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OSU / Sociology / SOCIOL 1101 / What is The History of Sociology?

What is The History of Sociology?

What is The History of Sociology?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Steven lopez
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: sociology, Introd to Soc, Soc 1, and Introduction to Sociology
Cost: 50
Name: Sociology 1101 Final Study Guide
Description: Sociology 1101 Final Study Guide
Uploaded: 04/14/2018
26 Pages 10 Views 13 Unlocks


What is The History of Sociology?


A. Intro

i. Sociology is the systematic study of society and social interaction  (study of companionship)

ii. Society is a group of people whose members interact, reside in a  definable area, and share a culture

iii. Sociological imagination is how individuals understand their own  and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure

iv. Figuration is the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior  of individuals and the society that shapes that behavior

B. The History of Sociology

i. Ibn Khaldun is considered the world’s first sociologist

ii. Age of Enlightenment philosophers like John Locke, Voltaire,  Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Hobbes responded to social problems  with writing

iii. Sociology was coined by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyés and reinvented  by Auguste Comte

iv. Positivism is the scientific study of social patterns

Why Study Sociology?

v. Karl Marx- communist manifesto

vi. Capitalism is an economic system characterized by private or  corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them vii. Communism is an economic system under which there is no private  or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and  distributed as needed

viii. Verstehen: deeply understand

ix. Antipositivism: social researchers would strive for subjectivity as  they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and  societal values  

x. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys  with large numbers of participants and analyze data using  statistical techniques to see if they can find patterns of human  behavior

xi. Qualitative sociology seeks to understand human behavior by  learning about it from interviews, focus groups, and analysis of  content sources

C. Theoretical Perspectives

What are the Theories of self-development?

i. A theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions  and to create testable propositions about society

ii. Social solidarity described the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, or religion Don't forget about the age old question of How many significant figures are in the number 4001?

D. Why Study Sociology?

i. Desegregation, equal opportunity for women in the workplace,  improved treatment for individuals with mental handicaps or  learning disabilities

ii. Employers look for people with a wide variety of knowledge and  transferrable skills- common sense and courtesy in the workplace iii. Government hires people for social services, counseling, community planning, marketing, and HR


A. Sociological Research

i. Sociologists use empirical evidence (experience or observation)  combined with the scientific method or an interpretive framework  to deliver sound sociological research

If you want to learn more check out Where do neural tube located?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is Prophetic Journalism?

ii. Reliability: how likely research results are to be replicated if the  study is reproduced, increases the likelihood that what happens to  one person will happen to all people in a group


iii. Validity how well the study measures what it was designed to  measure

iv. Operational definition: define the concept in terms of the physical  or concrete steps it takes to objectively measure it

v. Literature review: a review of any existing similar or related studies vi. Hypothesis: an assumption about how two or more variables are  related We also discuss several other topics like What food and drug administration, controls?

vii. Independent variable: cause of the change

viii. Dependent variable: effect or thing that is changed ix. Interpretive framework: seeks to understand social worlds from the  point of view of participants, leading to in-depth knowledge x. Hawthorne effect: people changing their behavior because they  know they are being watched as part of a study

xi. Survey: collects data from subjects who respond to a series of  questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a  questionnaire

xii. Population: people who are the focus of a study

xiii. Sample: a manageable number of subjects who represent a larger  population

xiv. Random sample: every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study We also discuss several other topics like What is Violent crimes?

xv. Quantitative data: research collected in numerical form that can be  counted

xvi. Qualitative data: results that are subjective and often based on  what is seen in a natural setting

xvii. Interview: one on one conversation between the researcher and the subject and is a way of conducting surveys on a topic

xviii. Field research refers to gathering primary data form a natural  environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey We also discuss several other topics like Which groups in a country’s population tend to be the poorest?

xix. Correlation does not mean causation

xx. Participant observation: researchers join people and participate in a  group’s routine activities for the purpose of observing them within  that context

xxi. Ethnography: the extended observation of the social perspective  and cultural values of an entire social setting

xxii. Case study: an in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or  individual

xxiii. Experiment: investigate relationships to test a hypothesis 3

xxiv. Secondary data analysis: don’t result from firsthand research  collected from primary sources, but are the already completed work of other researchers

xxv. Nonreactive: does not include direct contact with subjects and will  not alter or influence people’s behaviors

xxvi. Content analysis: applying a systematic approach to record and  value information gleaned from secondary data as they relate to  the study at hand

