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USC / SPTE - Sport & Entertnmnt Mgmt / SPT 110 / What are the four perspectives on politics and sport?

What are the four perspectives on politics and sport?

What are the four perspectives on politics and sport?


SPTE 110 Final Exam Study Guide 

What are the four perspectives on politics and sport?


- Exam Date: Thursday May, 3rd @ 12:30pm 

- 75-80% New Material (Chapters 16-21) 

- 20-25% Cumulative “Big Picture” Content  

Chapter 16 Study Points: Religion and Sport 

- Greek Festivals honored gods

o Olympics a part of a religious festival

- Muscular Christianity- embraced physical activity and fitness - Christian Influences on Sport

o Churches use sport to attract people

o Catholics started the CYO and Protestants started the YMCA o Rollen Stewart

▪ Rainbow wig- held a sign up with “John 3:16” appeared at  every televised sporting event and was picked up by  

Who signed into law of 1961: president’s council on physical fitness and sports?


- Judaism and Sport

o Jewish boxers dominate in the early 1900s

o Baseball (Hank Greenberg, Sandy Koufax) If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of perfect competition?

o Olympics (Mark Spitz, Kerri Strug, Sarah Hughes)

- Islam and Sport

o Every action meant to glorify Allah Don't forget about the age old question of Who created standards businesses must follow to keep the workplace safe?

o Women banned or required to wear traditional dress

o Muhammad Ali

- Use of Religion by Athletes

o Justify commitment to high performance

o Reduce pressure

o Enhance bonds between teammates

Who is bill bradley?

o Guide moral decision making

- Use of Prayer by Athletes

o Cope with uncertainty and anxiety

o Put life and sport into perspective

o Build meaning in sport participation

- Uses of Religion by Coaches, Owner, and Organizations o Team unity

o Moral code for athletes

o Religious role models for players

o Prayer events Don't forget about the age old question of What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?
If you want to learn more check out What are the stages of dicot embryo development?

o Informal prayer at school events

o Faith nights in minor leagues

- Use of Sport to promote religion

o Fellowship of Christian Athletes

o Athletes in Action

o Pro Athletes Outreach

o National Christian College Athletic Association

Chapter 17 Study Points: Politics and Sport - Politics

o The art and science of governing, influencing policy, or  controlling a government

- 4 Perspectives on Politics and Sport

1. How government used sport to improve citizens’ quality of life

2. How sport can reinforce the status quo We also discuss several other topics like Who is chinua achebe?

3. How nation sponsor international teams to promote patriotic pride 4. The politics of sport institutions

- U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention

o Sets recommendations for physical activity

▪ Kids: at least 1 hour of daily aerobic activity

▪ Adults: at least 150 minutes of weekly moderate intensity  activity  

- 1950s: President’s Council on Youth Council

- 1961: President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports o SIGNED INTO LAW: President John F. Kennedy  

- Use of Sport to Promote Social Value

o Capitalism: competition, hard work, winners

o Socialism: teamwork, fitness, friendship

- Sport and Change

o Muhammad Ali and Billie Jean King

o Curt Flood (not liked by other players)

▪ MLB player who challenged the reserve clause

• Reserve Clause: stated that the team owned the  

player forever (length of contract did not matter) We also discuss several other topics like Define cultural anthropology.

▪ His speaking out allowed for free agencies (bargaining  rights for players)

- Sports and Politics

o Bill Bradley

▪ Basketball player for Princeton University

▪ Played for the Nicks in the NBA

▪ Became a US senator for the state of New York

Chapter 18 Study Points: Development Through Sport - Development: growing area that recognizes sport as social capital o opportunities to improve life for social and personal  


▪ all populations, especially disenfranchised  

o Not development in traditional sense (athlete development,  economic development)

- Stages of Development (4)

