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CARLETON UNIVERSITY / Engineering / ARTH 1201 / Was the palace of westminster ever a royal residence?

Was the palace of westminster ever a royal residence?

Was the palace of westminster ever a royal residence?


School: Carleton University
Department: Engineering
Course: History and Theory of Architecture 2: 1600 to Present
Professor: Michael windover
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: history, and, Theory, Of, Architecture, michael, windover, final, exam, study, guide, review, All, and Monuments
Cost: 50
Name: History Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes the exam format, information on all required monuments including name, date, architect, location and significance, as well as context surrounding these time periods and architectural movements.
Uploaded: 04/08/2018
18 Pages 54 Views 7 Unlocks

Final Exam Study Guide

Was the palace of westminster ever a royal residence?

FINAL EXAM: April 19, 2018 @9am


o Slide ID’s (2 for 5 marks each)- 12 min

o Unknown (2 for 5 marks each)- 14 min

o Comparison (1 for 10 marks)-14 min

o Short answer (3 for 5 marks each)

o Essay (1 for 30 marks)

 Essay question:

∙ How architects used homes to express their ideas?

o Panopticon

 Architect: Jeremy Bentham

 1791.

 English royal Saltworks

 To talk about power relations

 Ideal prison rationalized planning

∙ Self discipline, don’t know if being watched

o North Mill, Belper, UK

How old is the palm house at kew?

 Architect: William Strutt Don't forget about the age old question of What are the conceptualization of diseases/ disorders?

 1804

 Used to be susceptible to fire, not made of iron

 = protect profits

 Segmental brick arches, iron tie rods

 School room for worker’s children

 = centre of community

o Bank of England, London, UK

 Architect: John Soane

 1788-1833

 Stone is idiosyncratic, architect trained in Rome

 Terracotta used for fireproofing and light We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of vitamins?

 Caryatids

 Replace wood & plaster with domes

 Tivoli corner

∙ Roman elements

∙ Channeled masonry, niches, no windows (security for banks)  Plan = complex

What was the royal pavilion used for?

 Stock office

∙ Like bathhouse

∙ Ste-Genevieve

∙ Linear, emphasized space

 Demolished in 1920s to grow the building

 Imagined as ruins

∙ Connection to Rome (equal to or greater than Rome)

o The Royal Pavilion, Brighton, UK

 Architect: John Nash Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of gender?

 1818-21

 Mix of orientalist architecture (Indian & Islamic), eclecticism  Pleasure palace

 New materials

∙ Sheet iron roof

∙ Cast iron

 Interior = Frederick Crace

∙ Fueled by gas (lights)

∙ Appropriating exotic

∙ Paint iron to look like bamboos (later was a source of critique) We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 common properties of water-soluble vitamins?

o Palm House, Kew Gardens, London, UK

 Architect: Decimus Burton and Richard Turner

 1845- 47

 Greenhouse hot house

 Iron and glass

 Example of gathering & studying resources of empire

 Turner = Iron maker

 1845 – no more tax on glass, iron and coal prices drop

o Crystal Palace, London, UK

 Architect: Joseph Paxton

 1851

 Prefabricated construction  

∙ could be complete on time

 For world fair

 Built around pre-existing trees

o Bibliothèque Ste.-Geneviève, Paris, France

 Architect: Henri Labrouste

 1842-1850.

 Facade refers to San Francesco

 Light

 Elevated to protect from water

 Names of the authors of the books on the façade

 Architecture that speaks to its function

 Neo-classicism, neo-greco We also discuss several other topics like What is the law of conservation of mass?

 Lamps

∙ Enlightenment, gas lights We also discuss several other topics like What is the common ion effect?

