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CSU / Psychology / PSY 320 / What is extreme psychosis?

What is extreme psychosis?

What is extreme psychosis?


School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Learning and Motivation
Professor: Martha amberg
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: psych, Abnormal psychology, and Exam 3
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 3
Description: This is a brief study guide based on the statements she posted on Canvas. More will be added later on, but this covers most of what is on her study guide. Good luck everyone!
Uploaded: 04/06/2018
7 Pages 44 Views 5 Unlocks

∙ Schizophrenia

What is extreme psychosis?

o Severe form of psychosis

o Alternate between

 Clear thinking/communication, proper functioning

 Active phase of illness disorganized thinking and speech, loss of  reality, difficulty caring for self

o Diagnostic criteria

 2 or more symptoms

 Decreased functioning

 Persists at least 6 months

 Rule out other disorders with psychotic features

 Not caused by a substance/medical condition

o Positive symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized  thoughts/speech, disorganized nontypical behavior If you want to learn more check out Who is giovanni pietro bellori?

o Negative symptoms

 Loss of qualities

 Restricted affect: reduction/absence of emotional expression  Catatonia: unresponsive to environment

What is physiological therapy?

∙ Waxy flexability

 Avolition: inability to initiate or persist at goal-directed activities  Cognitive deficits – attention, memory, processing speed

o Factors for development

 Neurotransmitter theories – excess levels of dopamine  

contribute to schizophrenia

∙ Phenothiazines or neuroleptics: block reuptake of  


∙ Drugs that increase dopamine tend to increase positive  


∙ Neuroimaging studies – presence of more dopamine  

receptors = higher levels of dopamine

 Genetic transmission

∙ Biological relative – 1st degree increases risk

What is the most effective treatment for adhd?

∙ Adoption studies – schizophrenic parent causes stressful  

environment for child

∙ Twin studies – genetic predisposition plus biological and  If you want to learn more check out What happens to a gene if you silence its expression?

environmental factors influence manifestation of the  


 Anatomical abnormalities

∙ Enlargement of lateral ventricles

∙ Smaller that normal total brain volume

∙ Cortical atrophy

∙ Widening of third ventricle

∙ Smaller hippocampus Don't forget about the age old question of How to evaluate a program or a social policy?

o Treatments

 Biological treatments

∙ Drugs

o Effective on positive symptoms

o Chlorpromazine: belongs to a class called the  

phenothiazines, calms agitation and reduces  We also discuss several other topics like What is the scope of hemisphere specialization?

hallucinations and delusions

o Blocks receptors for dopamine, reducing its action  

in the brain

o Side effects: akinesia/akathesis

 Tardive dyskinesia: neurological disorder  

where there is involuntary tongue, face,  

mouth, and jaw movement

o Atypical antipsychotics: binds to D4 dopamine  If you want to learn more check out What are the different schemes observed in saltworks at chaux?

receptor, and influences several other  

neurotransmitters like serotonin

 Side effects

∙ Dizziness, nausea, sedation, seizures,  

hypersalivation, weight gain, and  


∙ Agranulocytosis: deficiency of  

granulocytes, substances produced by

bone marrow to fight infection

 Psychological and social treatments

∙ Comprehensive approach that addresses

o Behavioral – social learning theory/operant  


o Cognitive – recognize and change demoralizing  


o Social deficits – problem solving skills applicable to  

common solutions

∙ Family therapy If you want to learn more check out What are examples of endothermic matter?

o Basic education on illness

o Training of family members – inappropriate  


o Disorder’s impact on caregiver

o Assertive community treatment programs –  

comprehensive services to meet the patients needs

24hrs/day from experts like:

 Medical professionals

 Social workers

 Psychologists

o Traditional healers integrate various models

 Structural

 Social support

 Persuasive

 Clinical

o Schizoaffective disorder – schizophrenia + a mood disorder o Schizophreniform disorder – Meets A/D/E criteria for schizophrenia but  symptoms only last 1 to 6 months

o Brief psychotic disorder – delusions, hallucinations, etc between 1 day  and 1 month, can be self-induced and usually alleviates itself

o Delusional disorder – delusions that last at least one months regarding  situations that occur in real life

o Schizotypal personality disorder – lifelong pattern of significant oddities to self-concept, ways to relating to others, and thinking and behavior o Paranoid personality disorder – PPD

 Pervasive distrust/suspiciousness of others

o Schizoid Personality Disorder

 Pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships &  restricted emotion

o Schizotypical personality disorder

 Symptoms similar to schizophrenia but milder


o Pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity

 Interferences with functioning or development

o Subtypes

 Predominantly inattentive

∙ 6 or more inattentive systems

o Careless mistakes/not listening/not following  


 Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive

∙ 6 or more

o Fidgeting, running around, “driven by a motor”,  

interrupting/intruding, incessant talking

 Combined

∙ 6 or more of either

o Onset of symptoms – 12yrs

 Occasionally diagnosed earlier

o Prevalence estimates 8-11%  

o Factors that contribute

 Genetic factors

∙ Adoption and twin studies

o Heritability estimates as high as 70-80%

∙ 2 dopamine genes

o DRD4 – dopamine receptor

o DAT1 – dopamine transporter (mixed support for  

this gene)

