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UT / Advertising / ADV 319 / What are the dimensions of emotional states?

What are the dimensions of emotional states?

What are the dimensions of emotional states?

Description

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Advertising
Course: Psychology of Advertising
Professor: Close-schienbaum
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Adv exam 3 study guide
Description: exam 3
Uploaded: 04/27/2018
20 Pages 215 Views 10 Unlocks
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Study guide Exam 3


What are the dimensions of emotional states?



Buying, using…

Consumption situation; Situational influences

The consumption situation includes

● How the purchase setting makes us feel

○ Remember the discussion on emotion as a key part of the decision making process and of memory

○ The result of physical and social aspects

● Why we want to make a purchase

○ And why now, in this moment?

Co-consumers

● Other people present during a consumption situation/experience

● Co-consumers = other people there with us, also consuming

○ Large numbers of people can be arousing


When situational influences, occurs?



○ Density (good) versus crowding (bad)

■ Amount of co-consumers has a threshold into crowding

○ Type of patrons/co-consumers

Issues related to purchase and post-purchase

● Consumers evaluate their purchase and their decision before and after buying ● If something performs as expected, not much is said/thought about ● If something performs worse than expected, then there are negative feelings ● If something performs better than expected, there are positive feelings If you want to learn more check out What are three key problems associated with tuna fishing?

Dimensions of emotional states, mood; Physical/ambient factors

Dimensions of emotional statues: environments

● Slide 9 - blanks 1 buying etc


What is the difference between purchase and post-purchase?



● Do certain stores have these certain vibes?

○ Exciting (arousing and pleasant): REI

○ Relaxing (pleasant and sleepy): mattress stores

○ Gloomy (sleepy and unpleasant): hot topic

Physical factors that create these states

● Ambient factors are usually non-visual and not noticed unless they exceed an acceptable range

● They can impact the mood

Physical factors: Music

● Can positively influence mood and desire to stay in store

● Shouldn’t be too loud or distracting from the experience - unless that is the experience ● Music can prevent negative emotions, when the customer has to wait ○ On The phone

○ Is supposed to ease frustration and make time pass quickly

○ Elevator music - to help people feel less anxious

Physical factors: light

● Has 2 functions Don't forget about the age old question of What are rotational dynamics?

○ Transmits a certain image - depends on what audience/demographic they want to cater to

○ Helps customers examine the merchandise

● Bright rooms are more arousing than dim ones

● Goal-oriented customers prefer a bright room

○ It facilitates the product search

○ The consumers are there to buy something they previously decided on getting ● Exploring customers prefer a dimmed, atmospheric store

○ Shopping to kill time, shopping to look around

○ Don’t have a specific product in mind you need

○ May or may not actually buy something

Temperature

● Too much heat → fatigue → more negative responses

○ Important for stores to have the correct temperature

● Hot customers respond more negatively to other customers and employees ● In public places, people generally feel comfortable with temperatures between 67-73 degrees F If you want to learn more check out What are the three types of forecasting?

● Customers shouldn’t notice a specific temperature

Social factors, co-consumers

● Co-consumers = other people there with us, also consuming We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between the behaviors of male and female crickets?

○ Large numbers of people can be arousing

○ Density (good) versus crowding (bad)

■ Amount of co-consumers has a threshold into crowding

○ Type of patrons/co-consumers

● Advertising and marketing can convey types of customers/consumers to you without you even going to the store

○ Models and mannequins

○ Other visual cues

Shopping orientation

● the importance people place on various product attributes, media preference, and brand loyalty generally supports this pattern

Time (poverty, queuing)

● Time poverty: not having enough time

○ More of a perception than reality

■ seems due to so many choices

■ There hasn’t been an actual significant change in how much free time we’ve had over the years - but now we have way more choices on how to spend our free time

■ Too many things to do, not enough time to do them - makes us feel like we don’t have enough time

● How much time do you have while making your purchase, to make decisions? ● The experience of time We also discuss several other topics like Who own factors of production?

