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UM / International Studies / INTL 101 / Three main characteristic that human rights theoretically have.

Three main characteristic that human rights theoretically have.

Three main characteristic that human rights theoretically have.


School: University of Michigan
Department: International Studies
Course: Introduction to International Studies
Professor: Greta uehling
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: International and Studies
Cost: 50
Name: International Studies 101 Midterm 2 Study guide
Description: Modules 3,4,5,6
Uploaded: 04/15/2018
26 Pages 8 Views 10 Unlocks

International Studies 101 Final Exam Study Guide 

Three main characteristic that human rights theoretically have.

Module 3: Human Rights and Humanitarian Action 

Human Rights 

∙ Human Rights  Rights we have by virtue of being human o Recognizes the inherent dignity of every person regardless of  national origin or any other characteristic  

o Represent a way of asserting the moral primacy of the individual o Flow of a very powerful idea

∙ Moral and Political Meanings of “right”

o Moral

 Rectitude  A standard of conduct – namely the right

thing to do

o Political

 Entitlement  Someone has a right & has a claim to enjoy that right

∙ 3 Main Characteristics that Human Rights Theoretically have: o Equal  One is human or not

o Inalienable  Cannot be taken away  

o Universal  Held universally by all human beings

∙ 2 Narratives About Where Human Rights Come From

Where do human rights come from?

o 1) Long Dureé Approach to Human Rights

 Ancient religious and philosophical traditions

 Before 1945 there were many campaigns to shift human  rights ideas

∙ Anti-Slavery Movements

∙ Congo Reform Association

∙ Women’s Suffrage

∙ League of Nation’s efforts

o 2) Post-1945 Human Rights System  UN Human Rights System  Promote and protect human rights through international  law, organizations, and institutions

 Created because of unprecedented destruction of WWII ∙ Where do human rights come from?

o WWII  Due to unprecedented civilian deaths and town  destruction

o 1941 Atlantic Charter  

 Agreement between Churchill and FDR renouncing  

intentions for territorial acquisition and committing to:

∙ Restoration of self-government to those deprived

∙ Disarmed aggressor nations

Three elements characterize the ideal of humanitarian action.

∙ Global cooperation for better global social and  

economic conditions

o Significance of United Nations

 “Declaration by United Nations” – signed by 26 countries  Fight against German aggression

∙ Added a common agenda to preserve human rights  

based on Roosevelt’s four freedoms  We also discuss several other topics like in eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are composed of _____.

o Freedom of Speech

o Freedom from Fear

o Freedom of Religion

o Freedom from Want

∙ Article 1(3)

o Promoting and encouraging respect for human  

rights and for fundamental freedoms all  

without distinction as to race, sex, language, or


o United Nations Declaration of Human Rights is First  Document to Outline Human Rights in  

∙ UN Economic and Social Council

o To work toward social and economic cooperation amongst  nations for:

 Higher living standards

 Employment

 Economic and social progress

 Universal respect for fundamental freedoms for everyone  regardless of race, sex, and religion

∙ UN Commission on Human rights

o Comprised of diverse, elite, western-educated men and women  o Created by Universal Declaration of Human Rights

∙ Drafters of Universal Declaration of Human Rights  San Francisco  1945

o Eleanor Roosevelt  Chair of Drafting Committee

 Guided tense powers to successful agreement

 Wrote articles of UDHR

o Peng-Chun Cheng  Vice-Chair of Drafting Committee   Able to explain Chinese human rights to resolve stalemate  negotiations using Confucian doctrine Don't forget about the age old question of ast1150

 Philosophical leader

o Rene Cassin  Key Member of Drafting Committee

 Significantly informed by personal response to holocaust  Put UDHR into articles

∙ Universal Declaration of Human Rights – UDHRDon't forget about the age old question of donald ruch

o Not legally binding  Recommendation to states

o Defines human rights

o Article 1  Origin of Rights

 Everybody everywhere is born free and equal

o Article 2-21  Civil and Political Rights

o Article 22-27  Economic, social and cultural rights

o Article 28  Communitarian/Solidarity

 All governments of world have duty to pursue UDHR values o Article 29-30  Duties to the Community

 No twisting words

∙ 2 Separate Legally Binding Treaties – Available Separately  o International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights &  International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights  Obligated nations to monitor progress on implemented  rights

 Submit reports to UN for review

∙ Available for signing separately because  

market economies of West emphasized civil  

and political rights while the centrally planned  

economies of Eastern Bloc emphasized  

economic, social, and cultural rights

∙ For Maximum Signatories

∙ How Do Human Rights Work  

o UDHR not binding  Recommendation to States  

o Tasks of Human Rights Commission

 Encourage states to implement human rights  

 Provided aid to help states draft national laws

 No investigation

 No condemnation

o Oversees Human Rights Through:

 Specific Procedures

 Geographic Procedures

 Thematic Procedures

 Universal Periodic Review

 Periodic Review of All 193 UN Member States

o Other Main UN Mechanisms for Implementing/Monitoring  Application of Human Rights

 UN Human Rights Council

∙ Complaint Procedures

∙ Special Procedures

∙ Part of GA of UN If you want to learn more check out ethnic studies uw madison

 UN Human Rights Committee

∙ Monitors compliance with ICCPR

∙ Periodic Reporting and complaint procedure

 Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights

∙ Rapid Response

∙ Puts representatives in the field

 International Criminal Court

∙ Weaknesses/Criticisms of Human Rights

o Selective

 Writing involved only elites – not concerns of ordinary  citizens

o May be used as a political tool

o Cultural Relativism  

 Human Right’s Western Origins

 Places too much emphasis on individual freedom at  

expense of no-Western beliefs and values

o Western Imperialism in Disguise

o A General Lack of Political Will

 National Self-Interest

Humanitarian Action 

∙ 3 Elements that Characterize the Ideal of Humanitarian Action  Assistance to all based on severity of need

o Neutrality

 Ability to provide aid while remaining impartial in political  conflict

o Impartiality

 Aid must be provided to those in need without  


o Independence

 Humanitarian organizations must make decisions  

independently of the governments/organizations funding  them

∙ International Committee for the Red Cross – ICRC If you want to learn more check out mississippian tribe religion

o Oldest humanitarian institution - 1836

o Set up 3 Principles

o First non-State actor to receive UN observer status  Ability to  participate in UN activities

o Urge for protection and respect of human rights and have  implemented increased protections in the Geneva Conferences ∙ “Complex Emergency”

o Situations of disrupted livelihoods and threats to life as a  combination of internal conflict, large-scale displacements  people, mass famine, and fragile economic, political, and social  institutions

∙ Primary Types of Actors in Humanitarian Response

o Governments

 Strengths

∙ Allow access for aid

∙ Provide Funding for aid

 Weaknesses

∙ Not always proper economic and/or political  

conditions to take action

o Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGO)

 Strengths

∙ Coordinate and Implement with government funding  Weakness

∙ Each member nation responsible for different  

mandate  Coordination and Implementation  


o Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO)

 Most discretion in choice of case to take action We also discuss several other topics like buad 280 usc

 Strengths

∙ Quick Response

∙ Specialized cultural knowledge

 Weaknesses

∙ Poor Accountability/Commitment length

o Businesses

 Strengths

∙ Can form cooperative relationships

 Weaknesses

∙ Motives not truly humanitarian – For profit

o Celebrities, Volunteers, Religious Congregations

∙ Most Significant Challenges Humanitarian Action Faces o Challenge: Accessing Survivors

 Domestic thwarting of aid delivery to achieve strategic  goal

∙ Internal conflict inefficiently redirects aid delivery

∙ IE: Bosnian-Serb War

o Much of aid intended for survivors was taken  

by Bosnian Serbs

o Led to constant siege and humanitarian  


 Solution: Military Action

o Challenge: Protecting Aid Workers

 Violent citizens’/groups confusion between who is military  and who is aid worker

 Solution: Access through “Corridors”

∙ Aid  Combatants Helped  Conflict Prolonged  More Victims  HUMANITARIAN DILEMMA

∙ Try to stop the problem  Problem resurfaces

o Challenge: Responsibility Sharing

 1951 Convention on Status of Refugees specified that  refugees cannot be returned

 Response: Dublin Regulations I, II, & III

∙ Country of first arrival is country responsible for  

accepting or rejecting asylum claim

 IE: EU-Turkey Agreement

∙ Countries unable to sustain refugees such as Greece, send refugees to Turkey, then Turkey returns them to  

home countries  

∙ Refugee vs Asylum Seeker vs Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) o Refugee

 Person with a legitimate fear of persecution who is outside  their country, unable to gain its protection, within a sphere  of international responsibility

 Seek asylum while still in home country

o Asylum Seeker

 Seek asylum once out of origin country and in new country o IDP

 Formally removed from home but still in home country – No border crossing

∙ Media Involvement in Humanitarian Field

o Pros

 Reports issues with depth and speed

 Stimulates policy dialogue and motivation to send aid  Raises awareness and public consciousness of issues

o Cons

 Can distort ideals

 Highlights some crises above others

 Misrepresents actors

∙ “West to the rescue” – 70%+ aid from within own  


 Promotes Competition

∙ R2P – Responsibility to Protect – 2005 World Summit

o A global political commitment endorsed by UN to prevent  genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against  humanity

o 3 Pillars  Chapter VII of UN Charter

1) State has responsibility to provide for citizens  

2) International Community must assist them  

3) When all fails the international community must protect  citizens regardless of state’s government position