B. Ethical concerns

i. Code of ethics: formal guidelines for conducting sociological  research consisting of principles and ethical standards to be used in the discipline

ii. Value neutrality: a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or  judgement, during the course of a study and in publishing results


A. Introduction to culture

i. Culture: the beliefs and behaviors that a social group shares ii. Society: a group of people who share a community and culture iii. Humans are social creatures

iv. Material culture: the objects or belongings of a group of people v. Nonmaterial culture: the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society vi. Cultural universals: patterns or traits that are globally common to  all societies

vii. Ethnocentrism: to evaluate another culture according to the  standards of one’s own culture

viii. Cultural imperialism: the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture

ix. Culture shock: an experience of personal disorientation when  confronted with an unfamiliar way of life

x. Cultural relativism: the practice of assessing a culture by its own  standards, and not in comparison to another culture

xi. Xenocentrism: a belief that another culture is superior to one’s own xii. Beliefs: tenets of convictions that people hold to be true xiii. Values: a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in  society

xiv. Ideal culture: consists of the standards a society would like to  embrace and live up to


xv. Real culture: the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists

xvi. Sanction: a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain  behaviors

xvii. Social control: a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms xviii. Norms: the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which  societies are structured

xix. Formal norms: established, written rules

xx. Informal norms: casual behaviors that are generally and widely  conformed to

xxi. Mores: the moral views and principles of a group

xxii. Folkways: direct appropriate behavior in the day to day practices  and expressions of a culture

xxiii. Symbols: gestures of objects that have meanings associated with  them that are recognized by people who share a culture

xxiv. Language: a symbolic system of communication

xxv. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: people understand the world based on their form of language

B. Pop culture, subculture and cultural change

i. High culture: the cultural patterns of a society’s elite

ii. Popular culture: mainstream, widespread patterns among a  society’s population

iii. Subculture: groups that share a specific identification, apart from a  society’s majority, even as the members exist within a larger  society

iv. Countercultures: groups that reject and oppose society’s widely  accepted cultural patterns

v. Innovation: new objects of ideas introduced to culture for the first  time

vi. Discoveries: things and ideas found from what already exists vii. Inventions: a combination of pieces of existing reality into new  forms

viii. Culture lag: the gap of time between the introduction of material  culture and nonmaterial culture’s acceptance of it

ix. Globalization: the integration of international trade and finance  markets

x. Diffusion: the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one  culture to another



A. Socialization

i. Socialization is the process through which people are taught to be  proficient members of a society (not the same as socializing) B. Theories of self-development

i. We are born with a genetic makeup and biological traits but who we are as human beings develops through social interaction

ii. Freud: personality and sexual development are closely linked (oral,  anal, phallic, latency, genital)

iii. Erik Erikson: personality continues to change over time and is never truly finished (8 stages birth to death)

iv. Jean Piaget: child development and role of social interactions v. George Herbert Mead: studied the self (a person’s distinct identity  that is developed through social interaction) and decided an  individual must be able to view themselves through the eyes of  others

vi. Generalized other: the common behavioral expectations of general  society

vii. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development:

1. Moral development is an important part of the socialization  process

2. Term refers to the way people learn what society considered  to be good and bad

3. Preconventional, conventional, postconventional

viii. Gilligan’s theory of moral development and gender

1. Thought Kohlberg might show gender bias

2. Boys: justice perspective (rules and laws)

3. Girls: care and responsibility perspective

C. Why socialization matters

i. Critical to individuals and to the societies they live in

ii. Nature vs nurture

1. Nurture: the relationships and caring that surround us 2. Nature- temperaments, interests and talents are set before  birth

D. Agents of socialization

i. Family: the first agent of socialization  

ii. Peer groups: made up of people who are similar in age and social  status and who share interests


iii. School

1. School and classroom rituals led by teachers serving as  models and leaders that reinforce what society expects from  children (hidden curriculum)

iv. Workplace: workers require new socialization into a workplace v. Religion: teach participants how to interact with the religion’s  material culture

vi. Government: many of the rites of passage people go through today  are based on age norms established by the government

vii. Mass media: the distribution of impersonal information to a wide  audience, such as what happens via TV, newspapers, radio and the  internet  

E. Socialization across the life course

i. Many of life’s social expectations are made clear and enforced on a  cultural level

ii. Through interacting with others and watching others interact, the  expectation to fulfill roles becomes clear

iii. Anticipatory socialization: the preparation for future life roles iv. Resocialization: old behaviors that were helpful in previous role are  removed because they are no longer of use

v. Degradation ceremony: new members lose the aspects of their old  identity and are given new identities


