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GSU / Psychology / PSYC 4610 / Is cohabitation good for relationships?

Is cohabitation good for relationships?

Is cohabitation good for relationships?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Aging
Professor: Grace da rosa
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Guide
Description: These cover Chapter 9-14
Uploaded: 04/23/2018
11 Pages 151 Views 2 Unlocks

Psychology of Aging: Final Exam Review

Is cohabitation good for relationships?


Marriage & Intimate Relationships 

An Intimate Partner 

∙   It is being more accepted by society that cohabitation and same-sex  partners take place

∙   Non-Hispanic white men (65-74) have a greater chance at being  married and living under the same roof as their significant other ∙   The low rates of married people among African Americans is correlated to the high rates or divorced and windowed  

∙   Intimacy: close relationship that one can possess with others and a  positive, supportive one at that

Later Life Couples Don't forget about the age old question of What was the cause of the exponential increase in population that occurred after the 1800s?

∙   75 percent of men above the age of 65 are married

What percentage of 65 year olds are married?

∙   Remarry between the ages of 55-59 are very common now ∙   A little less than half of American 65+ are married


∙   Basically, marriage is something that the newer generation is holding  off on now a day

∙   The decision of marriage reflects from a legal, social, and moral  commitment where two people are making a life-long decision ∙   Median age of marriage = 25.8 for women and 28.4 for men ∙   By the age of 40, 84 percent of women are married

∙   Partners are entitled to retirement, death, and health insurance  benefits (estates are also included)  

∙   Marriage: a legally accredited union in most states, between a women  and man

What is the effect of the empty nest on the marital relationship?

We also discuss several other topics like How is hotspot related to plate tectonics?

Marriage Benefits 

∙ Men typically have higher rates of health benefits than women do from marriage

∙ Relationships become increasingly important with death and disability ∙ Health updates on those that have never been married are slowly but  surely improving

∙   Higher rates of happiness and a better quality of life is more prevalent  for both partners We also discuss several other topics like What adaptations appear in the fossils of the cambrian explosion?

∙   9-15 percent reduction of mortality among older aged people for those  that married  

Marital Happiness over time 

∙ The empty nest can have a more positive affect on the couple’s  relationship

∙ They will have more time to spend together and help strengthen their  relationship

∙ Although a downfall could be the “Empty Nest Syndrome” ∙ Sexual activity remains active with older adults  


∙ When couples decide to live together prior to marriage

∙ Cohabitation effect: Increased separations between couples who live  together before they are engaged to one another Don't forget about the age old question of Why is central abdominal fat a concern?

∙ * Although older couples cohabitated are more likely to stay together Widowhood 

∙ As people age there is a higher chance of them being a widow ∙ Approx. 75% of women the age of 75+ are already widows  ∙ Men typically are the ones who experience depression more than  women

∙ Any older adult that is a widow has a higher risk of mortality than a  person that is a nonwidowed

“Resilient grief” also known as having a small amount of distress

∙   Widowers: Less likely to interact with others, this could be due to  depression or the sense of loneness We also discuss several other topics like When was santa costanza built?

Tend to be loners with their family as well as close friends/ loved ones ∙   Widows: These are the ones that are typically worn out from giving to  others more than themselves  

Psychological Perspectives on Long-Term Relationships 

∙   Infidelity is the most common cause of this

∙   In some cases, it may also be a result if the marriage is rocky for many  reasons unknown  

∙   Divorce may be a way out for some and can be a resolution to the  problem

∙   According to some studies done, the top 5 reasons for divorce are: 1)  Poor communication, 2) Finances, 3) Abuse, 4) No attraction, and 5)  Infidelity

Grandparents-Skip generation family 

∙   Skip generations: This is when the grandparent is taking care of the  grandchild exclusively and is the caregiver for this child

∙   Typically, is more stress on the grandparent when the child has no  relationship with their parent We also discuss several other topics like What are the four types of descriptive statistics?