∙ 6 Criteria To Invoke R2P

o Just Cause

 Severity  Mass atrocity involved

o Right Intention

 Primary intention to alleviate suffering without outside  interests

o Final Resort

 All other options deemed ineffective

o Legitimate Authority

 Authority rests with UNSC and depends on their decision  weakness of R2P

∙ Often gridlock and disagreement

o Proportional Means

 Minimum sufficient done to effect change

o Reasonable Prospect

 Likely to make things better than worse

∙ Using Digital Technology to Resolve Challenges to Humanitarian Action o Strengths

 Enable idea-sharing and global decision making

 Overcome access barriers and resource gaps

∙ Data collection and delivery – UAV’s

o Limitations

 Volume of information

 Validity of Information

 Privacy and security of survivors

Module 4: Global Environment and Global Health 

Global Environment 

∙ Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer – 1989 o First treaty to address an environmental problem at the  international, regulatory level

o Considered national differences in responsibility and financial  accountability

o International cooperation - 14 years much faster than  

cooperation on climate change because:

 The problem was so visible  

∙ Tangible in a way climate change was not

∙ Public Convinces of Imminent Risk

 A feasible solution existed

∙ Phase out the production and consumption of ozone

depleting substances

o Climate more complex

 Change would be seen in one generation

∙ Those bearing costs of phase-out would see results

∙ Why Less Developed Countries Are Disproportionately Affected by  Climate Change  

o Economies more reliant on agriculture

o Lack capital for technological innovations

 Sea Defenses unaffordable  

∙ Proxy Measures of Past Climate Change

o Tree Rings and Pollen Percentages in Lake Beds

 Indicate that current temperatures are warmest and rate of magnitude of warming are greatest in past 150 years

o Ice Cores in Greenland and Antarctica  

 Provide estimates of both temperature and atmospheric  greenhouse gases from past

∙ Indicate strong correlation between temperature and  atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations

 Provide information about volcanic eruptions and variations in solar energy

∙ Major Policy Milestones in Addressing Climate Change o 1) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change –  UNFCCC - 1992

 Agreed at UN Conference on Environment and  

Development (UNCED)

 Provided framework for global action on the issue

 Sought to replicate apparent success of ozone regime  Goal to avoid dangerous interference in the climate system ∙ Aimed to stabilize concentrations of GHG in  


 Established Principle of “Common but differentiated  


∙ Recognized that developing countries were not yet in a position to assume their own obligations

o 2) Kyoto Protocol - 1997

 38 Industrialized nations legally bound to reduce GHG  emissions by at least 5%

∙ Fixed differentiated targets for industrialized  


 100 Developing countries exempt

o 3) COP15 – Copenhagen 2009

 One of the biggest failures of multilateral environmental  decision making

 Aimed to develop post-Kyoto path for climate policy

 No legal treaty or emissions reductions targets created  Divide between global north and south on responsibility of  reduction

o 4) Paris Agreement – 2015

 Aims to limit total warming well below 2 degrees Celsius –  ambitiously to 1.5 degrees Celsius

 Industrialized countries will provide $100 billion in climate  finance for LDC’s transition away from fossil fuels

 Financial support from industrialized nations for loss and  damage caused by climate change

 5-year periodic review mechanism to track progress and  enforce commitments

∙ Relation between Power and Knowledge with Regard to Climate  Change

o Scientific knowledge used by all actors in climate governance to  advance and defend their position and to confer legitimacy upon  it

o Scientists act as “knowledge brokers”  Translators of abstract  scientific findings into policy messages  Intermediary between  lab and law

o Scientists dependent on government money for research ∙ Global North-South Politics in Climate Change

o Must differentiate “survival” emissions of South & “luxury”  emissions of North

 Climate change largely caused by wealthy industrialized  parts of world

 LDC’s suffer most of consequences

o UNFCCC  “Common but Differentiated Responsibility”  Everybody has a responsibility to act but some have more  than others

o LDC Responsibilities

 Conditional on receipt of aid and technology transfer from  more developed nations

∙ Provide side payments  Inducements to cooperate  

in tackling problem to which they have contributed  

very little

∙ Sought “additional” forms of assistance to existing  

budgets targeted for other developmental priorities

o Developed countries perceive that rapidly industrializing  competitors will free-ride on sacrifices made

 “Carbon Leakage”  Industrialists will relocate to areas not  covered by Kyoto Protocol  

