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UIUC / Advertising / ADV 150 / What is pre-testing?

What is pre-testing?

What is pre-testing?


School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Advertising
Course: Introduction to Advertising
Professor: Steve hall
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Advertising, adv150, exam3, exams, Textbooknotes, textbook, Lecture, LectureNotes, and UIUC
Cost: 50
Name: Adv 150 Exam 3 Comprehensive Study Guide
Description: These notes cover BOTH lecture and textbook notes for exam 3!
Uploaded: 04/09/2018
18 Pages 123 Views 26 Unlocks

ADV 150

What is pre-testing?

Test Three Review SPRING 2018

Textbook Review 

Chapter 7  

(p. 215 Pre-testing vs. post-testing (tracking) – basic difference)

Pre-testing: testing the effectiveness of an advertisement for gaps or flaws in  message content before recommending it to clients, usually done in a focus group.  Increases the likelihood of preparing the most effective message  

Post testing: testing the effectiveness of an advertisement after it has been run.  Also called “tracking” and provides the marketer with useful guidelines for future  advertising

(p. 217 – 221 Conducting Informal (exploratory) research – informal research,  primary data, secondary research terms)

informal (exploratory) research 

What is post testing?

• second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by  reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most  information to share  

• where you learn more about the market, competition, and business  environment to better define the problem  

• researchers discuss the problem with wholesalers, distributers, informed  sources, whoever has the most information to offer

There are 2 types of research data…

1. Primary Data 

• information collected by the company or agency about a specific program  • info gained directly from the marketplace Don't forget about the age old question of Who are you more and least likely to be murdered by?

• acquiring it is typically expensive + time consuming  

2. Secondary Data 

What is primary research?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is beta-lactam ring?

• information previously collected or published, usually for some other  purpose

• this info is readily available, either internally or externally If you want to learn more check out What is demedicalization?

• can be gathered more quickly and inexpensively than primary data  

(Conducting Informal (exploratory) research – gathering external secondary  research – just know generally what falls under secondary research) Gathering external secondary research 

• lots of info is available, sometimes for little or no cost

• info comes from the government, market research companies, trade  associations, various trade publications, or computerized databases, libraries

o examples: google, yahoo, Forbes, Businessweek, Advertising Age

(Conducting Primary research – primary research, qualitative/quantitative  research)

primary research: collecting primary data directly from the marketplace using  qualitative or quantitative methods Don't forget about the age old question of What are intangible assets?

• Qualitative Research: research that tries to determine market variables  according to unquantifiable criteria such as attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles  o Researchers use this to get a general impression of the market,  consumer, or product

o This is what marketers typically start with  

o Enables researchers to gain insight into both the population whose  option will be samples and the subject matter itself  

o Focus groups, in-depth interviews, observational studies

• Quantitative Research: research that tries to determine market variables  according to reliable, hard statistics about specific market conditions or  situations

o Used for hard numbers – “How many or how much?”

o Surveys and experiments, data analysis using excel

▪ Sophisticated agencies use a balance of both, understanding  the limits of each and how they work together  

(p. 221 – 224 Methods of qualitative research – qualitative research, projective  techniques, intensive techniques, in-depth interviews, focus groups – only the bold  terms) Don't forget about the age old question of Excessive levels of negative emotions, such as nervousness, tension, worry, fright and anxiety.

Qualitative research 

• to get people to share their motives, beliefs, and perceptions, researchers use  qualitative research  We also discuss several other topics like How do cancer cells evade growth suppressors?

• encourages consumers to openly discuss their thoughts and feelings in  response to questions from an interviewer

o some marketers refer to this as “motivational research”

• Methods used in qualitative research are…

o Projective techniques 

▪ Asking INDIRECT questions or involving consumers in a  

situation where they can express feelings about the problem or  


• Ex: “What kind of people do you think shop here?”

