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USC / Management / MGMT 371 / What is a level 5 leadership?

What is a level 5 leadership?

What is a level 5 leadership?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Management
Course: Principles of Management
Professor: Patrick demouy
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Management
Cost: 50
Name: MGMT 371 - Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the material for Exam 3.
Uploaded: 04/23/2018
15 Pages 45 Views 6 Unlocks
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Study Guide for MGMT 371 Exam 3


What is a level 5 leadership?



Important Notes 

-The test will be IN CLASS on April 25, 2018

-Covering chapters 15, 16, and 11

-The test can be taken individually or with up to four other people (making a total of 5 members  in a group)

-No notes, computers, books, or any resources may be used during the test -It will be approximately 60 questions

-I am unable to directly insert important figures from the class notes slides due to copyright  issues, so whenever there is an important figure you need to look at I have made a note of what  slide it is on and it is highlighted 

Chapter 15

Nature of Leadership 

-no leadership style that works in every situation

-people, influence, and goals


What are the characteristics of authentic leadership?



-may have to change leadership style depending on who you’re working with -a “people” activity, different than administration and problem-solving Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate economic value added?

-leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals -sometimes you need to assert yourself, sometimes you need to be a listener, etc. We also discuss several other topics like What gives the stripe appearance of the pyramids?

Level-Five Leadership 

-refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities

-lack of ego (humility)

-shy and self-effacing

-fierce resolve to do what is best for organization, fierce resolve to do it right -give credit to other people, compliment/praise them

-this is very important and this is also hard to do

-do this because you want the employee to keep doing what they’re doing, also makes  people reflect on the compliment and think about their behavior and if they deserve that  praise


What are the four roles in organizational change?



Servant Leadership 

-job as leader is to provide resources for their employees to succeed

-if employees succeed, then the leader also succeeds We also discuss several other topics like Why is sexual reproduction important?

-hard concept for some

Authentic Leadership 

-a leader who knows and understands themselves

-stays true to one’s values/beliefs

-inspires trust and commitment

-respect diverse viewpoints

-hard concept, hard for people to respect others’ viewpoints while not accepting it as their  own viewpoint or agreeing with them

-a lot of people think that if they respect something then they have to accept it as a fact of  life ---- THIS IS NOT TRUE

-espouse and act with higher order ethical values

-encourage collaboration

-help others learn, grow, and develop as leaders

Personal Characteristics of Leaders (slide 14)

-cooperative, work well with others

-energy

-honesty and integrity

-independence

-achievement drive

-decisiveness

-have to walk away from people insulting you

Ohio State Studies 

-two major behaviors for leaders:

-consideration; people oriented

-concerned with the employees

-initiating structure; task behavior

-directs work activities toward goals

Michigan Studies 

-employee-centered leaders (most effective)

-displays supportive behavior; establishes high performance goals If you want to learn more check out What are the advantages and disadvantages of using electronic medical records?
Don't forget about the age old question of How to read force notations?

-job-centered leaders (not effective)

-less concerned with goal achievement/human needs

-focuses on meeting schedules, cost-management, and efficiency

Leadership Grid 

-dead zone is between middle of the road and impoverished

-middle of the road, you’re gonna get run over

-some jobs in life require you to be very authority compliant, others require other types of  management

Contingency Approaches 

-situational model (or theory) of leadership (see slide 21) 

-extension of behavioral theories

-focus on characteristics of followers

-most difficult part is selling: clarify and explain decisions as needed

-leadership model (fiedler)

-substitutes for leadership concept

Substitutes for Leadership 

-some situations occur where leader style is not important

-neutralizers: situations and variables that can substitute or neutralize leadership characteristics -“flip side of the coin”

-see slide 25

Charismatic and Visionary Leadership (slide 26) 

-charismatic leader: skilled in the art of visionary leadership

-vision is an attractive ideal future

-can get people to see what is going to happen; doesn’t have to be a positive thing, some  of the worst people in the world were charismatic leadersIf you want to learn more check out What is the study of phrenology?