 Byrd-Hagel Resolution

∙ US acceptance of Kyoto conditional on agreement  

from leading LDC’s to reduce emissions

∙ Aimed at causing maximum division, stalling  

progress, and tying US negotiators by showing  

Senate would not ratify anything without LDC  


o Scientists from LDC’s poorly represented in expert bodies o LDC’s disproportionately vulnerable to effects of climate change o LDC governments lack capacity to attend/influence negotiating  processes dominated by developed countries

∙ Current Markers of Climate Change

o Increasing global average temperature

o Decreasing sea ice

o Sea Level Rise

o Increasing surface temperature

o Less Precipitation

∙ Natural Causes of Climate Change

o Variations in radiation from Sun

o Volcanic Activity  Dust and ash block sun

o El Niño  Natural ocean cycles  

∙ 1990 IPCC Assessment vs 2013 IPCC Assessment

o 1990 IPCC Assessment

 “Unequivocal detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect  is not likely for a decade or more”

 States the problem with uncertainty of the answer

o 2013 IPCC Assessment

 “Extremely likely, 95%+ probability that human influence  has been the dominant cause of the mid 20th century”

 Clarifies humanity’s choices  Provides definite answer and reasoning

∙ Lays out what will happen without change

∙ Paris Climate Accords - 2015

o Main Features

 Target  Keep Global temperature increase to less than 2  degrees Celsius

 Individual nationally-determined commitments to reduce  CO2 emissions

 Progress reports every 5 years

 Preservation and expansion of forests

 Financing of mitigation and adaptation for LDC transition  away from fossil fuels

 Financial support from industrialized countries for loss and  damage caused by climate change

 Transparent reporting

∙ Financing Mitigation and Adaptation in Addressing Climate Change o Must adapt and fix what humans have already destroyed o To protect livelihood and food security in many LDC’s

o OCED’s have resources to help LDC’s limit emissions

∙ Other Developments that are Promising for Reducing Climate Change o Renewable Energy Progress

o Decreasing coal production – not economically viable

o US Cities and States continuing to follow Paris Accords

∙ Top Emitting Countries

o 1) China

o 2) USA

o 3) India

o 4) Russia

∙ Major Energy Producers Response to Climate Change  

o Reduction and elimination of coal production  

o Renewable Energy Investment increases  

o Trying to get more output now before non-renewables peak ∙ Major Contributors to CO2 Emissions

 Cement

 Gas

 Oil

 Coal

Global Health  

∙    Changes in Health that Accompany Changes in Wealth

o Non-Communicable diseases gradually replace pandemics of  communicable diseases as main cause of death with increase in  wealth

∙    Biomedical Model vs Social Epidemiological Model

o Biological Model of Health

 Emphasizes individual-level determinants of  

health/Biological and behavioral factors

∙    Genetics, Individual Behaviors, Direct Exposure to  

Harmful Particles and Organisms

 Marked population differences in health status between  countries suggest that individual factors alone cannot  

explain health outcomes

o Social Epidemiology Model of Health

∙    Economic, social, and political determinants of health

∙    Factors contributing to health that are external to the


o Access to Health Care, Social Norms and  

Customs, Poverty, Gender, Environment

∙    Key Indicators of Population Health  Health outcomes of a group of  individuals and distributions of such outcomes

o Mortality Rate

 Estimate of the proportion of the population that dies  during a specified time period  

o Adult Mortality Rate

 Probability of dying between ages of 15 and 60 per 1,000  people per year  

o Life Expectancy at Birth

 Average number of years a newborn is expected to live if  mortality patterns at time of birth persist throughout  

child’s life  

o Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)

 Average number of years a person can expect to live in full  health by taking into account the years the person is in  

less than full health due to disease/injury

o Maternal Mortality Ratio

 Annual number of female deaths from any cause related to pregnancy/childbirth or within 42 days of abortion  

o Neonatal Mortality Rate

 Number of registered deaths in neonatal period – first 28  completed days of life – per 1,000 live births in a year

o Infant Mortality Rate

 Probability of a child born in a specific year/time period  dying before reaching age of one if age-specific mortality  rates persist

o Under-Five Mortality Rate

 Probability of a child born in specific year dying before age  of five if mortality rates persist

∙ Burden of Disease

o Impact of a health problem in a particular area or for a specific  group  

o Typically measured by:

 Morbidity

∙ State of having a disease

 Mortality

∙ A fatal outcome of death

 Prevalence

∙ Number of affected persons present in the population at a specific time divided by the number of persons  

in total population at that time  “Point Prevalence”

∙ Measures current burden of disease in a population

∙ Positive correlation with incidence

 Incidence

∙ Number of new cases of a disease that occur during  

a specified time period in a population at risk for  

developing the disease

∙ Measures current risk of developing the disease in  

those not currently affected

∙ Positive correlation with prevalence

 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates

∙ Estimate of proportion of a population that dies  

during a specified time period as a result of a specific


 Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)