○ Queuing theory

■ Waiting for product = good quality (worth the wait)

■ Too much waiting creates negative feelings; impatience

Fast vs. slow countries

● People in different countries also spend their time in money in different ways and at different rates

● Fastest countries: Switzerland, Ireland, Germany, Japan, Italy

● Slowest countries: Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, El Salvador, Syria

Bricks vs clicks; E-commerce. Showrooming

E-commerce: clicks versus bricks - shopping online rather than in person ● Benefits: 24/7, can comparison shop, more options (colors, sizes, etc) ● Limitations: security is ever-evolving (data breaches), social experience gone, cost of shipping

○ Another downside: how this affects brick and mortar stores If you want to learn more check out How does a silicone ear function?

■ Showrooming: finding something in a physical store, but not buying it and looking online for it somewhere else cheaper

■ So it’s possible for them to go out of business

Retail theatre and theming covered in book and lecture; Pop-up stores, restaurants (examples)

Retail theater and theming

● Pop-up shops

○ Sephora pop up shop

○ Halloween stores

○ Pop up restaurants

● Stores like bass pro and cabela’s - theatrical experience

Augmented, virtual reality

● Augmented reality: layer of digital information over a physical environment ○ Allow shopper to access additional information from product packages ● Virtual reality: computer-simulation interface, creates the impression the use is physically present

○ Can provide totally immersive experience for shoppers

Store image

● In the same way that brands have personalities, stores have certain personalities or images that they want to uphold

○ Affected by location, merchandise, suitability, staff

In-store decisions; Spontaneous shopping

● The store environment has a strong influence on purchases

○ Store displays

● Can cause unplanned buying or impulse buying

Collaborative consumption, 2 types

● Sharing and redistribution networks often facilitated through apps

○ Apps constantly changing

○ Transportation, rideshare apps

○ Lodging, airbnb

○ Clothing marketplace, thredup, poshmark

● There are broadly two forms

○ Access system: resource distributions systems in which individuals may provide and obtain temporary access to resources, either for free or for a fee

○ Redistribution system: individuals may provide and obtain resources permanently, either for free or for a fee

■ About 85% of consumers have acquired or disposed of pre-owned goods through second-hard marketplaces, donation, or barter, through online

or offline exchange channels

Botsman Ted Talk

● Ted talk by rachel botsman

○ The currency of the new economy is trust

○ Airbnb: technology creates a marketplace for something that hadn’t existed before

○ Collaborative consumption creates micro-entrepreneurs

○ Builds trust between strangers

○ About empowering people to make meaningful connections

■ Built on personal relationships instead of empty transactions

○ Technology advancement increases efficiency to make sharing easier ○ Trust and efficiency are critical

○ Social networking → service networking

○ Reputation: measures how much a community trusts you

○ Reputation should travel with you, but reputation is contextual

○ Reputation capital: worth of your reputation - intentions, capabilities and values - across communities and marketplaces

○ We can shape our reputation

○ Reputation is becoming a currency that will be more powerful than our credit history in 21st century

Black Mirror episode “Nosedive”

● Example of how our reputation could completely control our lives and dictate what we are able to do, buy, etc.

Groups

Reference groups, types; membership, aspirations; Influence; positive, negative ● Reference group: actual ot imaginary individual or group that significant influences an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior

○ Membership reference group: consists of people we know

○ Aspirational reference group: people we don’t know but we admire them anyway

○ Avoidance groups: consists of people who do things that we don’t want; we do the opposite of them on purpose

Types of power, conformity

● Social power: capacity to alter the actions of others

○ How groups can be persuasive

● Referent power: modeling/copying the referent’s behaviors

● Information power: knowing something others would like to know

● Legitimate power: power granted by virtue of social agreements

○ Police, soldiers, etc.

● Expert power: derives from knowledge someone possesses about a content area ○ Getting hard to tell who is actually an expert on something

● Coercive power: when we influence someone because of social or physical intimidation

Brand communities and tribes

● Social networking has created online brand communities and groups

Avoidance, anti brand

● Avoidance groups: mentioned earlier

● Anti Brand communities: avoidance groups online who unite by their disdain for a brand, product, store, etc.