 Interior

∙ Obvious iron

∙ View of gardens

∙ Fluted iron columns

 Iron rondels/tie rods connect arches on exterior wall

 “architecture is nothing but decorated construction”


o Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), London, UK

 Architect: Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin

 1836-1868

 Big

 Centre of nation

 Moralism and gothic

∙ Iron structure

∙ Neo-gothic suggested tradition

 Picturesque composition

 Symmetrical plan

 Interior neo-gothic

 Cemented gothic revival

o Red House, Bexleyheath, Kent, UK

 Architect: Philip Webb

 1859-1860

 Arts & crafts = reaction against industrial revolution

∙ Joy in the craft

 William Morris

∙ Truth in simplicity, furniture, wallpaper, designer, pioneer of arts &  crafts

 Irregularly arranged (picturesque)

 No symmetry, lively

 Humble materials

 Planned around everyday life

 Interior

∙ Built ins, functionality

∙ Bricks

∙ Beauty & joy in labour

IRONY – only those with money could appreciate/have Arts & Crafts  houses (++labour, $)

o Palais des Etudes, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France

 Architect: Felix Duban

 1834-1840

 Buildings became an encyclopedia for architects

∙ Other buildings based off them

 Chateau of Anet Gatehouse fragments integrated into the Ecole des  beaux-Arts

∙ Learn from the past

∙ Fresco by Michelangelo, The last judgement (copy)

∙ Renaissance courtyard: clarity, symmetry, responds to function ∙ Glazed and iron structure to keep the weather out

 Training

∙ Theory of good design

∙ Learning from the past

∙ Order and logic to classicism


o William K.Vanderbilt Residence, New York City, NY

 Architect: Richard Morris Hunt

 1878-1882

 Called the Petite Chateau

 Vanderbilts made money off railroad (through new industry)  Chateau-esque

∙ Early renaissance period

∙ Shows that Hunt knows how to use past styles

∙ Hunt studied in France (First architect to study in the Ecole des  Beaux Arts)

∙ Wanted architects to be trained

 Smith Vanderbilt

∙ Strong woman

∙ Divorced Vanderbilt

∙ Patron of the residence

 Interior

∙ Early rococo style/late French baroque

∙ Designed and built in France ($$$)

o Trinity Church, Boston, MA

 Henry Hobson Richardson

 1872-1877

 Richardsonian Romanesque

 Hammer-dressed stone

∙ Heavy Rustication

 Polychrome (multiple colored stone)

 Ornament

 Like Old Cathedral, Salamanca, Spain

∙ 12-15th century

 Like St-Gilles-de-Gard

∙ 1140-1170

 Looking for a style that suits for the American people

 Stained glass windows from artists in Europe

o Watts Sherman House, Newport, RI

 Architect: Henry Hobson Richardson

 1874

 Fireplaces everywhere

 Functional space that is grand

 Shingles and woodwork

∙ Shingles style

 Pitched roofs

o Marshall Field Wholesale Store, Chicago, IL

 Architect: Henry Hobson Richardson

 1885-1887

 Grouping of windows creates a sense of verticality


∙ Appears as different levels

 Department store

 Looks like Palazzo Medici

 Rusticated on the bottom

 Lighter on top than bottom

 Created a harmonious space (use on exam for significance marks) ∙ Design pulls the whole thing together

∙ Mathematically perfect

∙ Learned at Ecole des Beaux Arts

∙ Demonstrates that he knows his history

o Monadnock building, Chicago, IL

 Architect: Burnham and Root

 1884-1891

 Beginning of the skyscraper

 Excessive windows: light for office building

 Developer wanted to keep it simple and keep cost low ∙ Less architectural clutter

∙ Developer: Peter Sharon Brooks III

 Seamless hole

o Reliance Building, Chicago, IL

 Burnham and Root

 1890-1904

 Chief Designer: Charles Atwood

 Curtain wall

∙ Metallic frame is doing the support

∙ Hanging a light material on top of it

 Terra cotta panels

∙ Clay is lighter than stone

 Chicago window

o Wainwright Building, St.Louis, Missouri

 Architect: Adler and Sullivan

 1890-1891

 First floor

∙ Power, heating, lighting plant

 Second floor

∙ Stores, banks, larger subdivisions above

 Above

∙ Offices

 Top

∙ Attic (Mechanical)