∙ Sum of years of potential life lost due to premature  

mortality and years of productive life lost due to  


∙ Measures difference between current situation and  

ideal situation where everyone lives to age of  

standard life expectancy and in perfect health

∙ 1 DALY = 1 Healthy Year of Life

∙ Demographic and Epidemiological Transitions

o Epidemiological Transition

 A population moves from a period with high and fluctuating mortality rates to lower and more stable rates

∙ Transition from death largely due to famine and  

infectious disease to death largely due to chronic,  

non-communicable diseases

o Demographic Transition

 Shift in population from high levels of fertility and mortality with a low rate of population growth  To low levels of  

fertility and mortality with low rate of population growth

∙ Improving health outcomes for infants and young  


∙ Shift in age composition of population  Aging

o Decreased mortality rates  Increase in  

population growth rate and youth After time  

fertility declines  Population growth slows until


∙ Socioeconomic advances  Greater educational and  

employment opportunities for women  Desire for  

fewer children

o Implications

 Socioeconomic gains positively influence population health ∙ Investments in living conditions, sanitation, nutrition, and hygiene  Decrease of infectious disease burden

 Reduced mortality  Infant and Child Mortality Falls  

 Declines in Fertility and Population Growth Rates 

Further investments needed to support  

care/education of younger members

∙ Fertility Rates Decline  Aging Population and Fewer  

Young Adults Entering Workforce  Governments  

Challenged with Caring for Larger Aging Population

∙ Morbidity vs Mortality

o Morbidity

 State of having a disease

o Mortality

 Outcome of death from disease

∙ Earliest Negative Outcomes of Globalization

o Dissemination/Spread of disease at outset of globalization in 15th Century

∙ International Spread of Disease Impact on Europe

o The Black Death

 Reached Europe by ship from China

 Spread rapidly around Europe from major ports

 60% of European Population/50 million people died

 Disease  Recovery Process  Development

∙ Shortage of labor  Creation of more efficient  

production methods and labor-saving devices

∙ Death of Many  Greater wealth per capita and  

spending power for survivors

∙ Cooperation on Health in Spite of Geopolitical Tensions o Provides template for other forms of cooperation

o IE: Avian Influenza/ “Bird Flu”

 Health officials in Middle East, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan  worked together to closely prevent further transmission

∙ Continued during outbreaks of violence in 2006 and  


 Biosocial Analysis

o Biological and social parts of health are mutually constitutive and fundamentally connected parts of a complex whole

o Success and failure of interactions due to both social and  biological factors

o Biosocial Global Health Analysis Goals:

 Structure planning and design of programs

 Anticipate unintended consequences of interventions

 Understand different contexts in which care happens

 Mozambique and Thailand Biosocial Elements of Disease Response o Mozambique  No access to Antiretrovirals

 Social norm of family food sharing

∙ HIV patients that needed nutrients didn’t get enough  

 Affected patients still must earn income

∙ Treatment requires rest

o Income value support packages  

o Thailand  Death

 Socially desirable to die at home surrounded by family and  friends

 People don’t get taken off life support due to Debt of Life o IN BOTH COUNTRIES  Treatment is impeded due to social norms  in some way

 Best Way to Understand the Relationship Between the  Biological and Social Dimensions of Disease  NEED ANSWER  “Therapeutic Citizenship”

o When a country is unable to offer public services  NGO’s/IGO’s  intervene to provide aid

o Give people what they need regardless of if they can afford it o Prevents unintended consequences

 Repurposing of ICU’s in Thailand 

 Thailand’s View on Use of Opioids to Control Pain 

o Strongly against public availability of Opiates 

 Thai Medical System Addresses Mistrust of Foreign Intervention o Mistrust of Foreign Emphasis on opiates

 Local Movement

o Fear of Legal Repercussions

 Need another source of power/protection  Doctors

o Fear of Addiction – Escape from Reality

 Focus only on terminal cancer

o Value of Pain

 Focus only on sever pain

Module 5: Human Development 

Politics and Development – Anne Pitcher Lecture Slides  

 Development = Growth  Conventional definition

o Assumptions in Literature

 When an economy grows  Everyone benefits

 Growth is linear

 Trajectory of growth is generally upward  

 Detroit’s Development Fit Classic Definition until 1960 o Big Boom between 1880 and 1930

o After 1960 very few new commercial or manufacturing firms built o 2017  Thousands of abandoned buildings, homes, and factories  New Approaches to Development

o Detroit  New Thinking  Growth is necessary but not sufficient  Other Aspects of Development