A. Types of societies

i. Preindustrial

1. Hunter-gatherer: strongest dependence on environment 2. Pastoral: rely on the domestication of animals as a resource  for survival  

3. Horticultural: formed in areas where rainfall and other  conditions allowed them to grow stable crops

4. Agricultural: relied on permanent tools

5. Feudal: strict hierarchical system of power based around  land ownership and protection

ii. Industrial

1. Technological inventions

2. Steam power

3. Urban centers


4. Gas lights

5. Wealth and social mobility

6. Industrial revolution

7. Power in hands of old money

iii. Postindustrial

1. Information societies: based on production of information  and services

2. Digital technology

B. Theoretical perspectives

i. Emile Durkheim and functionalism

1. Collective conscience: the communal beliefs, morals, and  attitudes of a society  

2. Social integration: how strongly a person is connected to his  or her social group

3. Mechanical solidarity: a type of social order maintained by  the collective consciousness of a culture

4. Organic solidarity: a type of social order based around an  acceptance of economic and social differences

5. Anomie: a situation in which society no longer has the  support of a firm collective consciousness

ii. Karl Marx and conflict theory

1. Bourgeoisie: owners of the means of production

2. Proletariat: laborers

3. Alienation: an individual’s isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of self

4. False consciousness: a person’s beliefs and ideology are in  conflict with her best interests

5. Class consciousness: awareness of one’s own rank in society iii. Max Weber and Symbolic Interactionalism

1. Rationalization: built on logic and efficiency

2. Iron cage: a situation in which an individual is trapped by  social institutions

C. Social constructions of society

i. Habitualization: the idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit

ii. Institutionalization: the act of implanting a convention or norm into  society


iii. Thomas theorem: how a subjective reality can drive events to  develop I accordance with that reality, despite being originally  unsupported by objective reality

iv. Self-fulfilling prophecy: an idea that becomes true when acted upon v. Ascribed status: the status outside of an individual’s control, such  as sex or race

vi. Role-set: an array of roles attached to a particular status vii. Role strain: stress that occurs when too much is required of a single role

viii. Role conflict: when one or more of an individual’s roles clash ix. Role performance: the expression of a role

x. Looking-glass self: our reflection of how we think we appear to  others  


A. Types of groups

i. Group: any collection of at least 2 people who interact with some  frequency and who share a sense that their identity is somehow  aligned with the group

ii. Aggregate: a collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t interact of share a sense of identity iii. Category: people who share similar characteristics but who are not  connected in any way

iv. Primary: small, informal groups of people who are close to us v. Secondary: larger and more impersonal groups that are task focused and time limited

vi. Expressive functions: a group function that serves an emotional  need

vii. Instrumental functions: being oriented toward a task or goal viii. In group: a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity

ix. Out group: a group that an individual is not a member of, and may  even compete with

x. Reference group: groups to which an individual compares herself B. Group size and structure

i. Dyad: a 2-member group

ii. Triad: a 3-member group

iii. Leadership function: the main focus or goal of a leader 9

iv. Instrumental leader: a leader who is goal oriented with a primary  focus on accomplishing tasks

v. Expressive leaders: a leader who is concerned with process and  with ensuring everyone’s wellbeing

vi. Leadership styles: the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit  action from group members

vii. Democratic leaders: a leader who encourages group participation  and consensus-building before moving into action

viii. Laissez-faire leader: a hands-off leader who allows members of the  group to make their own decisions

ix. Authoritarian leader: a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks x. Conformity: the extent to which an individual complies with group  or societal norms

C. Formal organizations

i. Formal organizations: large, impersonal

ii. Bureaucracies: are formal organizations characterized by a  hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and  impersonality

iii. Normative/voluntary organizations: organizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible  rewards

iv. Coercive organizations: people do not voluntarily join, such as  prison or a mental hospital

v. Total institutions: participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs

vi. Utilitarian organizations: joined to fill a specific material need vii. Hierarchy of authority: a clear chain of command found in a  bureaucracy

viii. Clear division of labor: refers to the fact that each individual in a  bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform

ix. Explicit rules: the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are  outlined, recorded, and standardized

x. Impersonality: the removal of personal feelings from a professional  situation

xi. Meritocracies: a bureaucracy where membership and advancement  is based on merit- proven and documented skills

xii. Iron rule of oligarchy: the theory that an organization is ruled by a  few elites rather than through collaboration

xiii. Mcdonaldization of society: the increasing presence of the fast food  business model in common social institutions



