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UTD / Psychology / PSY 4373 / What is the structure of the mind?

What is the structure of the mind?

What is the structure of the mind?


School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychological Assessment
Professor: Dr. hafer
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology and assessment
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Final Study Guide
Description: Exam 3 Full Final Study Guide.
Uploaded: 04/20/2018
9 Pages 119 Views 5 Unlocks


What is the structure of the mind?


Assessment of Infant Capacities  

• What is the predictive validity of these tests?

• We begin with a description of several prominent instruments and then  investigate the fundamental question of purpose or utility. What is the  use of these measures? What is the meaning of a score on a  developmental schedule or preschool intelligence test? To what extent  do these procedures allow us to prognosticate adult functioning or, for  the matter, help us to predict early school performance? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the resilient and regenerative landscapes?

Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale – NBAS

• The NBAS is unique because of its theoretical basis, which emphasized  the need to document the contributions of the newborn to the parent infant system.


What is the behavioral and social learning theories?

• For children one month to 42 months We also discuss several other topics like What are the major types of retail organizations?

• ***The technical quality of the Bayley-III mark this test as the  psychometric pinnacle of its field.

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-IV  If you want to learn more check out What are the 2 types of leadership in congress?
Don't forget about the age old question of How would you write up confidence at time data?


o The test is suitable for children ages 2.5 to 7 years and 7 months,  although a slightly different mix of subtests is used for younger  children than for older children.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood

• We focus here on the Test Observation Checklist (TOC), which  summarizes essential information about the child test-taking behaviors – in particular, behaviors that may have a stunning impact on test scores  Practical Utility of Infant Scales  

What is the vascular system of the brain?

• Although existing infant tests are poor predictors of childhood and adult  intelligence, an exception to this rule is encountered for infants who  obtain very low scores on the Bayley test and other screening Tests.

• For example, infants who score two or more standard deviations below  the mean on the original Bayley and the Bayley II, particularly on the  Mental Scale, reveal a high probability of meeting the criteria for mental  retardation later in childhood.

Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII)

• May perform better as screening test than as a general predictor of  childhood intelligence. – 75% sensitivity

Denver II We also discuss several other topics like What are the differences between saving and investment?

• While the Denver II functioned well in correctly identifying 15 of the 18 at  risk children, the instrument performed poorly with the normal children. In  fact, 38 of the 71 normal children failed the test and were classified as  questionable or abnormal. Overall, almost four in six children taking the test would be referred for additional assessment, and of the four, only  one would have a true disability.

Background Description

• In contrast, to the SES approach, the HOME Inventory was developed to  provide a direct process measure of children’s environments. The Guiding  philosophy of this instrument is that direct assessment of children’s  experiences is a better index of the home environment that such indirect  measures as parental occupation and education. Don't forget about the age old question of What does voltage mean?


• A remarkable feature of the Leiter is the complete elimination of verbal  instructions. The Leiter-R does not require a single spoken word from the  examiner or the examinee

Hiskey-Nebraska Test

• H-NTLA is useful with children who are deaf, have speech or language  impairments or mental retardation, or those who are bilingual  Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-4 (TONI-4)

• Independent validity studies of the TONI-4 are scant, but investigation of  prior editions (which is highly similar in content) is supportive of this test  as a culture-reduced index of general intelligence  

(Non Language Tests above ^)

Nonreading and Motor-Reduced Tests

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

• Is the best known and most widely used of the non-reading, motor  reduced tests.

Testing person with visual impairments

• Legally blind – a term used in determining eligibility for government  benefits. This term applies to individuals with cental visual acuity of  20/200 or less in the better eye – with correction – or to those with  significant reduction in their visual field to a diameter of 20 degrees or  less.

Testing Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing

• In general, the proper and valid assessment of persons who are deaf  requires that interested psychologists immerse themselves in the Deaf  culture and also seek relevant educational and training experiences.

• The preferred resolution is for the examiner to be fluent in sign language,  so that any necessary translations stay within the bounds of standardized  procedure.

Assessment of adaptive behavior in intellectual disability

• The AAIDD further stipulates that significantly sub average intellectual  functioning is an IQ of 70 to 75 or below on scale with a mean of 100 and  a standard deviation of 15.

• The first standardized instrument for assessing adaptive behavior was the  Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Somewhat simplistic and coarse-grained  by modern standards, the original Vineland scale consisted of 117  discrete items arranged in a year-scale format. An informant familiar with  the examinee would check off applicable items.

Additional Measures of Adaptive Behavior

• The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II is the most widely used  measure of adaptive behavior in existence.


The structure of the Mind

• The ego is largely conscious and obeys the reality principle; it seeks  realistic and safe ways of discharging the instinctual tensions that are  constantly pushing forth from the id.