-through actions, words, and deeds convinces other people that there are benefits  from doing it well

-inspire and motivate people to do more

-lofty vision

-understands/empathizes

-empowering and trusting subordinates

-as a manager, you need to clearly tell your employees what you need from them

Transformational vs Transactional Leadership 

-these are 2 types of leaders

-transactional: initiates structure, awards employees, improves productivity, hardworking, focus  on management, tolerant, fair-minded, clarifies tasks

-transformational: innovative, recognizes follower needs, inspires followers, creates a better  future, promotes significant change

Followership 

-remember: telling, selling, participating, delegating

-5 types of followers

-alienated: don’t want when not realistically involved

-effective: don’t want during down time

-passive: don’t want when you have to get things moving along

-conformist: don’t want this when you have difficult decision to make

-pragmatic survivor: employees you need to keep an eye on

-when it gets to be crunch time, they become more effective; when there’s a lull  they become passive; when not interested they become conformist; when they  don’t get what they want they become alienated

Power and Influence (slide 30) 

-both leaders and followers use power to get things done

-3 different major categories of power

-position power: the legitimate power that comes from person holding a position -2 primary powers that come with position are reward and coercive power

-coercive: should be used as little as possible (ideally never use it) because  when you make a threat and don’t follow through you lose credibility

-personal power: based on personality and personal characteristics

-expert power: based on your knowledge of how job is done

-referent power: likability, do people like you

-other sources of power

-one of most important sources of power that is overlooked is personal effort; we  undervalue

-we find comfort in personal effort

-network of relationships: never miss an opportunity to make a new relationship

-information: employees will have faith in you if they believe that you have done  your work and have found the correct information

**John Hansen was the first leader/president of USA; not George  

Washington

Seven Interpersonal Influence Tactics for Leaders (slide 31) 

**3 – don’t really follow because you should do what you should do instead of expecting  reciprocating

-when people get mad, you have to think is your behavior allowing it

Chapter 16

Motivation 

-the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior

-forces either intrinsic or extrinsic to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence

-intrinsic: rewards for yourself, you feel good because you did a good job, feeling of  accomplishment

-if people cannot give themselves intrinsic rewards then it will not matter if  extrinsic rewards are given, they’ll have no affect

-extrinsic: rewards from someone else, managers are supposed to give extrinsic rewards  to employees – tell people “hey you did a good job”

-employee motivation affects productivity

-managers should channel motivation toward the accomplishment of goals

Model of Motivation (slide 3) 

-verbal and nonverbal cues are important; nonverbal cues say a lot more than the words you say

-value of silence: sometimes when a manager says nothing it’s the best thing to do  instead of giving criticism; when a manager is silent the employee will criticize  themselves; people get defensive when criticized  

Content Perspectives on Motivation 

-if managers understand employees’ needs, they can design appropriate reward systems -needs motivate people, translate into an internal drive that motivates behavior -people have a variety of needs

-biggest problems in workforce is that supervisors have become afraid of employees because if  they try to help employees with needs then it gets too personal, if they don’t try they’re cold and  heartless, if they help in the wrong way they are criticized  

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (slide 5) 

-physiological and safety needs are 1st two levels

-physiological is base level of needs

-safety needs: job security is the most important in most people’s minds

-Moravec’s paradox: robots require little computation for high-level reasoning, but enormous  computation for low-level sensorimotor skills

-in research, many jobs that are done by middle and upper level managers are jobs based  on specific rules and methodologies, a lot of these jobs can be automated

-this is a problem with moving forward with automation since managers are  seeing their jobs disappear

-threatens job security

-belongingness needs: first level where a supervisor can directly affect an employee’s  motivation, the supervisor tries to provide an environment where people feel like they belong

-esteem needs: recognition, managers should provide opportunities and assist in becoming a  better employee

-self-actualization: you will never be actually self-actualized, once you get good at something it  doesn’t mean you stop but you begin to have a greater understanding of what you can actually do  if you improve further; managers should provide those opportunities to improve

ERG Theory 

-Existence needs: needs for physical well-being

-Relatedness needs: need for satisfactory relationships with others

-Growth needs: development of human potential and personal growth

-frustration regression principle: failure to meet a high-order need may cause a regression to an  already satisfied low-order need

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 

-hygiene factors: if you don’t have them, you will not be at the job anyway -motivators: esteem/actualization

Acquired Needs 

-everyone is different, based on experiences we all have different needs

-need for achievement, affiliation, and power

-this gets complicated since you’re trying to meet different peoples’ needs -puts burden on supervisor

-causes you to figure out different ways of working with people

Process Theories 

-goal setting theory: increase motivation by setting goals

-key components of the theory: goal specificity, goal difficulty, goal acceptance,  feedback

-specificity: a lot of population wants to know exactly what they’re doing and  why they’re doing it

-difficulty: give up or lose motivation if they have difficulty early on

-acceptance: do they buy into what you’re wanting to achieve

-feedback: so important, we crave feedback, sometimes feedback is more  important than anything else you can do as a supervisor