∙   Also, when they have problems like family issues that is also stressful  on the parent

∙ When the fertility rate is low that correlates to less grandparents Work, Retirement, & Leisure Patterns  

Vocational Development 

∙   This is considered a person’s job, it will reflect their  


∙   Most can’t find a job that 100% reflects their likes/dislikes  ∙   Holland’s vocational development theory: when people expresses their  personalities in their goals and interests

∙   There are 6 fundamental types (AKA codes) it is known as a RIASEC  model  

∙   Congruence “fit”: when both vocational and occupational match up for  that individual, which allows them to be happy and productive in life

Holland’s Vocational Development Theory 

∙   Conventional: Someone who be really good with their finances ∙   Realistic: Someone who could possibly be a good problem solver ∙   Investigative: Science based for the most part

∙   Artistic: Dancer, they find another way to express their interest  ∙   Social: The most interactive job choice

∙   Enterprising: Person in charge, someone giving orders  


Occupation as Calling 

∙   Emphasizes on one ability to be successful and to do more than just  help themselves

∙   This is more of an ACTION not just a thought

∙   Can be categorized as one having the desire to do better and achieving goals  

Age and vocational performance 

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)

∙   1 in 5 workers in the U.S. is the age of 55 and older

∙   It is now illegal someone based off someone’s age

∙   Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP): targets low income older aged people when it comes to retiring, job placement,  stipends, and part-time subsidized employment  

Barriers to Employment 

∙   Age Discrimination: Something as simple is demoted someone because they’ve been with the company too long or promoting someone  because they’re young face

This form of discrimination is the MOST popular form in the work force ∙   Negative Stereotypes: When a company has a stereotype of older  people and thinking they are NOT capable of successfully getting the  job done

It can also be when people see older aged adults as a health cost  ∙   Discrimination against individuals with Disabilities: This is experiences  by older adults and they will face the hardships of the job application  process, can get fired quickly for NO valid reason

∙   Discrimination based on Sexual Orientation: This is something that  companies have NOW included this in their nondiscrimination policies

Facts and retirement (page 217-218) 

∙ Social Security Act: Established in 1935 by Roosevelt, it guarantees  income for retirees and others who are unable to work as well as a  lump sum in death benefits for survivors  

∙ Old Age and Survivors Disability Insurance: Combines the OASI  (Old-Age and Survivors Insurance) and the DI (Disability Insurance)  

 Mental Health Issues Treatment 

Major Depressive Disorder 

∙ Tends to have a major symptom as extremely sad mood swings that  lasts most of the times for about 2 weeks and is not typical of the  individuals mood

Anxiety Disorders 

∙ Anxiety Disorder: having a sense of dread about what might happen in the future

∙ People typically with this disorder tend to go to great lengths to avoid  anxiety-provoking situations

∙ Generalized Anxiety Disorder: the individual will experience an  overall sense of uneasiness and concern without a specific focus

∙ Panic disorder: this is a form of an anxiety disorder, people will have  a shortness of breath, pounding sensation of the heart, sweating  palms, etc.  

∙ Agoraphobia: the fear of being trapped or stranded during a panic  attack in a public place  

∙ Specific phobia: based on an individual having an irrational fear of an object or situation

∙ Social Anxiety disorder: the individual experiences extreme anxiety  about being watched by other people. This disorder has a lifetime  prevalence of about 12%

Obsessive-Compulsive & Related Disorders 

∙ Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: These people suffer from  obsession and compulsions, that end in repetitive behaviors. These  behaviors are unrelenting, irrational, and distracting.

∙ Hoarding: When people collect and store seemingly useless items  that they cannot discard

Trauma & Stress-Related Disorders 

∙ Acute Stress Disorder: when people experience symptoms for up to  a month after the trauma  

∙ Post -traumatic Stress Disorder: Is given to people that whose  symptoms persist for more than a month

∙ The lifetime of this is 6.8% with a yearly prevalence of 3.5 ∙ Late-Onset Stress Symptomatology: refers to a phenomenon  observed in aging veterans who were exposed to stressful combat  situations in young adulthood

Substance-Related Disorders 

∙ Older Adults are at risk for abuse for prescription drugs

∙ Symptoms of alcohol dependence are thought to be present in as  many as 14% of older adults who receive medical attention in hospitals and emergency rooms  

Suicide (page 233-234) 

∙ Not considered a diagnosis in the DSM-5 and isn’t related psychological disorders

∙ In 2010 this was the 10th leading cause of deaths

∙ Common for the ages 15-24

Long-Term Care

Institutional Facilities for Long-Term Care (Nursing Homes and  Residential Care Facilities) 

Types of Institutional Facilities for Older Adults 

∙ Nursing Homes: medical institution for older adults  

∙ Skilled Nursing facility: 24-hour care, they provide care like the hospital ∙ Intermediate Care Facility: 24-hour care, focuses on those who don’t  have any medical issues. There isn’t any intense nurse care needed ∙ Residential Care Facilities: These don’t need the 24-hour intense nurse care  

Residential care facilities  

As soon as the person becomes more self- independent they will have to  move forward.

