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AU - NTRI 2000 - Spring 2018 - History Final Exam Notes - Study Guide

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AU - NTRI 2000 - Spring 2018 - History Final Exam Notes - Study Guide

School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Ramesh Jeganathan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: history, auburn, Auburn University, Gaddis, and HIST1020
Name: History Final Exam Notes
Description: Auburn University HIST 1020 Gaddis Final Exam
Uploaded: 04/24/2018
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background image History Exam 3 WWII (March 27, 2018) Post WWI Peace - Dubbed “war to end all wars” o Optimism of early peace process - Flawed peace process o Failure of 14 Points
o German blame
o Imposed boundaries and borders
- Results o Resentment in punished countries
o Rise of dictators and authoritarianism
Resentment, aggression, and expansion - Germany and Japan o Germany- harsh peace terms
o Japan- hurt by economy
o Imperial ambitions for both
- Racial theories o Superiority of nation’s people 
o Right to expand into other land
o Impose racial hierarchies on country
Germany goes to war - 1939- Germans and Soviets sing non-aggression pact o invaded Poland together - Germany begins march across Europe o Heading west - 1941- Germany controls almost all of Europe German style of war - Blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) o Tank led assaults
o Motorized infantry, then foot soldiers
- Builds on technological advances of WWI
- Bombing campaigns
o Blitz and Battle of Britain (1940-41)
o Constant, nightly bombing of British cities
Germany expands to the Eastern Front - 1941 Germany breaks pact with Soviets o 3.2 million men, 3,000 tanks against Soviets
o largest invading force ever
- battle of Stalingrad
background image o 1.5 German and allied causalities
o Soviet slowly pushed Germans back west
- Almost incalculable losses on both sides o Main focus of Euro war- 85% of German causalities on this front Europe Won - British and Americans fought Germans in west o Stopped German advances in N. Africa
o D-day “944” Allied invasions of France
Troops fought way through to German  - Soviet forces pushed from the east into Germany o Anglo-America forces from west into Germany
o April, 1945: both forces reach Berlin, Hitler commits suicide
o Total war in Europe over
Selling the war (key concept) - Making the war a moral struggle
- Propaganda
The Holocaust (key concept) – the industrialization of death - Systematic campaign of execution by Germans o Idea of purifying the state Nationalism taken to its extremes Use of industrial processes - Statistics on the Holocaust o 6 million Jews
o ~5+ million Non-Jewish Soviet civilian
o ~1.8 million Non-Jewish Polish civilians
o ~200,000 Roma (Gypsy)
o 200,000 mentally ill or physical disabled
o 70,000 repeat criminal offenders
o ~5,000 war criminals
o ~3,000-9,000 homosexuals
o ~2,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses
Human and material costs - Soviet Union o 7-10 million military deaths; 20 million civilian
o 70,000 Soviet villages levelled
o 1/3 of all Soviet wealth spent or destroyed
- Germany o 3.5 million military deaths
o Many cities (like Dresden almost completely destroyed
- 6 million died in Poland (mostly military)
- 400,000 British killed
o 400,000 Americans killed
background image The War in the Pacific Origins of the war - Conflict begins earlier- Japanese imperial ambitions o 1931 invasion of Manchuria Leads to 1937 offensive against China as a whole o Rape of Nanjing (1937-28) - 1940: make pact w/ Germany o Occupies French Indochina
o Becomes main power in Pacific
- U.S. is obstacle to further Pacific expansion o Attacks U.S. in December 1941 at Pearl Harbor
o Continued expansion, taking American controlled Philippines, 
Dutch East Indies by 1942 Japanese war tactics - Posed as anticolonial war o Pan-Asian sentiment
o Drive out Euro. imperialism in Asia
Contradiction: belief in Japanese superiority, etc - Forced labor o 4 million Koreans Men as laborers, women as “comfort women” (prostitutes) 
for Japanese soldiers
Seeking unconditional surrender - Fighting between Pacific islands o U.S. and Japan
o Incredibly deadly fighting w/high casualty rates
- 1945 o Fight reaches Japan
o Tokyo bombing, March
- Japanese continue to refuse surrender The Atomic Bomb - Developed by United States scientists o Brigadier-General Leslie Groves & Robert Oppenheimer +  500,000 workers - Calculation by U.S. Pres. Truman: invasion would cost more lives
- Dropped on August 6 – Hiroshima (“Little Boy”) – and August 9 
Nagasaki (“Fat Man”) (key concept) o Immediate death in tens of thousands
o Untold lasting impact