A. Social stratification in the U.S.  

i. Social stratification: refers to a society’s categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth,  income, race, education, and power (layers)

ii. Wealth: net value of money and assets

iii. Income: person’s wages or investment dividends

iv. Caste system: people are born into their social standing and will  remain in it their whole lives (hindu)

v. Class system: based on both social factors and individual  achievement

vi. Class: consists of a set of people who share similar status with  regard to factors like wealth, incomes, education, and occupation vii. Exogamous marriages: unions of spouses from different social  categories

viii. Endogamous union: marrying a partner from the same social  background

ix. Meritocracy: another system of social stratification in which  personal effort or merit determines social standing

x. Status consistency: consistency or lack thereof of an individual’s  rank across factors like income, education, and occupation B. Social stratification and mobility in the U.S.

i. Standard of living: the level of wealth available to a certain  socioeconomic class in order to acquire the material necessities and comforts to maintain its lifestyle

ii. Upper class: 1% of population and 1/3 of country’s wealth, “old  money” vs “new money”

iii. Middle class: many people call themselves middle class but there is  a big difference

1. Upper middle: bachelor’s and post grad degrees, comfortable 2. Lower middle: jobs supervised by upper middle class, often  first to lose jobs

iv. Lower class: working class

1. Working class: custodians, food service, hands on,  

landscaping, building

2. Working poor: no healthcare or retirement planning, seasonal or temporary positions, sharecroppers, housecleaners, day  laborers, high school dropouts, some illiterate


3. Underclass: mainly in inner cities, unemployed or  

underemployed, work for little pay, some homeless, live off  welfare

v. Social mobility: ability to change positions within a social  stratification system

vi. Upward mobility: increase in social class

vii. Downward mobility: lowering of social class

viii. Intergenerational mobility: difference between different generations of a family

ix. Intragenerational mobility: difference in social class between  different members of the same generation (diff b/w siblings) x. Structural mobility: happens when societal changes enable a whole  group of people to move up or down the social class ladder xi. Class traits: class markers, the typical behaviors, customs, and  norms that define each class, indicates the level of exposure to  range of cultures

C. Global stratification and inequality

i. Global stratification: compares wealth, economic stability, status,  and power of countries across the world

ii. Models of global stratification: GNP and GDP

1. GNP—gross national product (relative economic status) 2. GDP—per capita gross domestic product (country’s average  national wealth per person)

D. Theoretical perspectives on social stratification

i. Functionalism: how society’s parts operate

ii. Davis-Moore thesis: argued that the greater the functional  importance of social role, the greater must be the reward

iii. Conflict theory: deeply critical of social stratification, Carl Marx iv. Symbolic interactionalism: uses everyday interactions of individuals to explain society as a whole

v. Conspicuous consumption: buying certain products to make a social statement about status


A. Global inequality: involves the concentration of resources in certain  nations, significantly affecting the opportunities of individuals in poorer and less powerful countries

i. First world: capitalistic democracies such as U.S. and Japan 12

ii. Third world: poorest, most underdeveloped countries such as sub Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia

iii. Second World: in-between category, nations not as limited in  development as the third world but not as well off as the first world  such as China or Cuba

iv. Fourth world: stigmatized minority groups that were denied a  political voice all over the globe such as indigenous minority  populations, prisoners, and the homeless

v. Immanuel Wallerstein: world systems approach

1. Core nations: dominant capitalist countries, highly  industrialized, technological, and urbanized

2. Peripheral nations: very little industrialization; what they do  have often represents the outdated castoffs of core nations  or the factories and means of production owned by core  nations

3. Semi-peripheral nations: in-between nations, not powerful  enough to dictate policy but nevertheless acting as a major  source for raw material and an expanding middle-class  marketplace for core nations, while also exploiting peripheral nations

vi. World bank economic classification by income

1. Gross national income: equals all goods and services plus net income earned outside the country by nationals and  

corporations headquartered in the country doing business  out of the company

vii. High income nations

1. Capital flight: refers to the movement of capital from one  nation to another

2. Deindustrialization: occurs as a consequence of capital flight, as no new companies open to replace jobs lost to foreign  nations

viii. Middle-income nations

1. Debt accumulation: buildup of external debt, wherein  countries borrow money from other nations to fund their  expansion or growth goals

ix. Low-income nations

1. Global feminization: around the world, women are bearing a  disproportionate percentage of the burden of poverty a. Caused by: expansion of female-headed households,  persistence and consequences of intra-household  

inequalities and biases against women, and  


implementation of neoliberal economic policies around  

the world

B. Global wealth and poverty

i. Types of poverty

1. Relative: state of living where people can afford necessities  but are unable to meet their society’s average standard of  living