∙ Most of the patients here diagnosed with high blood pressure, and right behind is Alzheimer’s  

∙ Most of the patients only have one chronic disease

1. Board and care home: These are for those who need some  assistance, and they are not capable of doing daily tasks on their  own

2. Assisted living facility: Here everything is provided for the older  adult and they can do their daily tasks. It is kind of like a little town  for them to get everything done. They have their own private space

3. Group home: Shared living space, which residents split  4. Adults foster care: Like a family adopting an older adult and taking  them under their wing (like when students study abroad and  families allow them to live in their homes)

Community-Based Facilities & Services (page 246-248) Community-based facilities and services 

1. Home Health services: Older adults are provided with the necessities  and they have resources at their fingertips. Although, health care  workers can’t provide the same serves as nurses can.

2. Day treatment services:  

∙    Geriatric partial hospital: This is providing the elder  

adults with psychiatric care

∙    Adult day care: Caregivers are provided to the family  

during the daytime

∙    Respite care: The family members are given a  

caregiver for the elder in the family  

Community housing alternatives

1. Government-assisted housing: Usually these are for people who fall in  the low to moderate amount of income. They probably stay in some  type of apartment complex and have easy access to routine task like  the grocery shopping, laundry, and upkeeping their home

2. Continuing-care retirement community: This is a very diverse care  giving service for the older adults, like they provide them with privacy  and a more independent lifestyle. This is something that requires a  monthly fee, which of course can lead to an annual fee

Aging in Place 

When the older adults want to live in their own homes, they might have to  consider modifying their homes so they can help prevent injuries. They can  change their flooring so that its less slippery  

Nursing Home Reform Act 

Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) 

∙ This will help keep older adults more protected  

∙ This is also a right to certain privacies  

∙ Established in 1987  

∙ Nursing homes have to licensed  

Green House: 8-10 people living under one roof

Eden alternative: People here are usually more independent and these  people are also allowed to have pets, and they will also take care of things  like their own plants, etc

Medicare and Medicaid 


This is health care that is for the aged and disabled. Ran by the Center for  Medicare and Medicaid Services. It gets spilt into ways :1) Hospital  Insurance, 2) Medical Insurance, 3) Medicare advantage plans 4) Prescription drug coverage  


This is a health insurance that is specifically for this from low income  families. Typically, these families are the ones close to poverty level

Death & Dying 

Sociocultural Perspectives on Death & Dying (page 267-268)

∙ Death Ethos: this a cultures philosophy of death, and can be done by  funeral rituals, treatment of those who are dying, the belief of ghost,  belief of afterlife, etc.

∙ Tamed Death: This is viewed as a transition to eternal life  ∙ Invisible Death: This is the time in which the dying begins to retreat  from family and lived ones and spend their time confined in a hospital  setting

∙ Social Death: the process through which the dying is treated as  nonpersons by family or health care workers as they are left to spend  their final days in the hospital or nursing homes

∙ Stages of Dying: There are 5 stages and this is where the individual  is terminally ill and is a universal period: 1Denial, 2) Anger, 3) Bargaining, 4) Depression, and 5) Acceptance

∙ Death of dignity: the idea proposed here is that the period of the  dying should NOT subject the individual to extreme physical  dependency or loss of control of the bodily functions  

∙ Good Death: this is where the person can have an autonomy in  making decisions about the type, site, and duration of care they  receive at the end of life

Issues in end-of-life care- Advance Directions (page 269-271) Advance Directions 

∙   Patient Self-Determination Act: Est in 1990 that guarantees the  right of all competent adults to have an active role in decisions about  their care