∙ Poverty Alleviation

∙ Inequality

∙ Life Expectancy

∙ Millennium Development Goals  

 Millennium Development Goals (MDG)  

o 8 Goals, 18 Targets, 48 Indicators  

 Goal  Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

∙ Target  Halve the population with income below  

$1.25 per day

∙ Indicators  Proportion of population below $1.25 per day (PPP)

 Goal  Achieve Universal Primary Education

 Goal  Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women  ∙ Target  Eliminate gender disparity in primary and  

secondary education in all levels

∙ Indicators  Ratios of girls to boys in primary,  

secondary, and tertiary education  

 Goal  Reduce Child Mortality

 Goal  Improve Maternal Health

 Goal  Reduction of Diseases

 Goal  Ensure Environmental Sustainability

∙ Target  Halve proportion of people without access to sage drinking water

o Indicator  Proportion of population using  

improved drinking water  

∙ Target  Achieve significant improvement in lives of  

at least 100 million slum dwellers

o Indicator  Proportion of urban population living

in slums

 Goal  Global Partnership for Development

 MDG’s Goals Reached  MDG’s didn’t just identify problems, but they  set achievable goals and were able to reach them.  

o 2010

 Proportion of people with income less than $1.25 per day  half of 1990 value

 89% of people have access to safe drinking water

 Percentage of slum dwellers down from 39% to 33% of  global population

∙ 200 Million People less

o Gender equality in primary education  

o Enrollment increase in Africa

o Percent of people receiving ARV therapy for HIV/AIDS increased  o 2015  Sustainable Development Goals Adopted  

 Build on MDG’s  

 More comprehensive

∙ 17 Goals

 Contemporary Development Dilemmas in Africa

o Consistent growth across the continent  

 BUT 

∙ Growing Urbanization

∙ Widening Inequality

∙ Persistent Informality

o South Africa has all 3

o South Africa

 1994  Democratic government under African National  Congress

∙ Highly committed to redressing racial discrimination  

practiced by previous apartheid regime

∙ Provided 4 million houses

∙ 85% of population now have access to water and  


 Remaining Challenges

∙ Urbanization occuring at faster rate than can provide  services  

∙ Services are expensive and inconsistent

∙ South Africa is one of most unequal societies in world o Wealth concentrated at top

∙ Expenditures per student in private education sector  is $1400 – public Secto is $140

∙ Approximately 1.9 million people live in backyard  


 Diepsloot – Informal Shacks

∙ 1994  For informal settlers who moved from  

somewhere else

∙ 5000 formal housing units

∙ 27,000 Shacks

∙ Now 160,000 residents

∙ Many community development organizations that  

work on drain, taps, youth training, and art projects

 Enclave Urbanism – Steyn City

∙ Mixed Use – Master Planned – “City from Scratch”

o Combines residential, commercial, leisure, and  


o All amenities are private

o Targets only upper income

 Politics: Does Democratizing Bring Economic Benefits? o Democracy  Political process comprised of contestation and  representation

 Accountability is key component

 Respect for rights is element of liberal democracy

 Sometimes human rights conflict with property rights o Democracy – Market Economy Tradeoff

 Both favor individual

∙ Exercise voice

∙ Make choices

 Both about choice and rights

∙ Private property

∙ Freedom of Speech

∙ Freedom to Buy and Sell at a price determined by  

availability of supply and demand  

 Efficiency – Equity Tradeoff

∙ Markets more efficient than governments

o Better at distributing resources without waste

o Markets may distribute resources inequitable  

and disadvantage thse without economic  



 Measuring Development

o Growth commonly measured by GDP

 Sum of production, income, or expenditures produced  domestically

o Economic Growth = Percent change in GDP over time o Benefits of Measuring Growth

 Compare with other countries

 Compare change or decline in one country over time

 No clear substitute

 Widespread agreement on value

o Weaknesses of GDP as Measure of Development

 Doesn’t account for poverty, inequality, health, etc.  

 Data Quality is major problem

o Alternative Measures

 Poverty

 Inequality


∙ Infant mortality, education

o Why Alternatives?

 Absolute Poverty

∙ Comparson with some standard predetermined  

threshold about what is necessary to survive

o Current between $1.25 and $2 per day  

 Relative Poverty

∙ Poverty relative to other countries or to highest  

income earners in a country

 Poor People

o Common Measures

 Income of $1.25 per day at purchasing power parity (PPP) ∙ PPP  Adjusts for differences in cost of living between countries on assumption that services are cheaper in  

poor countries

o Not always the case

 Inequality

∙ Disparities in living standards

 Differnces Absolute

∙ Absolute difference between incomes of highest  

decile and lowest

 Relative Inequality

∙ Ratio of those differences whether differences  

change in relation toe ach other if there is growth

 Gini Coefficient

 Lorenz Curve

∙ Shifts as population ages

 Country Trends of Income Distribution  

o 71% of global population live in countries with increasing income  inequality  

o 22 % of global population live in countries with decreasing  inequality

o 7% of global population live in countries with stable inequality  Drawbacks of Inequality as a Measure

o Doesn’t address absolute poverty

o Growth can occur but relative or absolute inequality can remain  same or worsen