▪ The purpose is to unearth people’s underlying or subconscious  feelings, attitudes, interests, opinions, needs, and motives

o Intensive Techniques 

▪ Aimed at probing the deepest opinions, beliefs, attitudes, of  

respondents through DIRECT questioning

▪ These typically include the use of “in-depth interviews” and  

“focus groups”

• In-Depth interviews

o carefully planned but loosely structured  

questions help the interviewer probe  

respondents’ deeper feelings  

o help reveal individual motivations

o expensive and time consuming

o skilled interviewers are in short supply

• Focus groups 

o Where 4 or more people, typical of target  

market, are invited to a group session to discuss  

the product, service, or marketing situation  

o Session may last an hour or more

o Trained moderator guides the discussion  

o Group interaction reveals people’s true feelings  

or behavior toward the product  

o Usually recorded and often viewed from behind  

a one way mirror

(Basic methods of quantitative research – quantitative research definition Observation – observation method, UX – only definitions of these bold terms)

Quantitative Research 

• Wants to gain reliable, hard statistics about specific markets or conditions or  situations

• There are 3 basic research methods that can be used to collect quantitative  data…

o Observation Method 

▪ Used when researchers actually monitor people’s actions,  

consumer activities, typically in their native environments  

such as a store, park, or workplace

o Experiment Method 

▪ A scientific investigation in which a researcher randomly  

assigns different consumers to two or more messages or  


o Survey 

▪ The researcher gains information on attitudes, opinions or  

motivations by questioning current or prospective customers  

• Ex: political polls

▪ Can be conducted by personal interview, TV, mail, or internet

(p. 225 - Look at My IMC Campaign – be generally able to match what goes in print,  broadcast and physiological categories)

Print Advertising 

• Direct questioning

• Focus group

• Order-of-merit-test

• Paired comparison method

• Portfolio test

• Mock magazine

• Perceptual meaning study

• Direct mail test

Broadcast Advertising 

• Central location projection test

• Trailer test

• Theatre test

• Live TV test

• Sales experiment

Physiological Testing 

• Pupilometric device

• Eye movement camera  

• Galvanometer

• Voice pitch analysis

• Brain pattern analysis

Chapter 8

(p. 240 Mission statement – definition)

Mission Statement 

• A good marketing plan generally begins with this

• short description of the organization’s purpose and philosophy • starting the plan w/ a mission statement helps remind planners and  marketing partners about what the organization is and what is stands for  

(p. 241 SWOT analysis – definition)

SWOT Analysis 

• an acronym for internal strengths and weaknesses and external  opportunities and threats which represents the four categories used by  advertising managers when reviewing a marketing plan

o strengths and weaknesses → represents company capabilities o opportunities and threats → represent environmental factors  • the SWOT analysis briefly restates the company’s current situation, reviews  

the target market market segments, itemizes the long and short-term  marketing objectives and cites decisions regarding market positioning and  the marketing mix

(p. 241 Marketing objectives – basic definition AND Sales target objectives vs. communication objectives - basic difference between them)

Marketing objectives 

• goals of the marketing effort that may be expressed in terms of the needs of  specific target markets and specific sales objectives

• clear quantifiable, realistic marketing goals that are to be accomplished  within a defined period of time

• marketing objectives fall into 2 broad categories: sales-target objectives &  communication objectives

o Sales-target objectives 

▪ Marketing objectives relating to company’s SALES

▪ Include goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume  and market share

▪ Must be realistic in light of the issues described in the situation  analysis

o Communication objectives 

▪ Outcomes that can reasonably be associated with promotional  activities, such as…

• increases in brand recognition or awareness

• increased comprehension of a brand’s attitudes or  


• more positive attitudes about a brand/ more favorable  


• stronger intentions to try and buy a brand  

o Ex: Mountain Dew wants the consumers to see  

the brand as a flavorful, high-energy drink for  

youthful thinking people looking for an  

alternatives to colas

p. 256

Target audience 

• specific group of people the IMC will reach and is marketed to • typically larger than the target market  