Conformity

● Change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure Homophily

● The degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs

Trolls, lurkers

● Internet trolls: post/say things online that they would never do in real life ○ Post a big issue for social networks

● Lurkers: online users who absorb content that others post rather than contributing their own

Social networks; FOMO

● Social media changes the way we learn about and select products

● Social media creates online community

● Creates FOMO (fear of missing out)

● Social network: a set of socially relevant nodes connected by one or more relations

Sociometry, tie strength, weak ties

● Sociometric methods trace communication patterns among members of a group ● Tie strength refers to the nature of the bond between people

● Strength of weak ties: gaining access to people’s valuable expertise through this bridging function

Opinion leadership; Types of opinion leaders; Market Mavens

● Opinion leaders are frequently able to influence each others’ attitudes or behaviors ○ Knowledgeable about products

○ People take their advice seriously

● Types of opinion leaders

○ Innovators: try new things

■ Innovative communicators

○ Opinion seekers

○ Market maven: person who likes to transmit marketplace information of all types. These shopaholics are not necessarily interested in the products they recommend; they simply enjoy staying on top of what’s happening in the marketplace

○ Surrogate consumer

WOM

● Word of mouth

○ Product information that individuals transmit to others by word of mouth ○ More reliable and trustworthy than messages from more formal marketing channels

○ Can be positive, negative

Two-step flow of influence

● A small group of influencers disseminates information because they can modify the opinions of a large number of other people

Digital virtual consumption

(mentioned above with augmented and virtual reality)

Income, class

Discretionary income

● money available to a household over and above what it requires to have a comfortable standard of living

Consumer confidence

● Measure of consumers’ beliefs about what the future holds

● Reflects how optimistic or pessimistic people are about the future health of the economy and how they predict they’ll fare down the road

● Influence how people spend their money

Social class

Social class structure

● Determined by income, family background, and occupation

● Social class affects your access to resources

○ Education, money, food, people, housing, etc.

● Thus it can be cyclical

Mass class

● describes the hundreds of millions of global consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power that’s sufficient to let them afford high-quality products—except for big-ticket items such as college educations, housing, or luxury cars

Status (achieved vs ascribed)

● Achieved status: status that you’ve earned

○ Example: by working

● Ascribed status: status/wealth that you already have

○ Example: born into a high class family

Social mobility

● Moving from one social class to another

Occupational prestige

Occupational prestige and income

● Occupation prestige

○ Single best indicator of social class

○ Is stable over time and similar across cultures

○ Pay and job satisfaction are not always synonymous with prestige or respect ○ Forbes article: most prestigious jobs in US, top three:

■ Doctor

■ Scientist

■ Firefighter

Social capital

● Organizational affiliations and experiences that provide access to desirable social networks

Taste culture

● A group of consumers who share aesthetic and intellectual preferences

Dollar Shave examples, Thousand Dollar, Volvo; Attitudes toward luxury ● Dollar Shave Club vs Thousand Dollar Shave Club: example of high and low culture ○ Thousand dollar shave club appeals to more high class, wealthy prestigious men ● Volvo had an “anti rich” campaign

○ Marketing the “backlash”

Black Friday, themes, examples of working v. consumption

Black friday

● Common themes

○ Peak consumption

○ Indicator of economy

○ Thrill of thriftiness

○ Excitement over new products or trends

○ Beginning of the holiday season

○ For 1 in 5 people - it’s a long workday

● How you celebrate a holiday can be tied to your socioeconomic status

Class as predictor of consumption

Predicting consumer behavior

● Whether social class or income is a better predictor of a consumer’s behavior depends on the type of product:

○ Social class is a better predictor of lower to moderately priced symbolic purchases

■ Makeup, clothes

○ Income is a better predictor of major non status/nonsymbolic expenditures ■ Major appliances

○ Need both social class and income to predict expensive, symbolic products

■ Cars, homes

American dream; Status and Rap, examples

● The dream is difficult to obtain for a large portion of the population, but particularly for those from historically disadvantaged communities

● And race does matter

For some the American Dream seems unachievable

● Thus the attractiveness of luxury brands - if only through art

● Hip hop often mentions luxury

Latino/Latina media images example video

● The impact of race on social class and income begins with stereotypes ● Latina women in the media - video

○ The media shows latina women as exotic, sexy, and thin

○ Rely on stereotypes

● Children’s aspirations are set by what they witness as possible, and this impacts each generation

Breaking down stereotypes using art and media | Bayete Ross Smith ● TED talk: discusses art as a way to build positive imagery within communities ○ Breaking down stereotypes with art and media

○ “Media is defining who we are”

○ But in this time today, we are all media makers, we are in control of our media ■ We have the power to create media that’s inclusive

Level of disadvantage 50s to now. Across races, and over time.