 Value of Measurement


 Make policy or assess results without numbers

 Anticipate food shortages or surplus without estimate of  production

 Determine growth if national accounts incorrect

 Determine poverty rates and per capita income if unknown population

 Set targets and goals of inaccurate figures

Human Development Uehling Slides  

 Why Develop

o World Food Program – Hunger affects 815 million people – 11% of global population

o Huge Inequality

 Food Access, Child Mortality, etc.  

 Development Aid

o Truman Doctrine – 1947

 $400 million to Greece and Turkey to prevent rise of  


o Marshall Plan  European Recovery Program

 US pays for major portion of reconstruction of Western  Europe

 Roots in cold War rivalries between planned and free  

market economies

 Expanded Truman Doctrine

 Good public relations for US  With ulterior motive

 Create and Stabilize Markets for US products

 Prevent Spread of Communism

 LDC Synonyms

o “Third-World”  Unaligned countries Post-WWII

o “Developing”  

o “Less Developed”  Relatively neutral; Suggests ranking o “Global North and Global South”  More Neutral; Uses geography to describe politics/economies

o ” Post-Development”  Idea of less developed countries comes  from developed countries imposing their values  

 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

o Total value of production of goods and services by all residents of a given country

 1990 Human Development  

o Greater well-being more important than economic growth o Richness of human minds more important than richness of  economy

 2000 Millennium Development Goals

 2015 Millennium Development Goals

o Better negotiation process

 Wealthy nations have established goals for first time

o Very Aspirational  

o Conflicting Goals

 Celebrities and Development

o Celebrities can either shift or attract attention

 50 Cent in Somalia  “One like = One meal”

 Oprah Winfrey in South Africa  Leadership Academy for  Girls - 2007

∙ 152 Students

∙ Goal  Mentor talented and disadvantaged girls  

o Celebrities can enable governments to avoid responsibilities to  citizens

 Matt Damon  Water.org  

∙ Specialized, limited edition water bottle and chalice  

to aid access to sanitation and clean water for  


 Clooney, Damon, Pitt, etc.  Not on Our Watch

∙ Drawing upon voices of cultural leaders to protect  

the vulnerable, marginalized, and displaced

 Development and Globalization

o Bretton Woods Conference

 Required collective action at global level in Post-WWII  global environment for economic stability

 Established:


o Encouraged governments of weak countries to  

do more to contribute to aggregate demand  

o Stabilize currency and prevent volatility  

o Gold Standard

∙ International Bank for Reconstruction and  

Development – IBRD

o Gave grants and loans to countries whose  

economies were devastated by WWII

∙ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – GATT –  

Became WTO in 1995

o Leading Institutions in DC Placed Conditions on Borrowing  “Structural Adjustment Packages”

 Required borrowing governments to:  

∙ Lower barriers to trade

∙ Privatize public industries

∙ Deregulate industries to promote competition

 Neglected to take into account:

∙ Income Distribution

∙ Economic Differences Among Countries

∙ Governance  

 Gender Dimensions

o When an economy is stressed the impact on women is greater  than on men  

o Women end up in informal sectors and unemployed  

o Human Rights Reasons Decreasing Gender Inequality  Health Disparities

 Education

 Unequal access to economic opportunities

 Less Voice

o Practical Reasons for Decreasing Gender Inequality

 Increases country’s ability to compete

 Helps next generation

o Gender Inequality Index

 0 to 1 Scale

 0 = Complete Equality

 1 = Complete Inequality

 Determinants of Men and Women’s Different Productive Role o Kenya

 Early Development Agenda

∙ Enhance men’s roles in agriculture and women’s  

roles in home economics  

∙ Result  Expanded men’s ability to earn income and  Women lost status and power

o Colombia

 Recommendation  Cut down fruit trees to grow for sale at  market  

 Result  Families more economically vulnerable

o India

 Mobile phone service provider partnered with a microcredit institution

 Support tech-based business for low-income women

 Result  Women’s ability to earn income expanded;  

Families less economically vulnerable  

o Philippines

 Provide micro loans to families to promote  


 Result  Expanded ability to earn income; Families less  economically vulnerable  

∙ Development vs Human Development

o Development  Advances in material wealth and focuses on  economic growth

o Human Development  Encompasses human security and  activity that improves lives