2. Absolute: lack even the basic necessities, which typically  include adequate food, clean water, safe housing, and access to health care

3. Subjective: poverty composed of many dimensions; present  when actual income doesn’t meet expectations and  

perceptions, more to do with how a family defines  


ii. Impoverished: Africa, Asia, Latin America

iii. Consequences of poverty

1. Slavery

a. Chattel slavery: practiced in the pre-humans are at the  mercy of their employers

b. Debt bondage: bonded labor, involves the poor pledging  themselves as servants in exchange for the cost of basic  necessities like transportation, room, and board

C. Theoretical perspectives on global stratification

i. Modernization theory: low-income countries are affected by their  lack of industrialization and can improve their global economic  standing through an adjustment of cultural values and attitudes to  work and industrialization and other forms of economic growth

ii. Dependency theory: global inequality is primarily caused by core  nations exploiting semi-peripheral and peripheral nations, creating  a cycle of dependence


A. Gender, sex, and sexuality

i. Sex: physical or physiological differences between males and  females, including both primary sex characteristics (reproductive  system) and secondary such as height and muscularity  

ii. Gender: term that refers to social or cultural distinctions associated  with being male or female


iii. Gender identity: the extent to which one identifies as being either  masculine or feminine

iv. Sexual orientation: emotional and sexual attraction to a particular  sex

v. Homophobia: an extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals  vi. Gender role: society’s concept of how men and women are  expected to act and how they should behave

vii. Gender identity: an individual’s self-conception of being male or  female based on his or her association with masculine or feminine  gender roles

viii. Transgender: individuals who identify with the role that is the  opposite of their biological sex

ix. Transsexuals: transgendered individuals who wish to alter their  bodies through medical interventions such as surgery and hormonal therapy (MTF and FTM)

B. Gender and socialization

i. Sexism: prejudiced beliefs that value one sex over another ii. Doing gender: when people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them

iii. Sexuality: a person’s capacity for sexual feelings

iv. Queer theory: problematizes the manner in which we have been  taught to think about sexual orientation by embracing the word  queer

v. Double standard: concept that prohibits premarital sexual  intercourse for women but allows it for men

10. CHAPTER 11

A. Race and Ethnicity

i. Social construction of race: race is not biologically identifiable,  recognizes that relative darkness or fairness of skin is an  

evolutionary adaptation to the available sunlight in different regions of the world

ii. Ethnicity: shared culture—the practices, values, and beliefs of a  group

iii. Minority group: any group of people who, because of their physical  or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the  society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment,  and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective  discrimination


iv. Subordinate: minority

v. Dominant: group that’s in the majority

vi. Scapegoat theory: from Dollard’s Frustration-Aggression theory,  suggests that the dominant group will displace their unfocused  aggression onto a subordinate group (ex: Hitler)

B. Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination

i. Stereotypes: oversimplified ideas about groups of people ii. Prejudice: refers to thoughts and feelings about those groups iii. Discrimination: refers to actions towards them

iv. Racism: a type of prejudice that involves set beliefs about a specific racial group  

v. Racial steering: real estate agents direct prospective homeowners  toward or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race vi. White privilege: refers to the fact that dominant groups often  accept their experience as the normative experience

C. Theories

i. Conflict theory

1. Intersection theory: suggests we cannot separate the effects  of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and other  


ii. Prejudice

1. Culture of prejudice: refers to the theory that prejudice is  embedded in our culture

D. Intergroup relationships

i. Genocide: the deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually  subordinate) group, the most toxic intergroup relationship ii. Expulsion: refers to a subordinate group being forced, by a  dominant group, to leave a certain area or country

iii. Segregation: refers to the physical separation of two groups,  particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions iv. Pluralism: represented by the ideal of the United States as a “salad  bowl”: a great mixture of different cultures where each culture  retains its own identity and yet adds to the flavor of the whole v. Assimilation: describes the process by which a minority individual or group gives up its own identity by taking on the characteristics of  the dominant culture

vi. Amalgamation: the process by which a minority group and a  majority group combine to form a new group

E. Race and ethnicity in the U.S.


i. Native Americans

1. Indian Removal Act of 1930

2. Indian Appropriation Acts funded further removals

3. Dawes Act of 1887 reversed policy of isolation Native  Americans on reservations, instead forcing them onto  

individual properties that were intermingled with white  settlers, thereby reducing their capacity for power as a group ii. African Americans