• marketers need to know who the end user is, who makes the purchase, and  who influences the purchasing decision

p. 257  

Product concept 

• the consumer’s perception of a product as a “bundle” of utilitarian and  symbolic values that satisfy functional, social, psychological, and other wants  and needs

• also as an element of the creative mix used by advertisers to develop  advertising strategy

• it is the bundle of product values the advertiser presents to the consumer o Ex: Silverado truck marketed to the middle class, stressing its rugged,  macho durability VS. Promotions for the Sierra, on the other hand are  aimed at white collar professionals and emphasize the vehicles snob  appeal

p. 257  

Communications media 

• “the message delivery system”

• an element of the creative mix, comprising the various methods or vehicles  that will be used to transmit the advertiser’s/marketer’s message

• includes traditional media such as radio, TV, newspaper, magazines,  billboards, the internet, direct marketing, public relations, special events,  sales promotion, and personal selling  

p. 258  

IMC message 

• what the campaigns communicate

• an element of the creative mix comprising of what the company plans to say  in its advertisements and how it plans to say it – verbally  

Chapter 10  

p. 308 – 310  

informational – relief from a problem  


transformational - using positive reinforcement to offer a reward

target audience – specific group of individuals to whom the advertising message is  directed

creative brief 

• creative team’s guide for writing and producing the campaign  • a written statement that serves as the creative team’s guide for writing and  producing an ad.  

• describes the most important issues that should be considered in the  development of the ad (the who, what, where, when), including…. o a definition and description of the target audience

o the rationale and emotional appeals to be used, the product features  that will satisfy the customer’s needs

o the style, approach, or tone that will be used in the copy

o and what the copy will say  

• Rational appeals 

o Directed at the consumer’s practical, functional need for the product  or service

• Emotional appeals 

o Target the consumer’s psychological, social, or symbolic needs

p. 310  

Message Strategy – a simple description an explanation of a campaign’s overall  creative approach

• What the campaign says, how it says it, and why.

• The message strategy has 3 components

o Verbal – what messages should say, consideration of word choice o Nonverbal – campaigns graphics, any visuals that must be used o Technical - preferred execution approach and outcome, including  budgeting and scheduling limitations

p. 311

Creativity – involves combining 2 or more previously unconnected objects or ideas  into something new  

p. 315  

Fact based thinking 

• style of thinking that tends to fragment concepts into components and to  analyze situations to discover the one best solution

• They like logic, structure, efficiency, hard data

Value based thinking 

• thinkers make decisions based on intuition, values, and ethical judgements • better able to embrace change, conflict, and paradox

p. 316  

Creative process 

• the step-by-step procedure used to discover original ideas and reorganize  existing concepts in new ways  

• if followed, people can approve their ability to unearth possibilities, cross associate concepts, and select winning ideas

p. 316 – 326 just know the following for these terms:

explorer – gathers and examines info  

artist – develops and implements big idea

judge – evaluates value of big idea and decides whether to implement warrior - carries concept/big idea into action, gets idea approved produced and  placed

p. 317 – know the difference and definitions


• the creative point in advertising where the search for the “big idea” takes  place

• includes the task of analyzing the problem, assembling any and all pertinent  info, and developing some verbal or visual concept of how to communicate  what needs to be said  

big idea 

• the flash of creative insight – the bold advertising initiative – that captures  the essence of the strategy in an imaginative, involving way and brings the  subject to life to make the reader stop, look, and listen

• gives life to the strategy!!

p. 321 – know the difference

art direction- refers to the act or process of managing the visual presentation of the  message  

art- refers to the whole presentation – visual, verbal, and aural

Lecture Review 

1. Research / Questions research can answer – consumer, competitors,  operations and environment– know generally what’s related to each category and  what is not. (For example the “consumer category” would include “brand loyalty”  and “use”.)