∙ 2 Important Critical Perspectives on Development

o 1) Criticism of HDI Measurement  Does not Offer Much More  than GDP

 HDI uses the wrong variables and does not reflect idea pf  human development accurately  

 Sagar and Najam  

∙ HDI presents distorted image of world

 HDI presents oversimplified account relying on low quality  data  

o 2) Criticism of Outcomes of Development Projects

 Main problem Knowledge, expertise, and goals of locals  not accounted for

 Enormous aid has led to dependency

 Human Rights will begin to be violated

∙ Role of British Colonialism and Expansionism Play in Integrating the  World’s Economies

o Hub for Industrial Revolution  

o British political and military power created Colonial Empire  Raw materials from colonies sent to factories at home  Produced products for domestic and international sale

o Facilitated creation of massive disparities in wealth between  ruled and rulers

∙ Historians Trace the Origins of The Modern World Capitalist  Economy to the 16th Century and European Expansion  ∙ Bretton Woods – UN Monetary and Financial Conference – 1944

o Collective action at global level required to create economic  stability Post-Great Depression and Post-WWII

o Central to globalization  Established institutions to integrate  previously more autonomous economies  


∙ Prevent another depression

∙ Encouraged weak governments to do more to  

contribute to aggregate demand  

∙ Stabilize currencies and prevent volatility

∙ Gold Standard

∙ 1990s  Adopt stance that markets are best left to  

regulate themselves


∙ Loans and grants to countries left with devastated  

economies from war

 GATT  1995 Uruguay Round  WTO  

∙ Provide basic economic institutions to achieve  

greater economic independence

Module 6: Culture and Identity 

∙ Sonic Identity

o Refers to how sounds one prefers and the music one listens to or  performs helps determine how one is categorized by others ∙ Sonic Metropolis

o Place where people from different cultures come together to  compete for:

 Power or Control Over Resources

 Styles of music and sounds considered acceptable and  respectable  

∙ Sonic Policing

o Act of placing limitation on the kinds of sounds one can make  and still be respectable

∙ Sonic Peacocking

o When a person experiencing marginalization uses a particular  sound to show off and raise their status in a society

∙ Medieval World View from Arnstein Bible and its “Monstrous Races” o Reveal a sense of wonder and curiosity about diversity

o Make sense of unfamiliar appearances and customs

o Logic of Othering

 Populations resisting contact

 Populations in need of Christian conversion

 Observer, not observed sets standard  

 Misrepresentations of distant others

∙ Prevalence of Werecreatures in Folklore Across Cultures o Common Cultural Practices

 Concern about animal qualities of humans

 Projection of animal qualities onto others

∙ Social Purpose of Labeling Human Differences Across Cultures and  Time

o To manage concerns about:

 Social difference

 Justifying existing social hierarchies

∙ Personal Identity

o Distinguishing Factor  It is a complex combination, unique, and  irreplaceable

o Describing Personal Identity

 Religion

 Nationality

 Profession

 Ethnicity

 Social Status

 Clan

 Sports team

 Etc.  

∙ “Red-Facing”

o Cultural and ideological process of performing as Native  American

o Politics of creating and preserving images of a vanishing dark skinned Indian for a white audience

o Form of privileged ethnic sponsorship

∙ Cultural Transmission

o Enculturation  Learning to live in the culture one is born in  IE: Growing up and having life experiences to learn  

o Acculturation  Learning to live in a second culture; A society  changing as result of contact

 IE: Moving to a country with a new language

o Assimilation  Submerging of cultural differences into dominant  culture

 IE: Spaniards cultural assimilation of Native Americans in  America

∙ Levels of Xenophobia

o Exclusive

 “You are different and difficult to understand”

 Easiest to overcome with contact

o Possessive

 Other cultures threaten one’s own resources and lifestyle  IE: Foreign nationals restricted from certain public services  and activites in Japan

o Toxic

 Other cultures attempting to destroy one’s own core values  IE: Holocaust  

∙ Hypothetical Educational Potential of Art

o Incorporate fun, play, and humor

o Build cultural bridges

o Challenge beliefs and attitudes

∙ Public Art Aimed to Decrease Xenophobia

o Response to Referendum Against Building Minarets in  Switzerland

 Orient vs Occident

o “Overcoming the Wall by Painting the Wall”

 Art depicting transgressions of Berlin Wall challenged  assumptions and made crossing wall and taking it down  easier to imagine

o West-East Divan Orchestra

 Palestinian scholar and Israeli conductor

 Goal  Additional way to address Israel-Palestinian conflict ∙ Success Factors of Art Education

o Content uncovers otherwise hidden assumptions

o There is a collaborative or interactive element in the process of  production

o There is an active engagement with the work in the  


∙ Limitations of Public Art

o Receptivity of art & Selection bias of characters depicted

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