1. Came from slavery

2. Barack Obama

iii. Asian Americans

1. Refugee Act of 1980

2. WW2 expulsion  

3. Model minority: stereotype applied to a minority group that  is seen as reaching significant educational, professional, and  socioeconomic levels without challenging the existing  


iv. Hispanic Americans

1. Response to the need for cheap agricultural labor

2. Debate currently

v. Arab Americans

1. Came to escape persecution and to make a better life 2. Mistrust, misinformation, and deeply entrenched beliefs  3. Stereotyping and prejudice define entire group

vi. White Ethnic Americans

1. Came in search of better life

2. WW1 and WW2 anti-German sentiment

11. CHAPTER 14

A. What is marriage/family?

i. Marriage: legally recognized social contract between two people,  traditionally based on a sexual relationship and implying a  permanence of the union

ii. Family: socially recognized group (usually joined by blood, marriage, or adoption) that forms an emotional connection and serves as an  economic unit of society

iii. Family of orientation: family into which a person is born iv. Family of procreation: family formed through marriage  


v. Cohabitation: when a couple shares a residence but not a marriage, becoming more acceptable in recent years

vi. Monogamy: married to 1 person at a time

vii. Polygamy: being married to more than one person at a time viii. Polygyny: man being married to more than one woman at the same  time

ix. Polyandry: woman married to more than one man at a time x. Bigamy: act of entering into marriage while still married to another  person, considered a felony in most states, often common in  Mormons

xi. Bilateral descent: pattern of tracing kinship

xii. Kinship: one’s traceable ancestry, can be based on blood, marriage, or adoption

xiii. Unilateral descent: tracing through one parent only xiv. Patrilineal: follows father’s line only

xv. Matrilineal: follows mother’s side only

xvi. Ambilineal: follows either father’s or mother’s side only, depending  on situation  

xvii. Patrilocal residence: system where it is customary for the wife to  live with(or near) her husband’s blood relatives

xviii. Matrilocal residence: husband to live with wife’s blood relatives xix. Family life cycle: the set of predictable steps and patterns families  experience over time

xx. Family life course: recognizes the events that occur in the lives of  families but views them as parting terms of a fluid course rather  than in consecutive stages

B. Variations in family life

i. Nuclear family: married parents and children as one nucleus, or  core, of the group

ii. Extended family: can include aunts, uncles and cousins in the same  home


iii. Intimate partner violence (IPV): domestic violence including  married, unmarried, cohabiting, and same sex couples

iv. Shaken baby syndrome: describes a group of medical symptoms  such as brain swelling and retinal hemorrhage resulting from  forcefully shaking or causing impact to an infant’s head

12. CHAPTER 15

A. Sociological approach to religion

i. Religious experience: conviction or sensation that one is connected  to “the divine”

ii. Religious beliefs: specific ideas that members of a particular faith  hold to be true (ex: Jesus was son of God, reincarnation, etc.) iii. Religious rituals: behaviors or practices that are either required or  

expected of the members of a particular group (ex: bar mitzvah or  confession)

B. World religions

i. Cults: new religious groups, new religious movement (NRM) ii. Sect: small and relatively new group (ex: Methodists and Baptists  started this way)

iii. Established sects: denominations (ex: Amish, Jehovah’s witnesses  between sect and denomination)

iv. Denomination: a large, mainstream religious organization, but it  does not claim to be official or state sponsored

v. Ecclesia: originally referring to a political assembly of citizens in  ancient Athens, now refers to a congregation

vi. Hinduism: oldest in the world, third largest

vii. Buddhism: founded by Siddhartha Gautama, meditated under  sacred tree and vowed not to leave until enlightened, became  Buddha aka the enlightened one


viii. Confucianism: developed by Kung Fu-Tzu and taught self-disciple,  respect for authority and tradition, and jen (treating everyone  kindly), some consider it more of a social system b/c it focuses on  sharing wisdom about moral practices but doesn’t involve any type  of worship or have formal objects

ix. Taoism: purpose of life is inner peace and harmony, “way” or  “path”, founder Laozi, virtues of compassion and moderation,  spiritual reality, order of the universe, yin-yang

x. Judaism: worship one god, promise relationship with Yahweh, Torah,  Talmud is collection of sacred Jewish oral interpretation of the Torah, emphasize moral behavior and action in this world as opposed to  beliefs or personal salvation in the next world

xi. Islam: monotheistic following of Muhammad, not a divine being but  a prophet, following called Muslims, peace and submission, Koran, 5 pillars: 1. Allah is only god and Muhammad the prophet 2. Daily  prayer 3. Helping those in poverty 4. Fasting as a spiritual practice  5. Pilgrimage to holy center of Mecca

xii. Christianity: largest in the world, 2000 years old form Palestine,  Jesus taught about treating others as you would want to be treated,  Bible, son of god (messiah) would return to save god’s followers,  believe Jesus was messiah, one god, holy trinity: father, son, and  holy spirit, one foundation is 10 commandments