∙ Only with prenatal maternal nicotine or alcohol use

 Neurobiological factors

∙ Dopaminergic areas smaller in children with ADHD

o Frontal lobe/globus balidus/caudate nucleus

∙ Poor performance on tests of frontal lobe function

 Prenatal and perinatal factors

∙ Low birth weight – can be helped later by maternal  


∙ Maternal tobacco and alcohol

 Environmental toxins

∙ Limited evidence food additives or coloring has small  

impact on hyperactive behavior

∙ No evidence on refined sugar

∙ Nicotine from maternal smoking may damage  

dopaminergic system

 Parent-child relationship

∙ Authoritarian parents

∙ Family factors

o Contribute to/maintain but don’t cause

o Treatments

 Stimulant drugs increases dopamine

∙ Ritalin/Dexedrine/Adderall/concerta

o Reduce disruptive behavior

o Improve interactions, goal-directed behavior,  


o Reduce aggression

o Effective in about 75%

o Side effects

 Loss of appetite/weight/sleep problems

 Addiction-tics

 Nonstimulant – norepinephrine

∙ Atomoxetine, clonidine, guanfacinechumba, Strattera

o Increase in attention span

o Decrease hyperactivity

o Doesn’t have the same side effects as stimulants

o Longer-lasting and smoother effects

 Behavioral therapies

∙ Reinforce attentive, goal-directing, and prosocial  


∙ Extinguishing impulsive and hyperactive behaviors

 Other therapies

∙ Parental training

∙ Supportive classroom structure

o Brief assignments

o Immediate feedback

o Task-focused style

o Breaks for exercise

 Combination of stimulant therapy and psychosocial therapy is  best

∙ Autism spectrum disorder

o DSM-5 combines multiple diagnoses into one

 Autistic disorder/asperger’s/pervasive developmental disorder  not otherwise specified/childhood disintegrative disorder

 Communication deficits  

∙ Echolalia: repeating what’s heard

∙ Pronoun reversal: refer to themselves as he/she. (third  


∙ Literal use of words

 Repetitive and ritualistic acts

∙ Become extremely upset when routine is altered  

∙ Engage in obsessional play

∙ Engage in ritualistic body movements

∙ Become attached to inanimate objects

 Profound problems with the social world

∙ Rarely approach others look through people

∙ Pay attention to different parts of face

o Focus on mouth, neglecting eye region  

 Difficulty picking up emotion

o Treatment

 Psychological treatments – better

 Early treatment – better outcome parent training/education  Pivotal response treatment

∙ Increasing motivation/responsiveness rather than on  

discrete behaviors

 Joint attention intervention and symbolic play used to improve  attention and expressive skills

 Medication – treat problem behaviors

∙ Haloperidol (Haldol)

o Antipsychotic

o Reduces aggression and stereotyped motor  


o Does not improve language and interpersonal  


∙ Intellectual disability

o Deficits in the ability to function in three broad domains of daily living  Conceptual domain

 Social domain

 Practical domain

o Begins before 18

o Factors

 Down syndrome

∙ Chromosomal trisomy 21: an extra copy of chromosome  21

∙ 47 instead of 46 chromosomes

 Fragile X syndrome

∙ Mutation on the X chromosomes

 Recessive-gene disease

∙ Phenylketonuria (PKU)

 Maternal infectious disease

∙ Cytomegalovirus/toxoplasmosis/rubella/herpes  


 Fetal alcohol syndrome

 Head trauma

∙ Tic disorders: nonrhythmic motor movements or vocalizations

o Tourette’s disorder

o Persistent motor/vocal tic disorder

o Stereotypic movement disorder

 Began in childhood increase in adolescence and decline in  adulthood

 Habit reversal therapy

∙ Awareness-competing behavior-support

 Developmental coordination disorder – treated with  

physical/occupational therapy

∙ Anxiety in children and adolescents

o Fears and worries common in childhood

o Anxiety disorder

 Severe and persistent worry

 Interfere with functioning

o Most childhood fears disappear but adults with anxiety report feeling  anxious as children

∙ Antisocial personality disorder

o A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since 15 years old if not earlier indicated by 3 or more  symptoms

 Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful  


 Deceitfulness and conning others for personal profit or pleasure  Impulsivity/failure to plan ahead

 Irritability/aggressiveness indicated by fights

 Reckless disregard for safety of self/others

 Lack of remorse

o Men more diagnosed – 4x more common in men

o Only researched in prison populations

o Increased suicide attempts

o Typically, behavior reduces with age

o Contributors

 Genetic influence – serotonin/dopamine system

 Social influence – poor modeling of behavior/economically  deprived circumstances/history of abuse

 Biological influence – deficits in verbal and executive  

functions/medical illnesses or exposure to toxins

 Chronically low arousal

o Treatment

 Psychotherapy – focus on lack of emotions

 Behavioral – change destructive patterns of behavior

 Medications – none help, but symptoms can be  


 Treatments are typically ineffective

 A major obstacle is the individual’s lack of conscience or desire  to change

∙ Most have been forced to go to treatment

∙ Some cognitive therapists try to guide clients to think  about moral issues and the needs of other people


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