** this is still consumer behavior**

Consumer analysis 

• Brand loyalty (ex: soft drinks coca cola – why this but not pepsi?) • Segment: market you’re interested in delivering

o Interest, style

o Helps you go deeper into the market

• Processes of:

o Determining what the consumer wants

o How valuable they are

o How they purchase things

o Their motivations

Competitive Analysis 

• Market shares: relative to other brands?

o Similar products, same market → overall competition?

• Sales: profits

• Awareness levels of competitive brands

o “where do you frequently shop at?”

o CB2 vs. west elm

o Competitive offerings

• Repurchase Rate

o Ask consumers, research how often people buy a product

▪ Ex: high rate for ramen, beer, soda, etc. low rate for fondu pots • Satisfaction among brands

o How satisfied are you with your purchase

Operational Analysis 

• What you’re doing with your mix

o Ex: we spend this much time on PR, this much on adverting

• How effect are

Environmental Analysis 

• Culture

o Ex: TV show

• Technology

o Ex: smartphones, iPhone

• Media

o Ex: Instagram, Twitter

• Regulation

o FTC, laws, government documents

o Understand from an environmental standpoint what is coming down  the pipe legally  

• Economy

o Understand what is going on with the market (wallstreet) and how  stable  

• Politics

o Government shutdown

▪ Change in mind to go to national parks, Washington DC

3. Exploratory Methods basic definitions/differences between secondary vs.  primary research

Exploratory research methods 

• goal is to gain insight and get ideas 

Secondary research 

• data already collected for some other purpose

o Examples of sources: libraries, government, trade associations,  research organizations (consumer reports, publications databases and  internet sources)

• Limitations of secondary information

o Availability: is primary needed?

o Relevance: are measures useful?

o Accuracy

▪ Who: neutral or advocate vs. negative

▪ Purpose: reason data is being collected

▪ What information collected: types of people surveyed

▪ When: timing

▪ How: mail, phone, in person methods, online

▪ Inconsistencies: source variation

o Insufficient: not enough out there

Primary research 

• New data gathered to help solve a problem at hand

Internal Secondary Data 

• Data collected within the organization

External Secondary Data 

• data collected/generated outside of the organization

4. Scales (Descriptive Research Design)– nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio


• Put something in a category, numbers are arbitrary  

o Ex: people in ADV 150 class under 50 is group A, people over the age  50 is B

• Mutually exclusive – you can only be in one category, cannot fit into both • Collectively exhaustive – must fit somewhere even if that means nowhere  at all

o Ex: University of Illinois student status  

▪ Freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, grad student, non-degree  • You can’t be both, only one

o Ex: Espresso Royale – answer YES or NO did you buy one?  

▪ Yes, I bought a triple shot latte

• If they answer this you can ask more questions (was it  

too hot, good cream to coffee ratio)

▪ No, I did not buy a triple shot

• If you didn’t go then you can’t answer the question  

• “screener question” – “if you answer no then skip to  


• based of this you can break it down to freshmen, soph,  



• indicate relative positions on whether something is better than something • measures order – but no distance

• something is better by something but you don’t know how much or how • #’s have meaning, but it’s limited  

o Ex: Pizza. Please put a 1, 2 or 3 in spaces below to indicate your rank  order preferences for these pizza places

▪ Papa del’s (1)

▪ Giordano’s (2)

▪ Lou malnatis (3)

• Problem with rank order scale: You know 1 is better  

than 2, 2 is better than 3 but you don’t know why or by  

how since they’re so similar

• You can do the same thing as coke, pepsi, etc…


• Numbers have meaning in distance and magnitude!