C. Religion in the U.S.  

i. Liberation theology: began within Roman Catholic church in 50s and 60s in Latin America, and combines Christian principles with  political activism

ii. Megachurch: a Christian church that has a very large congregation  averaging more than 2,000 people who attend regular weekly  services

13. CHAPTER 16

A. Education around the world

i. Education: social institution through which a society’s children are  taught basic academic knowledge, learning skills, and cultural  norms  

ii. Formal education: describes the learning of academic facts and  concepts through a formal curriculum

iii. Informal education: describes learning about cultural values, norms, and expected behaviors by participating in a society (ex: at home)


iv. Cultural transmission: refers to the way people come to learn the  values, beliefs, and social norms of their culture

v. Universal access: people’s equal ability to participate in an  education system

B. Theoretical perspectives on education

i. Social placement: the use of education to improve one’s social  standing

ii. Sorting: classifying students based on academic merit or potential iii. Cultural capital: cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as  currency that helps one navigate a culture

iv. Hidden curriculum: type of nonacademic knowledge that one learns  through informal learning and cultural transmission

v. Tracking: formalized sorting system that places students on “tracks” (advanced versus low achievers) that perpetuate inequalities vi. Credentialism: embodies the emphasis on certificates or degrees to  show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications

C. Issues in education

i. Head Start Program: was developed to give low-income students an opportunity to make up the pre-school deficit, provides academic centered preschool students of low socioeconomic status

ii. No Child Left Behind Act: requires states to test students in  designated grades to determine federal funding eligibility  

14. CHAPTER 18

A. Economic systems

i. Economy refers to the social institution through which a society’s  resources (goods and services) are managed

ii. Commodities, or goods, are the physical objects we find, grow, or  make in order to meet our needs and the needs of others

iii. Services are activities that benefit people

B. Agricultural revolution

i. Bartering is exchanging one form of goods or services for another  ii. Money refers to an object that a society agrees to assign a value to  it so it can be exchanged for payment

iii. Mercantilism is an economic policy based on accumulating silver  and gold by controlling colonial and foreign markets through taxes  and other charges


C. Industrial revolution

i. Subsistence farming is when people produced only enough to feed  themselves and pay their taxes

D. Capitalism

i. Capitalism is an economic system in which there is private  ownership and an impetus to produce profit and wealth

E. Socialism

i. Socialism is an economic system in which there is government  ownership of goods and their production, with an impetus to share  work and wealth equally among the members of a society

ii. Market socialism describes a subtype of socialism that adopts  certain traits of capitalism, like allowing limited private ownership  or consulting market demands

iii. Mutualism is when individuals and cooperative groups would  exchange products with one another on the basis of mutually  satisfactory contracts

F. Convergence theory

i. Explains that as a country’s economy grows, its societal  organization changes to become more like that of an industrialized  society

G. Theoretical perspectives on the economy

i. Functionalist

1. Recession: when there are two or more consecutive quarters  of economic decline

2. Depression: a sustained recession across several economic  sectors

ii. Symbolic interactionist

1. Career inheritance: children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents

H. Globalization and the economy

i. Global cities: cities that headquarter multinational corporations,  exercise significant international political influence, host  headquarters of international nongovernmental organizations, host  influential media, and host advanced communication and  transportation infrastructure

ii. Global assembly lines: where products are assembled over the  course of several international transactions


iii. Global commodity chains: where internationally integrated  economic links connect workers and corporations for the purpose of manufacture and marketing

iv. Xenophobia: an illogical fear and even hatred of foreigners and  foreign goods

I. Polarization in the workforce

i. Outsourcing: when jobs are contracted to an outside source, often  in another country

ii. Automation: workers being replaced by technology

iii. Polarization: when the differences between low-end and high-end  jobs becomes greater and the number of people in the middle  levels decreases

J. Poverty

i. Underemployment: a state in which a person accepts a lower  paying, lower status job than his or her education and experience  qualifies him or her to perform

ii. Structural unemployment: when there is a societal level of  disjuncture between people seeking jobs and the jobs that are  available