• Id and superego is unconscious

• Ego is conscious  

The role of Defense Mechanisms

• 1st – their exclusive purpose is to help the ego reduce anxiety created by  the conflicting demands of id, superego, and external reality. • 2nd – they operate unconsciously  

• 3rd – they distort inner or outer reality  

Type A Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern

• These individuals display a deep insecurity, regardless of their  achievements. They desire to dominate others, and typically are  indifferent to the feelings of competitors. They exhibit a free-floating  hostility, and easily find things that irritate them. They also suffer from a  sense of urgency about getting things done.

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories

• Based on his social learning views, Rotter developed the Internal-External  Scale, an interesting measure of internal versus external locus of control.  The construct of locus of control refers to the perceptions that individuals  have about the source of things that happen to them.

Five factor Model of Personality

• Big Five

o Openness to Experience

o Conscientiousness

o Extraversion

o Agreeableness

o Neuroticism

Comment on Trait Concept

• A second problem with traits is their apparently low predictive validity.  Mischel is credited with the first effective disparagement of the trait  concept in his influential book Personality and Assessment. He stated that  “while trait theory predicts behavioral consistency, it is behavior  inconsistency that is typically observed. In a wide-ranging review of  existing research, Mischel noted that trait scales produced validity  coefficients with an upper limit of r=.30

The Projective Hypothesis

• The assumption that personal interpretations of ambiguous stimuli must  necessarily reflect the unconscious needs, motives, and conflicts of the  examinee.

Comment on the Rorschach

• In general, critics portray the test as possessing low reliability and a  general lack of predictive validity.

• One liability is that learning the scoring system is an arduous and time  consuming task that requires dozens of hours of practice and years of  supervised experience.

• A second problem is that administering and scoring the Rorschach  requires a few hours of professional time from a licensed psychologist Construction Techniques  

• TAT – The Thematic Apperception Test

o In administering the TAT, the examiner requests the examinee to  make up a dramatic story for each picture, telling what led up to  the current scene, what is happening at the moment, how the  characters are thinking and feeling, and what the outcome will be.

Children’s Apperception Test

• No formal scoring system exists for the CAT and no statistical information  is provided on reliability or validity.

Other variations on the TAT

• Another specialized TAT-like test is the TEMAS, which consists of 23  colorful drawings that depict Hispanic persons interacting in  

contemporary, inner city settings.

The House Tree Person Test

• Buck has never provided any evidence to support the reliability or  validity of this instrument.

• In general, attempts to validate the H-T-P as a personality measure have  failed miserably.  

• Thoughtful reviewers have repeatedly recommended the abandonment  of the H-T-P and similar figure-drawing approaches to personality  assessment.

Objective = structured

Projective = unstructured  

Introverts are:

• More vigilant in watch-keeping

• Do better at signal-detection tasks  

• Are less tolerant of pain but more tolerant of sensory deprivation Criterion Keyed Inventories

• Criterion-Keyed Approach, test items are assigned to a particular scale if,  and only if, they discriminate between a well-defined criterion group and  a relevant control group.


• The result was a remarkable test useful both in psychiatric assessment and  the description of normal personality. Within a few years, the MMPI  became the most widely used personality test in the U.S.

Technical Properties of the MMPI-2

• A shortcoming of the MMPI-2 is that intercorrelations among the clinical  scale are extremely high. For example, in the case of scales 7 and 8, th e  psych-asthenia and schizophrenia scales, the correlation is commonly in  the .70’s. In part, this reflects the item overlap between MMPI scales – scales 7 and 8 share 17 items in common.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III – MCMI-III

• Is a highly theory-driven test, incorporating Millon’s elaborate theoretical  formulations on the nature of psychopathology and personality disorder. Behavior Assessment

• Behavioral Assessment is often – but not always – an integral part of  behavior therapy designed to change the duration, frequency, or intensity  of a well-defined target behavior.

Exposure Based Methods

• Wolpe favored gradual exposure with minimal anxiety in a procedure  known as systematic desensitization. In this therapeutic approach, the  client first learns total relaxation and then proceeds from imagined  exposure to actual or in vivo exposure to the feared stimulus.

• Another exposure-based method is flooding or implosion in which the  client is immediately and totally immersed in the anxiety-inducing  situation.

Self-Monitoring Procedures

• To help reverse the downward spiral of depression, Lewinsohn and his  colleagues devised the Pleasant Events Schedule (PES). The purpose of  the PES is two-fold. First, in the baseline assessment phase, the PES is  used to self-monitor the frequency and pleasantness of 320 largely  ordinary, everyday events.

Ecological Momentary Assessment

• The hand held device might “beep” to signal that the patient should  immediately respond to a series of rating scales for pain, mood, fatigue,  and other relevant dimensions. The entire self-rating procedure might  take less than a minute.

• Because EMA responses of clients are immediate and based on a  schedule determined by the researcher, several biases of human recall  are avoided.  