• You know 1 is better than 2 because the space between consecutive points  assumed equal zero point is arbitrary

o This scale is different than the rank order for this reason

▪ Ex: gap in train stations is the same on both sides (8 inches)

▪ Ex: looking at a ruler  

▪ Ex: Metric system is equal  

• An inch is always an inch

• Perfect examples of interval scales: Fahrenheit vs. celcius  

o Freezing point of water in celcius = 0

o Freezing point of water in Fahrenheit = 32

▪ The 32 was a random number that was assigned, the scale is  the same each time

• These scales can give you a lot of information about brands

o Awareness levels

o Knowledge

o Liking

o Satisfaction

o Performance

o Quality, etc…

▪ Ex: Chevy Corvette vs. Porche vs. BMW Z4 (all sports  

performance cars)

• If I am one of these and want to understand what  

people think (all sports car enthusiasts, buyers) I would  

ask them to rate Freezing point of water in these sports  

cars on performance  

o On a scale of pathetic (1) – fantastic (10)

▪ BMW gets an 8

▪ Porsche gets a 4

▪ Chevy gets an 8

• If two get the same score then you  

can determine how they compare  

in terms of performance

• The scale you use doesn’t matter (1-10 vs 1-5), because  

the distance is assumed to be the same  

• Can also compare what people think about other brands in product category o What percentage of car colors is more popular? White or black o Taking all the different types of hot/spicy snack brands  

▪ Hot Cheetos

▪ Lays  

▪ Fritos


• Gets you serious data

• There is a TRUE zero point or origin ratio values  

o Someone that’s 22.5 is half the age of 55 (2:1 ratio)

o You start at birth

• Actual amount of variable  

o Ex: Kelvin scale  

▪ Gaps are all the same

▪ But it starts at 0

o Ex: Salary

▪ No one starts at 0

▪ I’m ____ old, I’ve had in & out ____ times  

• Now you get the actual number  

• Can ask the actual number of something!!!

o Ex: how many phones have you had in the last 5 years

o Ex: how many times have you been to class late

▪ You can count these things

5. Question Types - adjective checklist, Multiple Choice MR and SR, linear  numeric, Likert, verbal frequency, semantic differential, matrix, fixed sum – be  familiar with basic characteristics and/or able to identify an example.

Adjective Checklist 

• You check adjectives that describe something  

o Ex: put a check mark in the space to the word(s) best describing your  study abroad experience

▪ Wonderful __

▪ Stressful __

▪ Awesome __

▪ Structured __

• You use descriptors to describe an experience  

o Ex: Rice crispy treat with chocolate and no marshmellows

• Social/general information about the question

Multiple Choice, Multiple Response (MR) 

• Choose any or all options that apply  

• Any alternative  

o EX: to find out about media consumption habits… please circle any of  the TV programs you watch (4 photos- pick one)

▪ Choices could be varied by different genres, or can be all  

dramas, all comedies.

▪ Then you filter! If they say they like it then further answers are  asked

Multiple Choice, Single Response (SR) 

• Check only one alternative

• Put a check mark by only one of the following to indicate your favorite o Nike sneaker

▪ Nike air (3 types of shoes) – select which one you like best

Linear Numeric 

• Interval scale – pick a number from a scale  

• Items judged on a single dimension

• You can compare things like importance and other things like performance o First measure the importance of a variable and then measure how the  brand performs  

• Ex: Food trucks

o Pick # from scale to show how generally important each factor is  when choosing a food truck

o Not important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 extremely important

o Now, answer how important these factors of a food truck are to you

▪ Servers (5)

▪ Truck design (2)

▪ Locations (6)

▪ Cleanliness (7)

▪ Chef (5)  

▪ food (7)

o linear numeric scale CAN COMPARE how IMPORTANT something is  vs. how it PERFORMS on the same item

▪ some people don’t care about the design of the truck, just the  food and chef, so we look at what we want

o **** linear numeric scales can also evaluate individual items among  different food trucks!

o now ask how specific food trucks perform on those certain variables  ▪ ex: the tamale spaceship

• now you can compare and contrast food truck  

importance GENERALLY, and then look at the tamale  

spaceship and rank the servers, truck design, location,  

etc.. and COMPARE between the general

• ex: rate the variety of menu items  


• Agree or disagree

• You’re measuring level of agreement. Where do you stand on this  experience?

o Please indicate your level of agreement on following statements.  o 1 – strongly disagree

o 2 – disagree

o 3 – neutral

o 4 – agree

o 5 – extremely agree

• Ex: Supreme – put the number (1-5) in the box on whether you agree “does  waiting for lines in supreme totally pay off?”