1. Children

a. fast development of skills, social interaction, rule following,  self-concept

2. Youth

a. traditions, critical time for dropouts

3. Adults

a. close relationships, self-challenge, less priority on physical  activity

4. Older Adults

a. social and health reasons for participation

- Development Programs for Children and Youth (4 categories) 1. Stand-alone sport and physical activity programs

a. skill-focused, foundational

2. At-risk prevention programs

a. YMCA, Boys and Girls Club, Up2Us

3. Academic enrichment and sport programs  

a. safe haven combining school and sport

4. Academic development and sport  

a. sport as vehicle to develop academic shills

Development around the world

- International Outreach: WHO (World Health Organization) o Addresses diseases and conditions that can be aided through  physical activity

▪ More than 60% of adults worldwide do not engage in  sufficient physical activity

o Olympic Movement core values

▪ Excellence

▪ Friendship

▪ Respect

Sport & Peace Contribution

- Security

- Rebuilding of economies and traumatized populations - Political structure and open communication

- Reconciliation in torn societies

Potential Funding Sources for Sport Development Programs - International groups

- Multinational corporations

- Government groups

- Social organizations

o Community centers

o School

o Rec. departments

o Faith-based organizations

- Charitable organizations

Chapter 19 Study Points: Rule Breaking in Sport - Rule Breaking in Sport  

o Rules are learned

o Breaking rules results in consequences

▪ Penalties and suspensions

- Rational Rule Breaking

o To help the team or individual win

o “everyone is doing it”

o Acceptable behavior when a rule is considered bad

- High School and Collegiate Sport

o Competition increases → rule may become looser → coaches  and players may try to win at all costs

- Aggression Definition: behavior directed toward another person and  intended to dominate or master

- Violence

o Perception that athletes are more violent than other people  o Sport as mirror of society in violent acts and acceptance of  violent acts

- On field-violence in sport

o Demands of collision and contact sports

o Societal view of masculinity encourages warrior mentality o It is unclear whether on- field violence leads to off-field violence ▪ Alcohol increases the incidence of violence—athletes are  more prone to binge drinking  

- Concussions  

o Children and teens are more likely than adults to be concusses  and recover more slowly

▪ 2/5 concussed high school athletes return to play before  they have recovered  

▪ Strict concussion guidelines are needed  

- Violence against women

o Rape culture at universities

▪ 1/5 women is raped

▪ Rape is committed by rising proportion of athletes and  men at military academies

o Ray Rice—example of violence against women

- Consequences of On-Field Violence

o Shortened career and reduced earnings

o Pressure to return from injury

o Concussions

o Neg. publicity for team, league, and organizations

o Poor behavior modeling  

- Show Cause Penalty (Universities)

o Coaches seeking employment  

o The university must make a case why the coach should be  hired  

▪ Ensures they follow the rules and has a time limit  

o Bruce Pearl had a permanent show cause at U of Tenn.  

Chapter 20 Study Points: Deviance and Sport 

- Deviance Definition

o Behavior that is beyond “normal” behavior → can be good or  bad

▪ Not conforming to the groups rules and norms

▪ Overconforming to the groups expectations  

- Performance Enhancers

o Some athletes use steroids or other drugs

▪ Alex Rodriguez and Ryan Braun (MLB examples)

o Usage is not a new phenomenon but does get more media  exposure now

- Methods of Administration (How you take the drugs)  o Orally (swallowing)

o Sublingually (under the tongue)

o By injection

o Topically  

- Types of drugs used by modern athletes

1. Prescriptions and OTC

a. Promote healing, mask pain, long term risks  

(liver/kidney damage + addiction)  

2. Stimulants

a. Increase arousal and energy

3. Anabolic steroids

a. Increase muscle size, speed, strength, and ability to  train soon after exhaustion

b. Tissue building effects: increase in muscle size and  strength  

4. Others  

a. HGH, doping, amino acids

- Androgenic Steroids

o Testosterone (primary natural male hormone)

