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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 12

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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 12

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 12 - 2 April 2018
Description: Lecture notes from 4/2/18 and 4/4/18
Uploaded: 04/06/2018
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background image     Week 12 
ANTH 1500 2 April 2018  
  
The Earliest Americans: Beringia and Beyond  
 
Pre-Contact Hawaii  
•  First arrivals: ca. AD 860? from Marquesas/Society Islands  
•  Polynesian agricultural crops  
•  Aquaculture  
•  Craft specialization  
   
Ahupua'a land tenure system  
•  Islands divided by watersheds  
•  Control of water resources  
•  Easier to travel vertically in valleys  
•  Elites managed economic production  
     
Hawaiian social/political complexity  
•  Ali'i (Chief)   -  Controlled one ahupua'a  
-  Often gained more through conquest  
-  surfing  
•  Kahuna (Priests and craft specialists)  
•  Maka’ainana (commoners): owed labor and taxes  
     
  
European contact  
•  1778-1779: Captain James Cook visits Island   -  Dies trying to kidnap Ali'i of Hawaii Island   •  1795: Kamehameha I, conquers all but 1 of the islands with European help     
Polynesian contact with the Americas?  
•  Presence of sweet potatoes in Polynesia ca. AD 1000  
•  Various theories  
•  Which direction did contact occur?  
•  Pseudoscience: Thor Heyerdahl's voyage  
     
background image       
Sites covered today  
•  Two ice sheets during LGM:   -  Cordilleron  
-  Laurentide  
•  Paisley Caves  
•  Meadowcroft Rock Shelter 
•  Folsom Clovis / Blackwater Draw Locality 1  
•  Hoyo Negro 
•  Monte Verde  
 
Early thoughts on the peopling of the Americas...  
•  15th Century: Spanish described Indigenous Americans as non-human/Lost  Tribe of Israel  •  1882: Ignatius Donnelly, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World (first described by  Plato)   •  Antediluvian land bridge: "home of earliest civilizations"            
Proving the Antiquity of the First Americans  
        
1908: George  
African-American cowboy, found fluted spear point associated with animal bones 
near Folsom, NM.  
1926: Jesse Figgins 
(Colorado Museum of Natural History) realized bones were from an extinct form 
of plains bison. 
             
Models of Migration:  
4 sea and land routes proposed  
      
The Solutrean Hypothesis: A European origin?  
•  Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford, 1998  
•  Noted general similarities between Clovis (13kya) and Solutrean (21-17kya) 
tools   •  Not supported by biological, linguistic, genetic, or archaeological evidence     
Evidence for an Asian origin  
background image     Biological evidence:   •  Christy Turner (dental): North Asian populations and Native Americans have  shovel-shaped incisors (Sinodonts)  •  mtDNA and Y-chromosome (haplogroups)   Linguistic evidence: Joseph Greenberg   •  3 language groups migrated to Americas   •  ca. 11 kya: Amerind 
•  ca. 9 kya: Na-Dene 
•  ca. 4 kya: Eskimo-Aleut 
Archaeological evidence: tools and dwellings   •  Similar types of lithics and material culture in Alaska and Western Canada     Beringia: the Bering Sea land bridge   •  Land Bridge open: ca. 75-45 kya (dates debated) ca. 25-11 kya  
•  Ice-Free Corridor  
     
Environmental Reconstruction 18,000 BP  
•  Solid Ice, no colonization    Environmental Reconstruction 13,000 BP   •  Less ice (but not very hospitable!)      Environmental Reconstruction 11,000 BP   •  Timing of overland migration dependent upon environmental factors  
•  Overland passage unlikely much before 12 kya  
   
  
Sea Route First?  
•  Early sites in South America  
•  Ice Free Corridor uninhabitable  
•  Kelp Highway Hypothesis  
•  Increasing favored as likely route  
           
Paleoindians (Paleoamericans)  
•  Clovis points (fluted points)  
•  Historically seen as first "culture" in Americas  
•  ~13,000 Cal BP  
•  First find spot: Blackwater Draw Locality #1 near Clovis, NM  
         

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 12 - 2 April 2018
Description: Lecture notes from 4/2/18 and 4/4/18
Uploaded: 04/06/2018
9 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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