• In general, EMA provides a more accurate and reliable approach to the  assessment of patient experience than traditional approaches such as  retrospective questionnaires.

• Of course, the added advantage of the EMA approach is that data are  collected naturalistic settings in real time, and therefore not prone to  biases in recall.


The Human Brain:

• The brain is beyond doubt the most protected organ in the human body. • The first line of defense against physical trauma is the skull consisting of  several intermeshed, rigid bones that almost completely encase the brain.  • Beneath the skull, the brain is also surrounded by the meninges, a thin  layering of three tough membranes that encases the brain and spinal  cord, providing additional protection.

The Vascular System of the Brain

• Two pairs of arteries carry blood to the brain.

• These are the left and right internal carotid arteries, found in the front of  the neck, and the left and right vertebral arteries, found in the back of the  neck.

• The vertebral arteries come together just below the base of the brain to  form a single artery, the basilar artery.

• These 3 arteries – the left and right internal carotids and the basilar artery  – all feed into a circular arterial structure at the base of the brain known as  the circle of Willis.

Corpus Callosum

• Is the major commissure that serves to integrate the functions of the two  cerebral hemispheres. This large bundle of subcortical nerve fibers is  about four inches long and a quarter inch thick.

Cerebral Cortex

• The committed cortex of the frontal lobe is dedicated to motor control • The parietal lobe is concerned with the processing of touch and other  somatosensory perception.

• The occipital lobe is involved in visual perception

• The temporal lobe is essential to the processing of auditory information Attentional Systems

• Based upon the classic studies of Moruzzi and Magoun – demonstrating  that ascending nerve tracts within the reticular formation govern general  arousal or consciousness, portions of this structure are also known as the  reticular activating system. Damage to the reticular activating system  gives rise to global dimunition of consciousness ranging from chronic  drowsiness to stupor or coma.

Motor coordination systems

• The most common syndrome caused by damage to the basal ganglia is  Parkinson’s Disease (PD)

Limbic System

• Is a primitive central brain system that is involved in emotions and basic  survival drives.

Executive Functions

• Provide the ability to respond to novel situations in an adaptive manner. • The executive functions consist of four components:

o Volition

o Planning

o Purposive action

o Effective performance  

Traumatic Brain Injury

• The neurological consequences of TBI depend upon the nature and  severity of the injury, but any or all of the following are possible: o A contusion or bruising of the brain underneath the site of impact  is known as a coup injury

o Contre-coup – a contusion opposite the side of the impact, caused  by rebound

o Frequent contusions in the undersurfaces of the frontal lobes and  the tips of the temporal lobes because of the bony skull  

protrusions located there

Alzheimer’s Disease

• The most common degenerative neurological disease is Alzheimer’s  disease, which features an insidious degeneration of the brain. The  pathophysiology includes clump-like deposits in the brain known as  neritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.


• One of the most widely used fixed batteries, the Halstead-Reitan  Neuropsychological Battery, is outlined in Table 10.5 even though the  HRNB is an old test – the elements of the battery have not been changed  since its inception in the 1950’s – many neuropsychologists still regard  this battery as the “gold standard” in the field.

Tests of learning and memory

• Memory tests can be categorized according to several dimensions,  including short term versus long term, verbal versus pictorial, and learning  curve versus no learning curve.

Fuld Object-Memory Evaluation

• Is often used to help confirm a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, a  degenerative neurological disorder described in the previous topic

Clinical examination for Aphasia

• Commonly assessed:

o Spontaneous speech

o Repetition of sentences and phrases

o Comprehension of spoken language

o Word finding

o Reading

o Writing and copying

o Calculation  

Tests of Spatial and Manipulatory Ability

• The term apraxia refers to a variety of dysfunctions characterized by a  breakdown in the direction or execution of complex motor acts. Design Copying Tests

• The Greek Cross is a very simple drawing task that is surprisingly sensitive  to brain impairment. The examinee is requested to carefully copy the  figure without lifting the pencil.

Common Frontal Lobe Tests

• Only a limited number of neuropsychological tests tap executive functions to any appreciable degree. Useful instruments in this regard include the Porteus Mazes, Wisconsin Car Sorting Test, and a novel  approach know as the Tinkertoy Test.  

• Category Test

Ecological Validity

• Refers to the congruence between testing situation and analogous real  world circumstances. A test with strong ecological validity is one that  highly resembles practical behaviors required in the real world Interestingly,

• Neither alcohol abuse nor dependence is defined by ingestion of a  particular amount of alcohol, although substantial quantities typically are  involved.

o Criteria:

▪ Drinking interferes with important life responsibilities at  

work, home, or school.

▪ Drinking leads to unsafe behavior such as driving while  


▪ Drinking caused persistent legal problems such as arrests for  fighting

▪ Drinking leads to conflict with a spouse or significant other.

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