• Ex: Disney Pixar – the Incredibles  

o “I definitely plan on going to the movie theatre after seeing the trailer”  put a number in the box on whether you’d see it

• you don’t use terminology that is wishy-washy “such as..

o its “ok”

o “so-so”

o “pretty good”

o acceptable

▪ you’d rather have answers that are “strongly agree”  

Verbal Frequency 

• how often do people do something

o Ex: bike path on side street

▪ “how often do you ride a bike to class on campus?”

• 1 – always

• 2 – often

• 3 – sometimes

• 4- rarely

• 5- never

o people interpret what these words mean  

differently, esp the middle ones

Semantic Differential 

• bipolar words connected by scale

• scale in between, 2 opposite words/adjectives that define something  o Ex: KAMS

▪ Smell (foul 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 wonderful)

▪ Atmosphere (hellhole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 wonderful)

o Ex: KINO CHECK – the Lost in Space tv show on Netflix

▪ The lost in space trailer just viewed is…

• Boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 exciting  

• Pick a number from this scale

Multiple Rating Matrix 

• Uses rows and columns  

• Lots of information really fast  

• Ex: rate these Chicago restaurants using the following scale  o Awful 1 2 3 4 5 awesome

▪ The purple pig  

▪ Girl and the goat

▪ Au cheval  

Fixed Sum 

• Everything adds up (to 100%)

• Learn proportion of resource or activity devoted to something  o Good for measuring recent past activity

• Ex: Ratio scale  

o What percentage of time have you spent texting in the last week with  the following… must add up to 100%

Good questions → Do 

• Focus on single issue

• Be brief

• Frame in a way interpreted same by all respondence

• Part of respondent’s core vocabulary  

• Use good grammar

o “Dope” now means “cool” but interpreted differently by older  generations as “weed”

Good questions → Don’t 

• write beyond ability or experience survey taker  

• use ambiguous words

• double barrel questions – 2 q’s at once

• lead a survey taker – perry mason would object

• load a question with emotional appeals

6. Strategic Brand Planning - Be familiar with the following, we may use  examples from class.

Situation Analysis: a factual statement of the organization’s current situation and  how it got there. Includes relevant facts about the company’s history, growth,  products and services, sales volume, share of market, competitive status, market  serves, distribution system, past advertising programs, results of market research  studies, company capabilities, and strengths/weaknesses

• Industry/Category

o Become experts on the product being sold

o Example – you’re dunkin donuts, have to know growing region (of  coffee), which producers are good or bad

o You need to know the industry where sales are going

o You need to know how the industry defines what drink is

• Brand (product)  

o Image

o Like/dislike

o Necessity/luxury – wants vs. needs  

▪ Ex: facebook, linkedin, studying abroad

• Habit

o Repeated purchase

o Ex: cigarettes  

• Use

o When do you use the product?

o How do you use the product?

o Where do you use the product?

• Product Performance

o How well the product performs  

• Manufacturing  

o How is it made and how long does it take to make?

o Steps in process

o The people who make it  

o Special techniques

o Where is it made?

• Culture

o How do people consume the product this way and why depending on  culture?

• Competition

o Understand the competitor brands

7. Creative Brief – Know the sections – might use examples from class Creative brief: here’s the brand, here’s the situation, here’s the competition. Many  different formats but they inspire people to do things (engineers, writers, etc..). they  evolve and change, as the world changes creative briefs change as well

Cb1: What is the product or service? 

