ISS 310 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Item of Concern: Tuna
1. What are three key problems associated with Tuna fishing? a. Fisheries largely are a “free-for-all”
b. Nations highly subsidize fishing fleets (especially Europe, China, and Japan)
c. So profitable, that some attempts at limiting lead to increased fishing capacity
2. What are three pros and cons to Aquaculture?
PROS: Creates jobs in community, helps feed US and world population, encourages local investment
CONS: Can amplify and transfer disease and parasites to wild fish populations, can pollute water systems with excess nutrients and chemicals, can threaten livelihood of fishermen
3. What are the four principles of ‘Fordist’ Production?
1) Vertical integration of all manufacturing processes on one site 2) Scientific management/maximum efficiency per worker (Taylorism)
3) Standardization and economies of scale
4) Articulation: Well-paid workers become consumers; creates self-reproducing demand
4. What are the characteristics of ‘Post-Fordist’ Production? a. Flexibility, greater independence and responsibility, temporary or part time tasks, Vertical dis-integration (high level of inter-firm relations/networks We also discuss several other topics like What are rotational dynamics?
5. What is “Dolphin-safe” Tuna?
a. Yellowfin tuna congregate below schools of dolphins, fishers in ETP look for dolphins to find tuna, dolphins in bycatch may drown, “Dolphin-safe” means no dolphin were caught during bypass
Item of Concern: Lawns
6. The total area in the United States consisting of ‘lawns’ is roughly equivalent to which area of the states? A: Texas
7. What did the study by Robbins/Sharp state regarding to what a lawn says about status?
a. Higher rates of chemical use correspond to higher incomes, levels of education, and degree of environmental concern 8. What is ‘Water Smart’ products and why is it said to be beneficial? a. Promotes to “save water, reduce noise pollution, improve air quality, cool the environment, and save money”
Item of Concern: Bottled Water
9. How was the high demand for bottled water created? a. Created as a way to address under consumption, remain “growth-driven” company. Appeal was based on “rarified health benefits and elite patterns of consumption” rather than ‘rational choice’
10. State of the market: What is the difference between purified and fortified water?
a. Purified= (most common form), may come from surface water sources (rivers and streams), but is often from a municipal source (ex. Tap water) then treated
b. Fortified= includes a range of new bottled waters with additional nutritional additives, like vitamins or electrolytes Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three types of forecasting?
11. Are water supplies tested for pharmaceuticals before being distributed?
a. 2008 AP report found presence of pharmaceuticals in the water of 24 US cities
b. Trace amounts, but concern over accumulative effects, not routinely tested
12. Flint Water Crisis: Why did Flint make the switch from using water from Detroit to the Flint River?
a. Changing global economies, fate of state funds and
infrastructure, didn’t want to pay the amount they were paying 13. According to Mack and Wrase, water costs are going to spike for Americans in the future because of needs for decontamination. A: True
14. Public water is not regularly tested for the presence of pharmaceuticals. A: True Don't forget about the age old question of How would you describe the habitat of cliff swallows?
15. The Flint River has very high naturally-occurring lead levels, which led to the recent ‘crisis’. A: False
16. How much water/minute can Nestle/Ice Mountain withdraw from Evart, Michigan?
A: 400 gallons/minute
Item of Concern: French Fries and Agriculture
17. How does agriculture affect nature?
a. As it currently is practiced in some areas of the world, agriculture is among the most environmentally harmful land uses If you want to learn more check out Who own factors of production?
18. What is the difference between subsistence and commercial farming?
a. Not a strong dualism, most commercial farmers consume some of their farm produce, while most subsistence farmers
sell/market a little of what they grow locally
19. What is ‘Monoculture’
a. Rare outside of commercial agriculture systems that emerged in the ‘Second Agricultural Revolution’, can create ideal conditions 20. What are some historic examples of Monoculture issues? a. The ‘Great Famine’ in 1845-1852, Rubber, Bananas and the ‘Panama disease’
21. What were some characteristics of the Second Agricultural Revolution?
a. Industrialization of agriculture, farms making use of on-farm resources, mixed farming, rotation with grains, legumes, etc. 22. What characterizes the ‘Agricultural Treadmill’? a. Need to adopt latest technologies with more borrowing, farmer adopts technology, raises yields to increase profit, prices of crops decrease with a greater supply, smaller operators driven out
23. What percentage of time does it take for a tractor to do work on a farm versus a human with a hoe? (Pimentel & Pimentel) a. Tractor does work in 1% of the time, but requires 3 times the amount of energy We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of outer ear malformation?
24. What characterized the Third Agricultural Revolution? a. Integration among primary, secondary, tertiary, & quaternary sectors
b. Intensive mechanization: allowed vast areas to be cultivated, promoted monoculture
25. What is the ‘Green Revolution’?
a. Postwar population growth Malthusian predictions, contradictory success, variety of changes effected: agronomic, economic, social
Item of Concern: E-Waste
26. How have electronics and their materials shifted over time? a. Major change with advent of television, from lead to mercury in PC flat screen
27. How is waste produced from both producing and consuming a product?
a. Transaction cost, energy to create, distribute Effects of disposal far away
28. What is Moore’s Law and the Life-cycle Analysis?
a. Moore’s Law states that the trend in technology shows that every 18 months, the number of transistors on a computer chip doubles, favoring market growth Don't forget about the age old question of What are the labor force statistical populations?
b. Some energy savings at one level of the process can be wiped out/exceeded at other stages (i.e. Ceramic requires more energy to make/keep clean vs. Paper cup)
29. How does E-Waste have to do with Political Economy and Environmental Justice?
a. Emergence of E-Waste as a commodity, TV show hosts actually followed E-waste at a site that was supposedly environmentally friendly, found out they actually shipped the waste to a spot in Hong-Kong
b. NIMBY (Not in my backyard), we don’t know what happens to our waste when we dispose of it, but always seems to end up in someone else’s yard.