● From 1955 to 2000, the numbers are similar for the percentage living at a disadvantage

Fortune 500’s top American corporation

● Fortune 500 companies, top 3 in US

○ Walmart ($485,873)

○ Berkshire hathaway ($223,604)

○ Apple ($215,639)

Nouveau riche

● Consumers who recently achieved their wealth and who don’t have the benefit of years of training to learn how to spend it

● Suffer from status anxiety

Affluenza

● Well off consumers who are stressed or unhappy despite of, or even because of, their wealth

Wealth disparity videos from class

“Inherited vs earned” (but what about privilege?)

● People who come from wealth and people who are newly wealthy are portrayed in different ways

● What is privilege?

○ Buzzfeed video, “privilege walk”

● Important not to think in black and white

Factors impacting privilege from video

● Race, gender, wealth, sexual orientation, physical ability, etc.

Lifestyle marketing

● Based on the recognition that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of the things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend their disposable income

BRIC Nations

● The bloc of nations with rapid economic development: Brazil, Russia, India, China

Digital Divide

● The gulf between wealthy and poor people in terms of online access

Subcultures

Race and advertising (our purpose); Race and brand personality

Our purpose in advertising

● At the root of ADV and PR are mass communication and relationship building ● So for practitioners of ADV and PR - the focus is on reaching masses - large audiences - with a positive message about your brand

● We talk a lot about segmenting to reach specific audience

○ But it isn’t possible to reach a segment that will see things exactly as you do ○ We’re limited as humans (education, culture, religion) in how we see the world ● The professional needs to anticipate the multiple interpretations of each message across potential audiences

○ Everyone will see and interpret your message, even if you’re targeting a specific demographic

■ Could they be offended? And create new negative messages?

● And we need to assess if the potential interpretations are on brand and on message ○ We need more diversity in advertising

○ Keeping “on brand” means keeping brand personality in mind

● This isn’t the time to take a stand against “uptight people” or “political correctness” - this is business

○ You can’t be “sick of PC culture” in these situations

○ Have to treat this like business

● Message creators must do their homework on how racial characteristics, and minority characters and identities will be received across audiences

○ How will this be received by different groups?

○ Can’t seem like you are trying to define identity

Racist ad examples, Hollywood roles, commentary

● Heineken racist ad example

○ “Sometimes lighter is better” - beer can slides pass multiple black people until a light skinned woman picks it up

○ Ad for light beer

● H&M Hoodie “Coolest monkey in the jungle” worn by black child model ● Toyota commercial music video

○ Need to make a minivan seem cool, have a sense of humor about it

○ Take something cool (hip hop) with something uncool (minivan)

○ Strange to have privileged family meshed with hip hop beat

Cultural appropriation

● Amandla Stenberg’s video on cultural appropriation

○ Cultural appropriation: when style leads to racist generalizations/stereotypes when done by people of color, but deemed as cool or hip when the privileged take it for themselves

Ted Talk Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

● Danger of a single story TED talk

○ “Single stories” result in inevitable and sometimes unconscious stereotypes and generalizations formed in our minds

Big three ethnic subcultures (including highlighted stats from class); Black millennials; Hispanic American cultural attitudes, women; Asian American women Market profiles: African Americans

● African Americans make up more than 13 percent of the US population ● African Americans spend $1.2 trillion annually

● Marketers have recognized the huge impact of this racial subculture - both as trend setters and consumers

● “Our research shows that Black consumer choices have a ‘cool factor’ that has created a halo effect, influencing not just consumers of color, but the mainstream as well. These figures show that investment...to develop products and marketing that appeal to diverse consumers is, indeed, paying off handsomely” Cheryl Grace, Senior VP Nielsen ○ Need to be wary of how others latch on to these messages

Market profiles: Black Millenials

● Receptive to advertising, but highly critical and sensitive about how they are portrayed ○ 75% want more ads that reflect black culture/heritage, but they are wary of how ads depict blacks and their culture (including language, music, etc.)