-remember to give people feedback even when they’re doing their job and  not causing problems; if you don’t then your employee will quit

-equity theory: how is it you feel that you are being treated relative to others, perceptions of  fairness; not real because it is your perception; difficult for us to control especially when people  don’t have intrinsic motivation

-concept of “what is equity” in terms of the company

-different employees have different perception of equity/inequity

-perceived inequity can be reduced by:

-changing work effort

-changing outcomes

-changing perception

-leaving the job

-inequity occurs when the input-to-outcome ratios are out of balance

-problem is that inequity is perceived  

-managers need to be aware of this theory

-expectancy theory: motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to  perform tasks and receive desired rewards (slide 14) 

-relationship between can you achieve it and reward for doing the task

-E-P (effort to performance): putting effort into a given task will lead to high  performance

-P-O (performance to outcome): successful performance of a task will lead to the desired  outcome

-Valence: the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome; when you ask  someone to do a task, the outcome needs to have a valence that is attractive to person

-different people are attracted to different outcomes

-need to make sure that performance is clearly defined

Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation 

-behavior modification: reinforcement theory techniques used to modify a behavior -sometimes shutting up is best as to not reinforce negative behavior

-reinforcement: an act that causes a behavior to be repeated or inhibited

-example can be “hey you made a mistake”

-law of effect: positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and unreinforced behavior  inhibited

-positive reinforcement: pleasant and rewarding consequences following a desired behavior

-if people are doing what they are supposed to be doing then you should be giving  positive reinforcement, make sure it’s not fake though

Changing Behavior with Reinforcement (slide 16) 

-ultimate extinction is termination 

-extinction is that you take away things

-ex: removing a benefit that an employee has because they are not holding up their end of  the deal

-don’t give benefits quickly because you might have to turn around and take them away;  employee should show that they deserve the benefit first

-other employees can criticize and ask why they aren’t getting the same benefits

Social Learning Theory 

-vicarious learning: observational learning, seeing others’ behaviors and rewards -people will look at how others are being treated vs how they are being treated -be aware that your employees are watching

-self-reinforcement: motivating yourself by reaching goals and providing positive  reinforcement for yourself

-employees who have intrinsic motivation/rewards are priceless

-self-efficacy: belief about your own ability to accomplish tasks

-if you believe it, you can do it; if you don’t think you can do it, you won’t even try -supervisors should be able to show employees how to do it

Job Design for Motivation 

-job simplification: assembly lines break jobs down into small parts so that there can be experts  for each process

-if this is implemented, rotation should also be implemented

-job rotation: rotate what task you are supposed to work on

-job enlargement: opposite of job simplification; bringing in more tasks for a job; if there are 3  people working on a job and 1 leaves, the other 2 take over that person’s tasks on top of their  own tasks

-job enrichment: giving you more control

The Job Characteristics Model 

-think about autonomy (what I’ll let you do on your own), feedback, and skill variety -SEE SLIDE 19 

Innovative Ideas for Motivating 

-organizations use various types of incentives to motivate employees for a higher level of  performance

-incentive plans can backfire

-should be combined with motivational ideas and intrinsic rewards

-incentives should reward the desired behavior

Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs 

-employees feel more secure about their job since they feel like their company is expanding and  growing when they come out with new products and ideas

-employees receive info about company performance, have knowledge and skills to contribute to  company goals

-employees are rewarded based on company performance

-employees have the power to make substance decisions

Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement 

-instill a sense of support and meaning

-help employees obtain intrinsic rewards

-focus on learning, contribution and growth; more likely to keep around employees

Chapter 11

Innovation and Change in the Workplace 

-disruptive innovation: a goal for global competition  

-don’t want to be on the other side of this

-something that is difficult for competition to immediately compete with so a higher price  can be charged

-if organizations don’t successfully change and innovate, they die

-change and innovation can come from outside forces

-managers want to initiate change from the inside

Organizational Change 

-the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization

-change isn’t easy, organizations must take an ambidextrous approach

-very hard on employees

-managers encourage flexibility and freedom to innovate

Changing Things: New Products and Technologies (slide 4) 

-two major types of changes that companies go through: product change or technology change -product change: change in the organization’s product or service outputs

-easier for organization to deal with because it doesn’t affect employee

-technology change: a change in the organization’s production process

-this more strongly affects employees, employees will be laid off because usually you’re  updating to a more efficient/automated technology since they’re no longer needed

-55% of all jobs will be jeopardy/risk due to automation

-gig economy: people work as independent contractors and working for a company (uber,  air bnb, lyft); these people are no longer tethered to a company