- simple description here

-Different types of beer and their alcohol percentages

Cb 2: the situation 

Snapshot of brand situation, current position, brand challenges, threats, goals,  opportunities

- Beer industry facts (how many breweries are operating, look at if its increasing  every year)

o Do beer purchases increase in the morning or at night? Night.

o Where is it purchased? Alcohol stores, the highest for Budweiser was gas  stations

- “sober socialists” rise of health conscious millennials  

- generation sober: 10 reasons why millennials are opting out of booze  - millennials drink much more in the summer  

cb 3: the competition 

Who out there trying to put you out of business - you describe the info in a paragraph and  describe what is important  

- craft beer, brack the skye (cracked beer) vs. budweister (low end, high end beer) - look at the history of beer in different companies as well, they are all telling a  story  

o BUT you want to come in and say why you’re better  

- Have to look into wine as a competitive avenue – you have to make choices!! o You have guests over and need alcohol. What do you do? What alcohol do  you pick?

- Knowing history of alcohol before and current is important – whiskey! - “Woodford reserve” tastings  

cb4: the audience 

clearly define target audience by demographics, psychographics, lifestyle, usage,  behavior, etc….

need to be SUPER SPECIFIC so creatives etc. can connect audience and brand in a  compelling way

- Ex: Mayberry-ville (shows demographic differences – rural vs urban audience) o Back to the old-fashioned way of life, in the small towns like to fish and  camp and watch TV at night

o These people use their money on boats, campers, motorcycles, and pick up trucks

▪ These people might have to drive further for work, but that is just  their lifestyle

- Ex: millennial hipsters

o Have been around since the 50’s, a long time  

- Ex: hipster + yuppie

o In festivals people wear hippy clothes

o the fall of hipster and the rise of the young urban creatives

- Ex: coors light  

o Female/male  

o Ethnicity

o College/no college

Cb5: consumer need or problem the brand addresses 

Describe unmet need brand fills how brand addresses need in unique way  Ex: how do you describe your friend joe?  

o Joe is 24, income level x, ethnicity OR…

o Joe is a great guy, nice, dependable


- EX: millennials are like to drink in social environments, have invented beer bong  as a way to socialize because drinking helps loosen you up

- Ex: coors light

Cb6: What do consumers think of the brand currently? 

- Ex: what are descriptors for Bud Light?

o Its cheap, not premium crafter  

o HARD because there’s not a strong identify

o Typically not known for being cold

- Ex: Coors light – descriptors (what you’d describe to your friends) o Refreshing, cold, mountains in the back and ice  

o “rocky mountain” cold refreshing, brewed in Colorado  

▪ this is what makes them stand out  

o sustainable – “sustainability is in our DNA”

▪ one of the first to come out with the aluminum can

• most people don’t think of coors light as a sustainable  


cb7: one thing 

We want them to believe, usually a sentence or two

- certain brands want certain personalities  

- Ex: coors light talking about the “mountain” in their message

o Adventurous, free spirit – no age restrictions

o “climb on” the mountain – whatever your personal mountain (getting A,  etc…) deserves to be celebrated with a refreshing Coors light

▪ Coors light wants this methaphor of mountains to stay with you no  matter what mountain you’re climbing, no matter what challenge

• Point is to get people to purchase this right after  


Cb8: supporting evidence or why should they believe 

- A few things clearly supporting the thing you want them to believe

Cb9: set tone (adjectives, phrase, describing personality of advertising) 

- Can be factual, but still drive emotion

- Inflect surprise, awe, shock, or whatever you’re trying to communicate - Romance, empathy, joy

Cb10: mandatories 

- disclaimers  

o ex: every ad team has a very large list of lawyers because everything has  to go through the legal department

- write in language of audience, not business speak

- make every word count

- everybody should be excited

8. Thinking Creatively

Note: This will be covered in lecture on April 9th and possibly April 11th Know the “stages” we cover in class (orientation, preparation, etc.) – what happens  in each stage, examples

** I will add this on after lecture

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