 Has ornament but is harmonious in its ornament

o Pennsylvania Station, New York City, NY

 Architect: McKim, Mead and White

 1906-1910


 Grandiose interior

∙ Coffered ceilings

∙ Corinthian columns

 Dignity to travel and pride in where you are

 Reference to baths of Diocletian

 Powerful commercial city

 Ecole des Beaux arts training

o Robie House, Chicago, IL

 Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright

 1908-1910

 Prairie style

∙ Flat

 Play of inside and outside

 Tokonama

∙ Free flowing architecture

o Asilomar conference Center, Carmel, CA (Merrill Hall)  Architect: Julia Morgan

 1913-1928

 Local limestone/sandstone

∙ Cost effective

∙ Trying to find their own style (nationalism)

 Cedar shingles, timber

 Looks like the interior of a church

 Glazing

o Hill House, Helensburgh, Scotland

 Architect: Charles Rennie Mackintosh

 1902-1904

 Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh helped with the design  Resembles a castle

∙ Suggestion of Scottish tradition

∙ Turrets

∙ Asymmetrical

 Similar to strawberry hill

∙ Comes together naturally

∙ Picturesque

 Similar to Red House

∙ Different shapes of windows

∙ Staggered massing

∙ Pebble dashed stucco

 Function is expressed in the plan

 Interior resembles the Robie House by Frank Lloyd Wright ∙ Desire for a abstract ornament

∙ Orthogonal ornament

 Bedroom

∙ Barrel vault


∙ Orthogonal geometry

o The Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain

 Architect: Gaudi

 1884

 Began as a gothic church

 Play of light and shadow

∙ Chiaroscuro

 Sight of miraculous vision

 Expiatory Church of the Holy Family

 Buttressing system

∙ Adds to height

∙ Resembles trees

∙ Above is canopy or divine vision

 Organic/biological forms

o Casa Mila, Barcelona, Spain

 Architect: Gaudi

 1905-1910

 Seaweed railings

∙ Molten lava

 Structure appears as bones

 Modern building with an iron frame

 Smashed bottles in chimney plays with light

 Plaster work on the interior/door handles add decorative appeal ∙ Not going back to classical past, creating something new for  regional expression of modernism

o Hotel van Eetvelde, Brussels, Belgium

 Archiect: Victor Horta

 1895-1897

 Art Nouveau

 Townhouse

∙ Doesn’t get light from the sides

∙ Designed in a way that allows light through

∙ Salon and dining room at top of curving stairs

∙ Iron work makes it look alive through curves and organic  


∙ Slim and tall columns to show off what the architects can do with  this new material

∙ Using the past to improve the future

 Arts and Crafts + industrialism

 Medieval

 Furniture fits together in a coherent form

 Glass ceiling

 Imperial stair

∙ Power of homeowner

 References to rococo


∙ Materiality 

o Metro Station entrance, Paris, France

 Architect: Hector Guimard

 1900

 Art Nouveau style

∙ Ironwork

 Light, stability, mass production

∙ Logical structure because it could be reproduced but looked unique ∙ Easy flow

 Also seen in Montreal

o Post Office Savings Buiding, Vienna, Austria

 Architect: Otto Wagner

 1903-1906

 Rusticated upper level

 True form of architecture comes from construction

 Panels on the bottom level

∙ “Honest architecture”

 Classical statues

 Modern interpretation of classicism

 A bank

 Decorative bolts

∙ Using modern materials

∙ Modern ornament to celebrate the success of industrialization  Linoleum used

 Light filled interior

∙ Natural lighting

∙ Transparency suggest honesty (to gain customers)

o Palaiz Stoclet, Brussels, Belgium

 Architect: Josef Hoffman

 1905-1911

 Wiener Wekstatte

∙ Vienna crafts collective

∙ Co-founded by Hoffman

 Music room with stage

 Plan designed around function

 Unites lower level to upper level

∙ Modern mode

o Steiner House, Vienna, Austria

 Architect: Adolf Loos

 1910

 Adolf Loos

∙ Wrote response to the modern mode

∙ “Ornament and crime”