-indicator that more people are seeking more job opportunities to make ends meet

-first people you get rid of in a failing economy because you don’t have a  relationship with them

-three innovation strategies: exploration, cooperation, and entrepreneurship

Three Innovation Strategies (slide 5) 

-these all lead to new products, services, and technologies

-exploration

-want to have creativity, experimentation, idea incubators

-cooperation

-want people across organization (horizontal) to work together, open innovation,  customers & partners

-entrepreneurship

-new venture teams, skunkworks (highly secretive teams that work on products they do  not wish their competition to know of or even public), new venture fund, idea champions

-companies need to make sure they provide atmosphere for people to be creative

Characteristics of Creative People and Organizations 

-SEE SLIDE 6!!! 

Exploration 

-creativity: novel ideas that meet perceived needs or offer opportunities

-sometimes means going back to drawing board and figuring out something you haven’t  thought about in the past

-idea incubator: a safe harbor where employees can develop ideas and experiment

-if companies don’t get profits soon enough, then they don’t support idea incubators or  the project

Cooperation 

-horizontal coordination mechanisms: simultaneously contribute to innovation -internal and external

-open innovation: commercialization of ideas beyond the organization

-includes customers and partners

Entrepreneurship 

-managers should support entrepreneurship activities and foster idea champions -sponsors: approve and protect ideas when critics challenge the concept

-middle or upper management, makes it so no one gets in your way when you try a new  idea

-new-venture teams: give free rein to creativity

-you have to give these teams creativity and freedom and somewhere to go with it -new-venture funds provide resources for new ideas

-skunkworks: informal, autonomous, secretive groups that focus on breakthrough ideas

Coordination Model for Innovation 

-make sure coordinating across all departments; manufacturing dept, research dept, marketing  dept.

-SEE SLIDE 10 

Four Roles in Organizational Change 

-inventor: develops and understands the technical aspects of the idea

-champion: person who gets out there and says “yes, this is what we’re going to do” -has to be someone high-level in organization

-sponsor: high-level manager who opens path for the idea to be executed -critic: provides reality, looks for shortcomings

-we need critics because they save us from ourselves; we don’t like them but we need  them

Changing People and Culture 

-at the end of the day, people need to be able to change; empower and encourage people to  change

-changing does not mean giving up on core values and beliefs; changing means a change in  employee mind-set

-people change: training and development

-culture change: organizational development

-large culture change is not easy

Organizational Development (OD) 

-done when there needs to be significant change within the company

-addresses three types of problems/areas:

1) mergers and acquisitions: have been bought by someone or bought someone else and  have to go through radical change

2) organizational decline and revitalization

3) conflict management

-Three different activities:

1) team-building activities

2) survey-feedback activities

3) large-group interventions

-Three different steps:

1) unfreezing: period you go through when you do surveys and monitor how people are  working and how things are working today

2) changing: go in and put in new equipment/systems and change a lot of things, involves  training

3) refreezing: a healing process where you are allowing people time to get used to doing  it the new way and allow them to heal

-many organizations hire in an external party when going through OD

-called OD specialist; someone who has skills and knowledge to take someone through  the organizational process

-once they’ve gone through changing process, they leave; they are toxic and hated  by people in the organization

-SEE SLIDE 16 

-traditional: you’ve got time to do it, incremental change

-large-group intervention: usually what organizational development focuses on

Implementing Change 

-outline the need for change, show the performance gap

-performance gap: what you’re doing vs what you would like to have as an outcome -understand the resistance to change

-uncertainty

-self-interest: employees won’t have as much power/responsibility

-lack of understanding and trust

-different assessments and goals

Force-Field Analysis (slide 18) 

-deals with concepts that there are factors that are pushing for change and factors that are  resisting change

-driving forces: problems or opportunities that provide motivation for change, need for change

-restraining forces: barriers to change

-change doesn’t immediately occur, change has to be significantly more powerful than the  resisting factors

-need clear and overwhelming force to overcome resistance

-need to look at the resisting factors and see if they are valid

-most effective way to make change is to identify the resisting factors and focus strategy on them

Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change 

-always communicate and educate people first

-try to get participation; get the critics to participate in the process

-negotiation: you only want to negotiate with someone who has the power to resist -coercion: the nice way of saying threats, don’t wish to use this until you have to

-problem with coercion is if you threaten employee and don’t follow through then you  lose power in the future; use as a last resort

-top management support: change needs to come down from the top; needs to be seen

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