■ Want representation, but want good representation

○ More sensitive than other generations to negative portrayals

■ 55% believe ads geared toward black consumers are stereotypical or offensive, which is much higher than baby boomers (35%) and the swing generation (40%)

● More likely to than Whites to be drawn to brands that are hip or cool, but brands have to be careful that they’re not coming across as trying too hard

○ Authenticity is important

● Black millenials go out of their way to support a brand that advertises using black casts and cultural themes

○ Media brands

Market profiles: Hispanic Americans

● Hispanic describes people of multiple different backgrounds

○ 60% of Hispanic Americans are of Mexican descent

○ Puerto Ricans make up less than 10% but are the 2nd largest group

● The 2010 census: Hispanics are ⅙ of US residents

● Demographically, there are 2 important characteristics:

○ Young market - influences trends

○ Likely to live in large, tradition, married-with-children families with, lots of participation from grandparents

■ Grandparents give kids a lot of unhealthy foods, which counteracts

efforts to make Hispanic parents give more healthy options to their kids ■ So marketing is trying to reach the extended family too

● Tend to be community oriented and have high aspirations for children; they more often live in large, traditional, married-with-children families

● Hispanic buying power reached $1.4 trillion in 2016, expected to reach $1.8 trillion by 2021 (from Nielsen)

● There is increased interest in marketers to further segment in terms of US-born and foreign-born

○ There are differences in the culture between the two

● Cultural attitudes:

○ 36% are bridge builders

■ Open minded

■ Willing to suppress their own culture for the sake of creating

relationships

■ See US as welcoming, that it offers all they need to succeed

■ Skew less acculturated

○ 22% are soul searchers

■ More individualistic

■ Aim to find their own identity

■ Young or going through midlife crisis

■ Skew more acculturated

○ 27% soul finders

■ Confident of who they are

■ Proud of their origins

■ Confident about their own abilities, even if the environment isn’t

favorable

■ Skew unacculturated

○ 15% culturally detached

■ Indifferent toward culture

■ Lack assertiveness or interest

■ Skew acculturated

● Hispanic American women

○ College enrollment rates among female Hispanics graduation from high school now outpace both non-Hispanic whites and African Americans

■ 74% of Latinas who graduated high school in 2012-2014 are now enrolled in college

● This is higher than non-Hispanic whites by 73% and higher than

African Americans by 65%

● This will drive rising household income and greater household

expenditures

Market profiles: Asian Americans

● Asian Americans are the fastest growing and most affluent and best-educated minority group in the US

○ Median income is 28% higher than US average

○ More than twice as likely to have graduated from college

○ Active and impulsive buyers

○ Culturally diverse, different languages and dialects

■ Can make it complicated to reach them through marketing

○ Status conscious, brand loyal, and buy premium brands

○ Place great emphasis on family

○ Third largest spending of multicultural groups, at $825 billion

● Represent more than 40 countries of origin - why they are hard to reach through marketing

○ Asians of Chinese ancestry are the largest group 20%

○ South Asian Indians 17%

○ Filipinos 16%

○ Vietnamese 9%

○ Koreans 9%

○ Japanese 6%

○ Multiracial groups rapidly expanding 18%

● Asian American Women

○ “Ambicultural with an immigrant edge”

■ US born growing faster than foreign born population

■ 78% of US born women are age 34 or younger

■ Haf of US foreign students from China, India, and South Korea

■ 16% ethnically identify as two or more races

○ They are savvy shoppers

■ 76% will pay more for a brand they trust

■ 71% try to buy foods grown locally

■ 42% used natural or organic beauty products in the last 12 months (10% higher than non-Hispanic white women)

○ Jetsetter

■ 54% have traveled outside the continental US in the last 3 years

■ 12% took a foreign business trip during the last 3 years

■ 14% took a domestic business trip in the last year

○ Tech and digital content mavens

■ Highest smartphone use in the US

■ Highest computer, tablet, and video ownership

■ 83% have used social networking in the last 30 days (especially

Snapchat)

■ High use of apps such as Skype, GroupMe, WhatsApp, and Hangouts ■ 66% use online banking, 22% higher than the total adult population

Acculturation

● the process of movement and adaptation to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country. This is an important issue for marketers due to our increasingly global society.