∙ The evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of  ornament from objects of daily use

∙ Darwinism in ideas of architecture

∙ Liked idea of stripping away ornament

∙ Believed the West was the most advanced culture, didn’t need  excessive decoration because ppl could easily tell each other apart  from their knowledge

∙ Lack of ornament is a sign of intellectual power

 Clean cut, English suit in architecture

 Simple exterior, intimate interior

∙ Like the modern urban man

∙ Dress code conceals the personality

∙ Symmetrical plan

∙ Zero ornament on exterior

 Interior

∙ Antique chairs

∙ Interior has ornament

∙ “Safe space”

∙ Protected space of the interior

o A.E.G. Turbine factory, Berlin, Germany

 Architect: Peter Behrens

 1908-1909

 Classical tradition

∙ Post and lintel construction

∙ Tapering columns

∙ Celebration of how the building is being held up

∙ Showing how it was built

∙ Almost a pediment

∙ Temple dedicated to the industrial cult

∙ Buttresses give stability

o Faguswerk (Fagus Shoe-Last Factory), Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany  Architect: Walter Gropios (trained by Peter Behrens) and Adolf Meyer  1911-1912

 All architects are working together

 Walter’s looks more modern

 Started as neo-gothic

 Walls of glass

∙ Natural light

∙ Form following function

∙ Excessive glazing

 Considered a landmark in modern architecture 

o Rusakov Workers’ Club, Moscow, USSR (Russia)

 Architect: Konstantin Lemnikov

 1927-1929


 Emphasis on education

 Bringing people together

 Transform daily habits in an accelerated manor

 Constructivism

∙ Dynamic/geometric

∙ Form of propaganda

∙ ‘Social/dynamic change’

o Eign Haard Housing Estate (Het Schip), Amsterdam, Netherlands  Architect: Michel de Klerk

 1917-1920

 Neutral during the war

 Access to light on both sides due to internal courtyard

 Industrial area in Amsterdam

 Het Schip: the ship

∙ Maritime country

 Bulbous forms

∙ Unique, making something new (similar to art nouveau)  Undulating surface

∙ Horizontal dynamism

 Sculpture

 Expressionism 

∙ De Stijl: expressive form with asymmetry

∙ Structure, ornament, and furniture is merged together

∙ Erase the difference between ground architecture and figure  ornament

∙ Lose distinction between art and everyday life

∙ Flowing forms, making strange

∙ Dutch expressionism

o Schroeder House, Utrecht, The Netherlands

 Architect: Gerritt Rietveld

 1924

 Patron: Truus Schroder-Schrader

 House with no walls

 Primary colors with black, white, grey

∙ Suggests movement, planes

∙ None of the facades are the same Asymmetrical balance) ∙ Like Mondrian’s De Stijl art

 More than one way to go in and out

 Designed for function

 De Stijl style 

 Sliding walls

∙ Walls can be removed/added

∙ Designing in 4 dimensions

o Villa Savoye, Poissy, France

 Arhcitect: Le Corbusier


 1928-1931

 Similar white building to Villa Rotunda

 Designed around cars, space underneath for parking

 Promenade architecture

∙ Dignity

∙ Ramp into house

∙ Like purist forms

 Suggestion of window

∙ Play of inside and outside

o Villa E. 1027, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France

 Architect: Eileen Gray with Jean Badovici

 1926-1929

 Name is a combination of architect’s names

 House designed for function

∙ House is not a machine to live in

o Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany

 Architect: Walter Gropius

 1926

 Bauhaus

∙ Medieval lodge

∙ Educating people to recognize the basic nature of the world in  which they live