15. CHAPTER 19

A. The social construction of health

i. Medical sociology is the systematic study of how humans manage  issues of health and illness, disease and disorders, and health care  for both the sick and healthy

ii. The stigmatization of illness often has the greatest effect on the  patient and the kind of care he/she receives

iii. Contested illnesses are those that are questioned or questionable  by some medical professionals

B. Global health

i. Social epidemiology is the study of the causes and distribution of  diseases

C. Health in the US

i. Black Americans, Indian Americans, and Alaskan natives received  inferior care than Caucasian Americans for about 40% of measures ii. Medicalization refers to the process by which previously normal  aspects of life are redefined as deviant and needing medical  attention to remedy


D. Mental health and disability

i. Anxiety disorders are the most common; feelings of worry and  fearfulness that last for months at a time

ii. Mood disorders are the second most common mental disorders iii. Personality disorders

iv. Disability refers to a reduction in one’s ability to perform everyday  tasks

v. Impairment describes physical limitations, while reserving the term  disability to refer to the social limitation

vi. Stigmatization means that their identity is spoiled, labeled as  different, discriminated against, and sometimes even shunned vii. Stereotype interchangeability: when stereotypes don’t change, they get recycled for application to a new subordinate group

E. Comparative health and medicine

i. Public health care: government funded

ii. Private health care: privately funded

iii. Underinsured: people who pay at least 10% of their income on  health care costs not covered by insurance or, for low-income  adults, those whose medical expenses or deductibles are at least  5% of their income

iv. Individual mandate: requires everyone to have insurance coverage  by 2014 or pay a penalty

v. Socialized medicine system: government owns and runs the system vi. Universal health care: a system that guarantees health care  coverage for everyone

F. Theoretical perspectives

i. Sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior  for the sick and for those who take care of them

ii. Legitimation: a physician must certify that the illness is genuine iii. Commodification of health: the changing of something not generally thought of as a commodity into something that can be bought and  sold in a marketplace

iv. Medicalization of deviance refers to the process that changes “bad” behavior into “sick” behavior

v. Demedicalization: “sick” behavior is normalized again

16. CHAPTER 21

A. Collective behavior


i. Non-institutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily  engage

ii. Crowd: fairly large number of people in close proximity iii. Casual crowds: consist of people who are in the same place at the  same time but aren’t really interacting  

iv. Conventional crowds: those who come together for a scheduled  even occurring regularly (like religious service)

v. Expressive crowds are people who join together to express emotion, often at funerals, weddings, or the like

vi. Acting crowds focus on a specific goal or actions, such as a protest  movement or a riot

vii. Mass: relatively large number of people with a common interest,  though they may not be in close proximity

viii. Public: unorganized, relatively diffused group of people who share  ideas, such as the libertarian political party

ix. Emergent norm theory: asserts that, in this circumstance, people  perceive and respond to the crowd situation with their particular  (individual) set of norms, which may change as the crowd  experience evolves

x. Value-added theory: a perspective within the functionalist tradition  based on the idea that several conditions must be in place for  collective behavior to occur

xi. Assembling perspective: another system for understanding  collective behavior that credited individuals in crowds as rational  beings

B. Social movements

i. Social movements are purposeful, organized groups striving to work toward a common social goal

ii. Reform movements: seek to change something specific about the  social structure

iii. Revolutionary movements: seek to completely change every aspect of society

iv. Religious/redemptive movements: are “meaning seeking”, and their goal is to provoke inner change or spiritual growth in individuals v. Alternate movements: are focused on self-improvement and limited, specific changes to individual beliefs and behavior

vi. Resistance movements seek to prevent or undo change to the  social structure

vii. Resource mobilization theory: explains movement success in terms  of its ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals


viii. Social movement industry: the collection of the social movement  organizations that are striving toward similar goals

ix. Social movement sector: the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals x. Social movement organization: a single social movement group xi. Diagnostic framing: when the social problem is stated in a clear,  easily understood manner

xii. Prognostic framing: when social movements state a clear solution  and a means of implementation  

xiii. Motivational framing: a call to action

xiv. Frame alignment process: using bridging, amplification, extension,  and transformation as an ongoing and intentional means of  recruiting participants to a movement

xv. New social movement theory: theory that attempts to explain the  proliferation of postindustrial and postmodern movements that are  difficult to understand using traditional social movement theories C. Social change

i. Social change: the change in a society created through social  movements as well as through external factors like environmental  shifts or technological innovations

ii. Modernization: the process that increases the amount of  specialization and differentiation of structure in societies  


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