Age cohort

● An age cohort consists of people of similar ages who have similar experiences. They share many common memories about cultural icons (e.g., John Wayne versus Brad Pitt), important historical events (e.g., the Great Depression versus the Great Recession), etc

Generations (XYZ etc.). Millennials

● Gen X: born between 1965 and 1985

● Gen Y: born between 1986 and 2002

○ Aka millennials

● Gen Z: born in late 1900s to early 2000s

Senior market

● Seniors are a more important market segment than many marketers realize ● The needs of older consumers will become increasingly important

● Consumers over 50 who control a large amount of discretionary income

Teens, tweens

● Tweens: children ages 8-14

● Teens: ages 13-18

Religion in the US stats for Christian, non-christian and unaffiliated; Religious subcultures; Religion and consumption; Islamic marketing; % of muslims born in U.S. Religion in the US

● How religion influences consumption

○ Resurgence of interest in religion and spirituality

○ Religions or spiritual messages can be used to describe brand communities or as a foundation for non-religious organizations

■ Example: the growth of yoga

○ There’s a negative relationship between brand reliance and religiosity ■ More religious = less likely to be brand loyal/rely on brands

○ Organized religion and consumption

■ Religion influences food purchases, attitudes toward sexuality,

birthrates, household formulation, income, and political attitudes

■ Religious leaders can encourage consumption or, more importantly, discourage consumption

● About 70% Christian, 30% not

● Islamic Marketing

○ Muslims will be more than ¼ of the Earth’s population by 2030

○ Halal food and other commodities, services, and activities may also appeal to mainstream consumers

○ 42% of US Muslim adults are born in the US

Data on republican vs. democrat in the US (2014)

● 37% republican

● 44% democrat

Religion with highest republican and highest democrat identities

● Democrat: Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, historically black Protestant, Muslim ● Republican: Evangelical Protestant, Mainline Protestant, Mormon

Audio story on Muslims in America

● About Muslim identity across the country in a time of anti-Muslim

● Increasingly diverse population of Muslims across the USA “controlling their own narrative”

Culture

Culture; Cultural systems

Culture

● Society’s personality

● Shapes individuals

○ Plays important role in our own identities

● Systemic - result of systems

Culture systems - all interact with each other

● Ecology: habitat, space, environment

○ Structural, physical aspect of culture

○ Landscape and the environment impact and influence the culture

○ Example: in Texas, the oil and gas industry impact the culture; we have a lot of geology that lends itself to energy investment

■ Close to Mexico: Tex-mex, immigrant populations,

■ Shapes political culture

● Social structure: family, society, government

● Ideology: the psychology of the people, values, morals, norms

● Social structure and ecology closely related

● Social structure and ideology closely related

● Ecology and ideology closely related

Cultural stories and ceremonies

● Recall class narratives, archetypes, etc.

○ Have figures/characters that share roles and values

● Means for a culture to express itself

○ Norms and values are conveyed within and throughout generations ○ Help keep culture together

Cultural movement

● The world brims with different styles and possibilities in terms of culture ● The ebb and flow of popular culture influences everything in our daily lives

Cultural production process

Cultural production system (PPT culture slide 18)

● Create subsystem generates new culture production system

○ Creating new things

● Managerial subsystem selects and distributes to culture production system ○ Someone somewhere has to pick this up and distribute it

○ Often done online through social media and news sites

● Culture production system → communications subsystem (gives meaning and attributes) → gatekeepers (judges, critics, writers, etc.) → consumers

Cultural formula

● Sequence of media events in which certain roles and props tend to occur consistently

Global consumer culture, prognosis for future growth

● Culture in which people around the world are united through their common devotion to brand name consumer goods, movie stars, celebrities, and leisure activities

Etic/Emic

● Etic perspective: an approach to studying/marketing to cultures that stresses commonalities across cultures

● Emic perspective: an approach to studying/marketing to cultures that stresses the unique aspects of each culture

Pricing effects (e.g., snob)

● Prestige-exclusivity effect: high prices create high demand

● Snob effect: lower prices reduce demand

Trickle theory

● Trickle down: fashions spread as the result of status symbols associated with the upper classes “trickling down” to other social classes as these consumers try to emulate those with greater status