 Doesn’t favor one side

 Workshop wing

 Technical school

 Administration/Gropius’ Office

 Dormitory

 Form fitting function

o Frankfurt Kitchen

 Architect: Grete Schutte-Lihotzky

 1926-1928

 Making spaces more efficient

o Tugendhat House, Brno, Czechoslovakia

 Architect: Ludiwg Mies van der Rohe

 1928-1930

 Interior rendered white

 Breaking things down to their minimum

∙ Providing a new sense of space with openness

 Interior design: Lilly Reich

 Windows open

∙ Heightened luxury

∙ Light comes in

o Edgar Kaufmann House “Fallingwater”, Ohiophle, PA


 Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright

 1935-1937

 Cantilevered planes

 Form that flows as a centrifugal composition (flows outward)  Open space

 Constantly hear sound of water

∙ Acoustic quality to the space

∙ Different access to nature

 Place to recharge

o Seagram Building, New York, USA

 Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

 1954-1958  

 Coated in bronze

∙ Sepia windows

 Doesn’t take up the whole block

∙ “Less is more”

∙ Down to its essence

∙ Play of inside and outside (glazing)

 Phyllis Lambert convinced her father to hire Van der Rohe who built a  skyscraper

 I-beams

 Bottom floor is elevated

 Sits on platform

∙ Giving space for the ppl

 Open

o Vanna Venturi House, Chestnut Hill, USA

 Architect: Robert Venturi

 1963  

 Similar to tempietto

∙ Reference to baroque

 Asymmetrical

∙ Strip windows of Le Corbusier

∙ Sense of symmetry that is broken

∙ Contradiction

 Less is a bore

 More is not less

 Post modernism

o AT&T Building (now Sony Plaza), New York, USA

 Architect: Philip Johnson (Burgee and Johnson)

 1978-1984

 Serliana window

 Chip and dale dresser into a skyscraper

 Architecture about Sign


∙ Giving an image to the building

∙ Particular space

 Post-modernism

∙ Humane architecture

o Gehry House, Santa Monica, USA

 Architect: Frank Gehry

 1978-1988

 Exploding forms

 Corrugated steel

∙ Allow light in through exploding shapes

 Seems like a house in process

o MAXXI National Museum of XXI Century Arts, Rome, Italy  Architect: Zaha Hadid

 1998-2010

 Carves out spaces around it

 Fits well with the scale of the buildings

 Concrete building

 Campus/lively space

 Dynamism

∙ Light through fins

∙ No orthogonal space

∙ Fluidity through poured concrete

 Starchitect

o Unité d’Habitation, Marseille, France

 Architect: Le Corbusier

 1946-1952

 Possible because of concrete

 Unified dwelling house

 Monumentality

 Free plan of the floor

∙ Textured concrete stilts

∙ Beton Brut

∙ Brutalism

 Wine rack similarity

∙ Slotted into reinforced concrete

o Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris

 Architects: Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano  1971-77  

 Exposed purpose

 Support is on the exterior of the building


o Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai, Japan

 Architect: Toyo Ito

 1995-2001

 Biological metaphor

∙ Different color schemes

 Light filtered through paper screens

∙ Transparency represents democracy

 Traditional Japanese architecture

o Byker Wall Housing, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

 Architect: Ralph Erskine

 1969-1975  

 Wall form with housing in the spaces around it

 Visual and acoustic break from the street

∙ Fortification

o Seabird Island Community School, Agassiz, Canada

 Architect: Patkau Architects

 1988-1991

 Critical Regionalism

 Roof follows the form of the mountains

 Timber framed building

 Section resembles a fish

 Designed so that the band could help build it

o Reichstag, Berlin, Germany

 Architect: Norman Foster

 1993-1999  

 Original building: Paul Wallot (1894)

∙ Designed for the German Imperial diet

∙ Under Kaiser Wilhelm II

∙ Parliament building

∙ Baroque architecture

 Fall of communism

∙ End of the cold war

∙ Falling of the Berlin wall

 Reichstag

∙ Reconciliation between East and West Berlin

∙ Graffiti written on the walls by Soviet Union (history)

∙ New house of commons

∙ Transparency connected to democracy idea

∙ Dome as a reminder of previous dome; can look down at  representatives below (people are above their representatives) ∙ Circulates heat


∙ Spiral exterior is above original legislative chamber (acts as  chimney, build with environment in mind)

