Lifespan Development Midterm 2 Study Guide
Lifespan Development Midterm 2 Study Guide 2603
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Lifespan Development Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 3 Body Growth and Change The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence of development in which growth occurs starting at the top, with the head. Size, weight, and feature differentiation start at top and continue to bottom. The proximodistal pattern is the sequence of development in which growth begins at the center of the body and works outward to the extremities. Muscular control of trunk and arms will occur before control of hands and fingers. Weight and height in infancy: lose weight the first week once they’ve adjusted to eating, they will gain weight again (56 ounces per week) typically double birth weight in 4 months, triple birth weight at 1 year Height and weight beyond infancy: body fat declines (rate is faster for boys; girls have more fatty tissue, boys have more muscle). Muscle strength gradually increases in middle childhood, adolescence; muscle tone and coordination improve in middle childhood Puberty occurs in early adolescence and is marked by dramatic physical changes—pituitary gland begins to secrete hormones that activate testes or ovaries. Girls will tend to peak in puberty at age 11 ½ and boys will tend to peak at age 13 ½. Secondary sex characteristics are observable physical manifestations; breast development, hair growth, voice changes Primary sex characteristics (evolve years after secondary): menarche, spermarche Menarche is a girl’s first menstruation period. This comes toward the middle or end of puberty. Hormones: Hormones are chemical substances made by the endocrine glands. Testosterone aids in height, voice change, and development of genitals in males. Estradiol aids in breast, uterine, and skeletal development in females. Gonadotropins stimulate sex organs (gonads) in both males and females. Gonads consist of the testes in males and the ovaries in females. The Hypothalamus is a structure in the brain that is associated with eating and sexual behavior. The Pituitary gland is part of the endocrine system that controls growth and regulates other gland activity. Physical changes of adulthood: Height loss, weight gain collagen and fat loss in skin hair thins out and greys cholesterol, blood pressure increase changes in sexuality Climacteric women are experiencing the midlife transition in which fertility declines. Menopause refers to the period of time in which fertility ceases in women around the late 40’s or early 50’s, marked by night sweats, sleep disturbance, mood swings, hot flashes, and gas. The Brain Neuroconstructionist view a) biological processes and environmental experiences influences the brains development; b) brain has plasticity; c) development of brain and cognitive development are closely linked. Infancy Important events: o Formation of nuerons o Myelination o Migration/specialization o Networking o Pruning Brain Hemispheres Hemispheric Lateralization o Right Hemisphere: processing visualspatial info, processing nonspeech sounds (music), face perception, emotional information o Left Hemisphere: processing speech sounds, expression of Approach emotions Plasticity responsiveness of neurons to environmental input Plasticity at work: enriched environments o Enhanced brain development o Strengthen connections between neurons o Modify brain chemistry to improve efficiency o Differences in brain weight, neural complexity, biochemistry Language processing Childhood Increase in myelination= rapidly developing fine motor skills Major growth areas o Frontal lobes (age 36) o Temporal and Parietal lobes (age 6 to puberty) Adolescence major changes Biochemical changes in brain, increases in frontal lobe activity, amygdala and hippocampus (limbic system) enlarge Adulthood and Aging Brain loses weight: about 10% by age 90 Brain function: begins to slow down in middle adulthood declines in memory acetylcholine problems with motor activities (dopamine reduction) increase in “neural noise” (reduction in production of GABA Frontal lobes are associated with voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, and intentionality. Occipital lobes process vision. Temporal lobes function in hearing, language processing and memory. Parietal lobes specialize in spatial location, focusing attention, and maintaining motor control. The prefrontal cortex is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self control. The corpus callosum is a large bundle of neurons that connect the brain’s hemispheres. The amygdala is a limbic system structure that specializes in emotions. The limbic system is the main system of emotion and experience of rewards. Neurogenesis is the generation of new neurons. Myelination increases speed and efficiency of information processing. Lateralization is the specialization of function in one hemisphere or the other. Chapter 5: Motor development: Dynamic systems theory dominant theoretical perspective in motor development today Infants develop skills needed for motor milestones “Soft assembly” putting the right things together. New skills result from a combination of motivation and soft assembly Newborn reflexes: Babinski reflex sole of foot object stroked down foot, the toes will fan out Palmar reflex place object in hand—hand will wrap around object tightly Moro reflex startle reflex loud noises or dropping feeling, arms and legs fly out, then pulled back in as if trying to grab onto something to not fall Plantar grasp press object to bottom of foot, toes will curl in as if trying to grab hold with feet Rooting response stroke check or close to mouth, baby will turn head toward source and open mouth wide helps