- Brings about end of war: Emperor Hirohito surrenders
background image The impact of the Atomic bomb - Radiation and fallout impact for generations
- Paves way for postwar “big science”
o Military industrial complex - Begins use of “atomic diplomacy” Creating the Three Worlds The end of European supremacy - War’s atrocities led to questioning of “civilization” o Undermine further European claims of supremacy
o New ideas and systems for the post-war world
Political alternatives - Democracy’s tarnished reputation o Interwar democratic govts.
o Long failure to live up to ideals
- Communism’s appeal o Blank slate
o New kind of power to the masses
- Three worlds (key concept) The Big Three - Yalta Conference, February 1945 o America, Britain, Soviets
o New main world powers
o No dominate power
America and Russia jockeying for influence - Russia o Spread Communism beyond borders
o Gain influence in nearby geographic areas
- America o Contain Russian threat
o Stop spread of Communism
- Cold War (key concept) Forming alliances - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (key concept) o 1949 military alliance
o Capitalist countries
o N. America, Western Europe 
- Warsaw Pact o 1955 military alliance
o Response to NATO
o Communist countries (USSR and E. Europe)
background image Europe divided - Iron Curtain (key concept) o Europe divided into blocs of influence
o Originally symbolic—later materialized
o Keeps countries from contact
- Germany divided o West Germany (Federal Republic—capitalist)
o East Germany (German Democratic Republic—communist)
o Berlin wall
Dividing city Become main symbol of Cold War Suburban growth - Move toward suburbs, away from cities, rural areas o Allowed by government aid programs Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) Also gave education benefits Toward creation of white middle class o African Americans excluded from programs
o Redlining
Television, consumerism, and normality - New medium: television o First mass broadcast in 1947
o By end of 1950s, 90% households owned
- Replaced radio o As entertainment medium
o As advertising medium
o Programming enforced normative idea of family, social life
- Programming enforced normative idea of family, social life o Reflected new suburban majority 
o Only 3 networks—limited shows
The emerging Cold War mentality  - Red Scare (key concept) o Extreme fear and paranoia of Communism
o Began in government
Moved to entertainment, all aspects of society o Led by Senator Joseph McCarthy
o Extreme persecutions of suspected Communists
Stalinism on the rise - Terror/Great purges of late 1930-40s o Millions of officials and ordinary people purged from party and  exiled
background image 1 million executed, 4-5 million sent to labor camps o Internal enemy to continue building conflict and solidarity
o U.S. becomes official state enemy after war
- Stalinism o Moves toward more repression, exploitation of working class
o Away from revolutionary vision 
Living in a socialist society - Social life marked by mass organizations o Student groups, worker groups, women’s groups etc
o Controlled by party
- No free consumerism o Lines, rations - Stalin: women question solved o Early feminism gives way to double working duty for women  Urban life in Russia - Economic emphasis on industry led to growth of cities
- Collective living in apartment buildings
o Led to culture of surveillance - Led to privileged class in cities o Elite bureaucratic and technical workers 
o Despite classless society
- Exploitation of countryside for industrial aims
- All culture state approved and propped up state
o Commonality with American television Korean War 1950-53 - N. Korea invades S. Korea o Soviets, Chinese (Communist) and Americans involved
o Becomes proxy war for capitalist/communist ideological struggle
o Result: Korea divided
Extending capitalist/communist divisions to Asia Extending battlefield of American anti-Communism  Impacts of the Korean War - First nuclear age war o Russia developed bomb in 1949
o Both sides could now destroy enemy country completely
- Spurred on anti-Communist militarization o From war of words to war
o Rapid build up of NATO military
- Established Japan as capitalist ally o Bulwark against communism in region
o American aid to rebuild economy
- Loss of lives

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School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Ramesh Jeganathan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: history, auburn, Auburn University, Gaddis, and HIST1020
Name: History Final Exam Notes
Description: Auburn University HIST 1020 Gaddis Final Exam
Uploaded: 04/24/2018
31 Pages 60 Views 48 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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