∙ Structure on inside is representative of all the bad being lifted out  of Germany

 Responds to its history (architecture, culture, and context)


o Industrial revolution

 Mingling of classes

o Train and telegraph makes world smaller/more connected

o Industrialization

 England = centre of industrialism

∙ Access to coal

∙ Steam engine, mechanizing productions

 Iron = cast & wrought iron

 Industrialized economy (BANKS)

∙ Government relies on banks to pay for war

o Eclecticism and innovation in the USA

 Style, history, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts

 Richardsonian Romanesque

 The Chicago School

 Columbian Exhibition and city beautiful

 Prairie House

 Woman in the profession

o Eclecticism:

 Picking and choosing a style for their own style

 Responding to a new desire of nationalism/regionalism

 Focus on training architects, theory and pedagogy (Ecole des Beaux arts  education)

 Richardson Romanesque

 The Chicago school of architects: group of architects who worked together  towards a solution to the commercial building

 Prairie Houses: flat


 Women Architects-training begins, still a long way to go before recognition  The ‘collage style’ of architecture

∙ Take all the parts of architecture that one likes and put them  together, not necessarily in unity

o United States

 1870

 Steel industry

 Industrial powerhouse

 Banking

 Oil industry

 Wealthy people, build things

 Industrialization, steel industries, wealth increasing


∙ Main influence for architecture at the time

o Great Chicago Fire

 1871

 Just like London, Great architecture came out of it

o Art Nouveau

 Glasgow

 Barcelona

 Brussels

 Paris

o Vienna: Ornament and Crime

 Conflict between pro/anti modernism

o Berlin: The Deutscher Werkbund

o Modern style depends on context

 Modernism = Talk about materials

o ‘Modern style characteristics’

 Organic buildings made out of steel

 No ornamentation in places except from Gaudi’s buildings

 Simplicity of forms

 Function of building/monument expresses in plans

 Logical organization of interior spaces function follows form

 Response to society/culture at large (tumultuous period)

 Rapid advances in technology and art

 Felt need to create the ‘national style’


 Rethought form/type (produce forms to meet modern needs)  Used modern materials (in many cases industrial and/or synthetic  Influenced by aesthetics of Modernist art movements

 Often grounded in social-democratic ethos


 Aesthetic similarities between modernist buildings (grouped together with  term ‘international style”)

o Spain

 Modernisma

 Animated architecture, organic/natural features

 Undulating spaces, deep recesses, play of light and dark

 Materiality as the manifestation of spiritual order-Gaudin

 Form-biological

o Russia

 Emergence of War

 Vladimir Lenin

 Revolution in Russia during the War

∙ Russia backs out of the War

 Communism

o WW1 sparked modernism, WW2 cemented it (global phenomenon, symbol of  hope)

o Utilitarian spaces

 References to materiality and function

 “Less is more”- reduces things to basics (essence)

 Play of inside/outside, interior and exterior

o Reaction against modernism = post-modernism

 Robert Venturi “more is not less”

∙ Wants something playful, look to the past

o Intellectual response to late modernity

 Reaction against “orthodox modernism”

 Develops interest in irony, playfulness, contradictions

 More humane architecture that ppl understand

o Deconstructivism

 Interrogates form, plays with notions of disorder

 Thinking about forms in a new way

 Idea that things become less stable

 Deconstruct to see the power dynamics at oplay

 Idea of standardization (and availability for mass production) but with the  potential for variation/creativity

o Expressionism

 Playing with forms

 Making strange

 Stacked, flowing, undulating, looks dynamic

 Takes the idea of sculpture and applies it to architecture

o Structural rationalism


 Form meets function

 Associated with Le Doux

 Form reflects the structure and its programme

o A.W.N. Pugin’s contrasts

 Favorite period was gothic/middle ages

 Contrast of how we deal with the poor

 Contrast of pre and post-industrial culture

 Turning away from industrial production could focus more on morals


o Housing (are both residences)

o Craft


o Schroeder house


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