crimes need to be measured

- Should we use self-reports or only official reports

What are some famous social programs that failed

- D.A.R.E

- Scared Straight

- Juvenile Bootcamps

What is Iatrogenic harm

- Doing more harm than good through these different prevention programs

What are the different types of drugs?

- Anesthetics, inhalants, sedatives and barbiturates, tranquilizers, hallucinogens, stimulants, steroids, designer drugs, and cigarettes

What are anesthetic Drugs?

- Drugs that are central nervous system depressants

What are inhalants?

- Drugs that are inhaled and produce a sense of euphoria

What are Sedatives and barbiturates?

- Drugs that depress the central nervous system into a sleeplike state

What are Tranqulizers?

- Designed to help people with psychosis

What are hallucinogens?

- Produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing the viewer's consciousness

What are stimulants?

- Synthetic drugs that stimulate action in the Nervous System

What are steroids?

- Drugs used to gain physical advantage in sports or to gain a substantial amount of muscle in a short amount of time

What are Designer Drugs?

- These are lab created drugs that are created to get around drug laws

What are the developmental concerns with teen drug use?

- There are concerns that drugs can curb the development of teens' brains. There is also the concern that kids may become addicted to these drugs. The major dangers  that follow the use of these drugs can also lead to death or overdose which can have long lasting effects.  

What are the major trends in teen drug and alcohol use

- Drug use in American children has been on a downward trend

- There has also been a decline in the use of alcohol by younger kids

- Adolescent males tend to use illicit drugs at a greater rate than their female counterparts

- Females are more likely to abuse non-medical use psychotherapeutic drugs

- In cities almost half of all juveniles arrested are arrested for drugs

What is the Monitoring the Future survey (MTF)?

- Survey that monitors teen use of drugs and alcohol and overall substance abuses

Why are some racial statistics reguarding drug use?

- Minorities sometimes use drugs based on the social disorganization and seeming hopelessness of their situations.

What are some family statistics regarding drug use?

- Most people that use drugs had unhappy child hoods

- Females and whites who were abused as children are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol while this does not really affect African Americans and males - Substance abusers are often found in large families

- Lax rules can lead children to try drugs.

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 5

- Lax rules can lead children to try drugs.

Are those that are in poverty more likely to use drugs?

- Yes

What is problem behavior syndrome

- Syndrome that some children have that makes them have a deviant lifestyle at allows them to engage in delinquent acts at an early age. - They are also more likely to abuse drugs

 Exam 2 Study Guide Page 6

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