▪ Also found in females—just not at the same high levels

o Masculinizing effects

▪ Growth of facial hair

▪ Growth of body hair

▪ Deepening of the voice  

▪ Fluid retention

▪ Acne

▪ Males can develop female breasts (not reversible)  

- Reasons for use

o Accepted Medical Uses

▪ Burn victims

o Enhance athletic performance

o Approve appearance

- Groups of Users

o College athletes

o Olympic athletes

o Weightlifters

o Professional athletes

o Adolescent age school children (most alarming group) - Steve Courson—former football player at USC and Pittsburg Steeler  o 5”11 weighing 280lbs—ran a 4.6 sec 40yrd dash

o Admitted to using steroids while in the NFL

▪ Had many health issues) heart transplant list)

o Testified before congress about the dangers of steroids  - Scandals

o East Germans and Chinese Swimmers

▪ Both groups were fairly young and did not know what they  were being given

o Cyclist

o Ben Johnson

▪ Canadian swimmer found to be using steroids. Olympic  medals stripped away

o MLB players  

- Eating Disorders in Sport  

o Types

▪ anorexia

▪ bulimia

▪ compulsive exercise  

o 33% of female athletes report having an eating disorder  o 10% of male athletes

o Eating disorders have increased because of Title IX→ more  female participants

▪ Female athlete triad

• Disordered eating

• Amenorrhea: absence or abnormal female period  

due to lack of nutrition  

• Osteoporosis: bones

- Hazing

o Any action that inflicts mental or physical harm or anxiety or  demeans or degrades regardless of intent or consent  - Gambling in Sport

o Chicago Black Sox

▪ Owner was known for being cheap and players did not  feel they were treated fairly in terms of pay

• Some players took money from gamblers to  

determine the way they would play during the game

o College Basketball

▪ “Shaving Points” some players would purposefully miss  free throws or shots to keep points in threshold  

o Pete Rose- bet on baseball although illegal

- All but two US states allow some types of gambling

- Some $2.5B is bet illegally each year on March madness - $85M is bet legally  

- College athletes have a higher rate of problem gambling than  nonathletes  

o Male students are more likely to gamble than female students  o Nonathletes are more likely to bet at casinos

o Typical gambling debts range from $100-$5000 or more  o Students with a gambling problem tend to have other issues  (binge eating, heavy drinking, tobacco or marijuana use)  

Chapter 21 Study Points: Future Trends in Sport - US Social Trends that will affect US Sport

o Global trends  

o Increase in number of older athletes

o Protection of citizens’ rights

o Protection of sport investments

- Performance Sport: US

o Youth participation will increase among those who can afford it o Schools will invest more in college athletic programs

o TV rights fees go down, other media sources (streaming) will  bring in $

- Performance Sport: International

o Soccer participation and spectatorship will increase o Olympics will become more professional  

o Female sport will continue to grow

o Drug-testing programs will be expanded  

- Participation Sport

o Health struggles will continue to increase

o Connection will become clearer between physical activity and  health and quality of life

- Social Changes

o Civil rights movement increased diversity in sport

o Minority opportunities have not caught up

▪ Overall in level and high level of sport administration  o Minorities (any group that could be singled out and treated  differently)  

o LGBT individuals need to be welcomed into sport and  leadership positions  

- Spectatorship

o Pay-per0view and internet viewing will continue to grow o Legalized sports gambling

o Completion will increase for fans’ time and commitment  - Technology

o Equipment and facility improvements will result in better  performance

o Training methods will be improved

o New drugs and performance enhancers

o Injury recovering process will be improved  

- Electronic Media

o Sport action will be viewed on demand

o More interactive fantasy teams

o Online sport wagering  

o ESPN will continue to grow

- Social theories and Change

o Functionalist: sport can be changed from the inside o Conflict: participation sport programs allow more people to  participate

o positions

o Interactionalist: athletes will force changes from the bottom up o Critical: educators can take the lead in determining the value  and place of sport in society

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