High-low culture

● High culture: group members tend to be close-knit and are likely to infer meanings that go beyond the spoken word

● Low culture: more literal

Pop culture

● Music, movies, sports, books, celebrities, and other forms of entertainment consumed by the mass market

Fad, acceptance cycles

● Fad: short lived fashion

● Acceptance cycles: way to differentiate among fashions in terms of their longevity

Myths, example from class

Functions of myths

● Metaphysical: origins of existence

○ Offers a culture a way to express/think about the origins of existence ○ “How did we get here?”

○ Often has religious overtones

● Cosmological: all in universe linked

○ Give sense that all things in the universe are linked together in some meaningful way

● Sociological: social codes to keep order

○ Portray and convey social codes to prevent chaos, to encourage order

● Psychological: codes for personal conduct

○ What it means to be ___

■ Man, woman, child, etc.

● Examples: be good or Santa won’t bring you presents; elf on a shelf; cultures often have a mythical creature that will eat bad children; boy who cried wolf Myth: clip from movie Apocalypto

● Describes the origins of man’s talents but also his insatiable desire for more ● Even with all the gifts that man has, the “hole” still can never be completely filled ● Prevent yourself from being unhappy in attempts to fill a hole that will never be filled ● Be happy with what you have now

Rituals, types of; Rites of Passage

Rituals

● Rituals serve a psychological purpose to the individual

● Recall earlier lectures on how we crave balance, control

○ Humans crave balance naturally

○ When we feel imbalance, we can do ____ to help us

● “Even simple rituals can be effective”

○ Can help resolve stress, grief, anxiety, etc.

○ Rituals in sports: wearing a pair of socks or shorts, etc.

Ritual artifacts = big business

● Rituals that exist in society that align with life stages, holidays, etc. ○ Creates a lot of consumption

○ Example: wedding cake - ritual for getting married

Grooming rituals

Gift giving stages

● Gestation: idea and procurement of the gift; getting the gift

● Presentation: delivery, exchange if applicable

○ Exchange of gifts, emotions

● Reformulation: the bond redefined

○ Redefines the relationship

■ Positive or negative

■ Big impact or small

■ Something changes

Holiday rituals

● Halloween: dress up, get candy

● Linked to myths and archetypes

Stages of rites

● Rites of passage

● Different stages for how we move through them

○ Separation from old stage

○ Liminality in new stage

○ Aggregation: emerge from stage

● There are rituals to move you inbetween stages

Sacred/Profane consumption

● Sacred consumption: consumption that’s treated with respect or awe ● Profane consumption: that becomes ordinary, the everyday

● Something can go from sacred to profane, or profane to sacred

Diffusion of Innovation (and associated terms)

Diffusion of innovations

● A theory developed by Everett M. Rogers

○ To help people increase their chances of success

● Focus is on how a new idea spreads through society

● Has to be a new idea

● Diffusion (movement and spread) is a process - happens over time

○ During diffusion, and innovation ​(something new) is communicated through channels​ (interpersonal, phones, mass media, internet, radio, etc.) over time among the members of a social system​ (who/what you’re trying to work with; organization, a village, a country, etc.

● Video explanation:

○ Innovation: the new idea

○ Channel: medium through which the message flows from people to people ○ Time: how long it takes before the innovation is adopted

○ Social system: group of people with a common goal

○ Diffusion S-curve

■ Starts slow then

■ Rapid adoption after “take off” - now the rest of society will receive it at varying rates

○ Innovators → opinion leaders/change agents (when they get it, there’s take off) → early adopters (tolerant of issues that come with the innovation) → late adopters → laggards → non adapters

■ Majority of people are in early and late adopter categories

■ PPT culture slide 24

○ Need to invest in the people who are effective opinion leaders/change agents early on

Fashion system, cycles

● Fashion system: those people and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transferring these meanings to cultural goods

Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions and where the U.S. falls on those dimensions ● Measurement system that scores a country in terms of its standing on six dimensions so that users can compare and contrast values

Four major segments re: global brand consumption ● Global citizens

● Global dreamers

● Antiglobals

● Global agnostics

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