with breastfeeding Sucking response sucking on thumb, nipple, etc. before association of nipple with food Stepping reflex alternating stepping response when held upright and some weight being put on feet and “walking” will occur. Fine motor skills finely tuned movements involving finger dexterity, etc. Sensory and Perceptual Development: Sensation information interacts with sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nostrils, tongue, skin). Perception Sensory information is interpreted. Ecological view people directly perceive information in the world around them. Affordances are opportunities for interaction by objects Habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after being repeated a certain amount of times. Dishabituation recovering a habituated response after a change in stimulation. Size constancy recognizing that an object stays the same size even though the object may change distances from the viewer Shape constancy recognizing that an object stays the same shape even though the orientation to the viewer changes. Signs of vision problems in young children: rubbing eyes, excessive blinking, squinting, irritability during activities that require visual acuity Vision in adulthood o Acuity: Ability to focus an image decreases, causes trouble with reading, working in dim light, dark adaptation is slower o Color vision o Depth perception Diseases of the eye: Cataracts lens thickens Glaucoma fluid build up Macular degeneration blind spots Intermodal perception integrating information about two or more sensory modalities Chapter 6: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Principles of Piaget’s Theory: Scheme actions or mental representations that organize knowledge o Infancy physical schemes—things like grasping, sucking o Older kids problem solving, classification Cognitive processes o Organization: combining simple schemes into more complex schemes o Equilibrium: period of changing from one stage of thought to the next o Adaptation: the tendency to adjust our schemes to environmental demands, new experiences Assimilation using existing schemes to incorporate new information Accommodation Changing existing schemes to fit new information and experiences Four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor (birth 2 years) 6 stages infants construct an understanding of the world Stage 1: reflex activity (01 months) grasping and sucking Stage 2: primary circular reactions (14 months) Stage 3: secondary circular reactions(48 months) Stage 4: coordination of secondary schemes (812 months) intentionality: infant plans goaldirected behavior Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (1218 months) experimentation that leads to knowledge about objects Stage 6: internalization of schemes (1824 months) beginnings of symbolic thought Object permanence Knowing an object or person still exists even though we can’t see, hear, or touch it AnotBerror: infants will select the familiar hiding place (A) of an object rather than the new hiding place (B) of an object. Preoperational Stage (27 years) children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings o Operations reversible mental actions that allow children to act mentally rather than physically Symbolic function substage ability to mentally represent an object that is not present Egocentrism distinguishing between one’s own and someone else’s perspectives Animism believing inanimate objects to have lifelike qualities and being capable of actions Intuitive thought substage using primitive reasoning and asking many questions o Centration focusing on just one characteristic and ignoring others o Conservation knowing that altering appearance does not change its properties Concrete Operational Stage (711 years) children can reason logically and perform concrete operations o Seriation ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension o Transitivity combining certain criteria to reach certain conclusions Formal Operational Stage (11+ years) thinking in more abstract and logical ways o Adolescent egocentrism belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves o Imaginary audience feeling that one is the center of attention o Personal fable adolescent’s sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility Piaget and Education: 1. Take a constructivist approach 2. Facilitate rather than direct learning 3. Consider the child’s knowledge and level of thinking 4. Promote the student’s intellectual health 5. Turn the classroom into a setting of discovery and exploration Criticisms of Piaget: Cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought Development is not as stagelike Children can be trained to reason at higher stages Culture and education have stronger influences on development Vygotsky’s Theory: Zone of proximal development (ZPD) range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone, but can be accomplished with help from others. Scaffolding the changing level of guidance while teaching, in order to fit the child’s performance level Vygotsky’s teaching strategies: 1. Use the child’s ZPD in teaching 2. Use moreskilled peers as teachers 3. Monitor and encourage use of private speech 4. Place instruction in a meaningful context 5. Implement Tools of the Mind, a set of curriculum that emphasizes selfregulation and foundation of literacy Cognitive changes in adulthood Postformal thought Reflective, relativistic, contextual Provisional Realistic Recognized as being influenced by emotion Fluid intelligence ability to reason abstractly Crystalline intelligence accumulated information Cognitive mechanics linked to biological foundations and brain development Cognitive pragmatics associated with experience and culture
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