∙   Advance Directive: “Living will” that’s a written order that stipulates  the condition under which a patient will accept or refuse treatment ∙   Durable power of attorney for Health Care: AKA health care  proxy, to make decisions to act on their behalf should they become  incapacitated

∙ Do Not Resuscitate Order: Directs health care workers not to use  resuscitation if the patient experiences cardiac or pulmonary arrest ∙ Palliative Care: which will provide the person with relief from  symptoms such as nausea, pain and dyspnea as well as some services  such as physical and occupational therapy  

∙ Overtreatment: Occurs when patients request palliative care but  instead receive active life support that included resuscitation  

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

PAS: this is when the terminally ill individuals make the conscious decision,  while they are still able to do so, that they want their lives to end before  dying becomes a protracted process.

Euthanasia: when the actions are taken by the physician that causes the  patient to die, with the intention of preventing the suffering associated with  the prolonged ending of life

Successful Aging 

What is successful Aging 

∙   Some would associate this with a more positive outlook on life and be  content with your decisions thus far in life

∙   Being at a place of comfort that others are also able to view ∙   How well one can adapt to change or anything new on life is associated with this type of aging

∙   According to Rowe & Kahn three positive aging processes:  1) Being without any type of illness

2) High brain function ability

3) Being active in their community  

Criticism of Rowe and Khan model of Successful Aging 

∙ Most elders have type of illness, in an unrealistic reality this very  prevalent  

∙ More than likely less than 50 percent of older adults meet the TRUE  definition of successful aging  

∙ There is an emphasis on individualism and NOT on the impact that  society has on successful aging  

∙ The real definition is viewed as very harsh and stringent  ∙ There are so many different point of views as to how “success” is  viewed and this isn’t the ONLY one

∙ Those who have aged have UNsuccessfully aged  

∙ Older aged adults with disabilities or any health limitation have NOT aged successfully  

∙ Only the strong and fit SURVIVE according to this system ∙ Much emphasis on health from a physical standpoint and NOT really  considering the social cognitive or the psychological view

∙ Some factors like poverty, widowhood, and gender are things ignored  and they need more attention when it comes to health sustainability  

Successful Cognitive Aging

∙ Vaillant proposed these three things are related to health: 1. No physical disability at the age of 75

2. Good health overall

3. Time of not being disabled life

∙ Three objects correlate to social and impactful lifestyles: 1. Mental health being in a good state

2. Being able to properly rate your own happiness/ enjoyment of life  3. A diverse palette of social support  

Vaillant’s 8 domains of life satisfaction 

1. Money- producing work

2. Offspring

3. Beliefs

4. Likes/dislikes

5. Community involvement  

6. Extracurricular activities  

7. Matrimony

8. Companionship with others  

Studies on Successful Aging  

UCSD-Women Health Initiative study of Successful Aging 

∙ There are NOT any differences in brain functionality  

∙ Low on depression and most have an optimistic outlook  ∙ Low ratings in physical disabilities  

∙ High in satisfaction from the sexual activity  

∙ Psychological resilience and optimism are MORE important than  objective determinants

∙ Since all of this takes place most women have a higher rate of  resilience and are more positive with their life choices  

Factors that Promotes Successful Aging  

∙ Subjective well-being: Perspective on how content one can be ∙ Life Satisfaction: Inner- feelings and the outlook on one’s life and the  decision along with the results

∙ Positive Psychology: Is a more complex thought of how the strengths of one person can help them to be a better person and this can help to be the best person they can be and to be successful

Creativity & Aging (page 285-287) 

∙ Creativity: the ability to generate products or ideas that are original,  appropriate and are able to impact others

∙ Creative is likely to be the highest when the prefrontal cortex has  sufficiently matured so that people are able to be flexible but at the  same time have had sufficient training in their area of expertise so that they can put that flexibility to use.

∙ Planck Hypothesis: Named after Max Planck and refers to the  tendency of peak scientific productivity to occur in early adulthood  ∙ Career Age: the age in which an individual begins to embark on their  career  

∙ Creative Potential: the number of max jobs a person can have in one lifetime (hypothetically)

∙ Equal Odds Rule: a prediction of the creative individuals who produce more work and are more likely to produce fewer works

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