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UCR - ANTH 002 - Study Guide

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UCR - ANTH 002 - Study Guide

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Lee
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: biological anthropology
Name: Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide
Description: See: Biological Anthropology Final Flash Cards. This study guide covers chapters 11-13 comprehensively because it was the majority of the content. Chapter 14 was very conceptual (future of mankind) so I just read over it and studied what I wrote here. Chapters 1-10 were covered briefly and only took a small portion of the exam. This study guide will provide the main things you need to know for this
Uploaded: 02/28/2016
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background image Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide 70% Ch.11­14, 30% Ch. 1­10 – 110 points Chapter 11: The Origins and Evolution of Early Homo Charles Darwin believed that Africa was the birthplace for early hominins Ernst Haeckel believes that humans share more similarities with Asian great ape o Pithecanthropus “ape man” Eugene Dubois o Fossil hominin: Pithecanthropus erectus “upright walking ape man”
o Actually a member of Homo erectus
Homo habilis: The First Species of the Genus Homo Australopithecus boisei o Cranium known as “OH 5”
o Massively robust
o Enormous chewing complex­ back teeth, jaws and face were very large
o Small brain
Homo habilis o “handy­man”
o Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi and South Africa
o The one found on eastern side of Kenya’s Lake Turkana is called Homo rudolfensis
Slightly bigger but same general body plan and overall morphology o Smaller chewing complex and larger brain (than Au. Boisei) Gave skull a more rounded appearance  o Small teeth
o Began lineage to modern humans
o Ancestor: Australopithecus garhi
Face, jaws and teeth most similar o Transition took place 3.0­2.5 mya
o Cranial capacity 650 cc
Olduvai Gorge­ important skeleton of Homo habilis, “OH 62” o Short legs in comparison to arms
o Could not have been walking efficiently
o 3.5 ft
Retained primitive form of bipedality Made and used tools due to small chewing complex, larger brain and small teeth, fingers show 
precision grip muscles
Dietary versatility due to skull and teeth morphology and increasing food resources Homo Erectus: Early Homo Goes Global Homo erectus o Appeared 1.8 mya­ 300,000 yBP
o Founded at Trinil in Java­ also in Europe, Asia and Africa
o Large brow ridges, long and low skull and bigger brain
In Africa (1.8­1.3 mya) o Earliest record, 2 mya
background image o 80% complete juvenile skeleton from Nariokotome 1.6 mya, between Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs o Modern characteristic­ combination of relatively short arm and long legs
o Completely committed to terrestrial life­ modern full stride
o 6.5 ft
o Cranial capacity 900 cc
o Can be gracile and robust, high degree of variation (Ileret)
o Ileret footprints first of ancient hominins to be discovered
First solid evidence of modern walking Double arch and abducted big toe o Oldavia cranium are very robust and have large brow ridges In Asia (1.8­1.3 mya) o Five skulls
o Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia
o 1.8 mya­ colonized west Asia not long after Africa
o Faces and jaws were smaller and brow ridges less developed
o Legs bones are relatively long compared to arm bones
o Kocabas specimen­ 500,000 yBP in Turkey
Massive brow ridges and sagittal keel (slight ridge of bone found along the 
midline sagittal suture of the cranium)
o Rapid spread to Asia­ adaptive success
o Sangiran, Indonesia
Sangiran 17 800,000 yBP Thick cranial bones and large brow ridges Cranial capacity 1,000 cc o Gongwangling­ Lantian, Shaanxi Province Skull 1.2 mya 800 cc o Most impressive remains in a cave in Zhoukoudian, Dragon Bone Hill near Beijing 400,000­700,000 yBP 40­50 individuals In Europe (1.2 mya­ 400,000 yBP) o Later than Africa and Asia
o Sierra de Atapuerca, Northern Spain
1.2 mya­900,000 yBP Cannibalism o Gran Dolina, complete skull is Atapuerca 3 Left facial bones, upper jaw and teeth of a child Appeared more modern than other members of H.erectus Differences between H. erectus and H. habilis H. erectus is bigger in body size and height­ happened quickly
o Rapid increase due to climate change and its impact on food supply
o Access to food due to hunting
o In order to routinely acquire meat: 1) right tools 2) social structure
o Acheulian Complex­ the culture associated with H. erectus including handaxes and other 
types of stone tools, more refined than the earlier Oldowan tools
background image Wider variety of raw materials, greater range of tool types and greater range of 
functions
Kill large animals and butcher them o Larger brain­ increased by 33% Used fire to help cook their foods by 1 mya Didn’t have to eat food raw­ smaller jaws  Food­sharing Chapter 12: The Origins, Evolution, and Dispersal of Modern People Modern Homo sapiens o High and vertical forehead 
o Round and tall skull
o Small brow ridges
o Small face
o Small teeth 
o Projecting chin (mental eminence)
o Have gracile, narrow bones
o 25,000­160,000 yBP
o First in Africa then in Europe, global by 25,000 yBP
Archaic Homo sapiens o Longer and lower skull 
o Larger brow ridge
o Bigger and more projecting face 
o Taller and wider nasal aperture (opening for the nose)
o More projecting occipital bone or bun (occipital bone projects substantially from the 
skull’s posterior) o Larger (front) teeth
o No chin
o 350,000­500,000 yBP 
o Arrived in different times and places
Skhul 5 and Herto skull have a combination of both Two main hypothesis about modern origins o Out­of­Africa: Modern H. sapiens first evolved in Africa and then spread to Asia and  Europe and replaced the archaic H. sapiens there o Multiregional Continuity: taken place regionally and without involving replacement Early archaic Homo sapiens 350,000 yBP From Homo erectus: reduction in skeletal robusticity, smaller tooth size, expansion in brain size 
and increasing cultural complexity
Africa (300,000­ 200,000 yBP) o Kabwe (Broken Hill), Zambia
o Enormous brow ridges, facial bones and muscle attachments in the back of the skull for 
the neck muscles are small in comparison to Homo erectus o 1300 cc Asia (350,00­130,000 yBP)

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School: University of California Riverside
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Lee
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: biological anthropology
Name: Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide
Description: See: Biological Anthropology Final Flash Cards. This study guide covers chapters 11-13 comprehensively because it was the majority of the content. Chapter 14 was very conceptual (future of mankind) so I just read over it and studied what I wrote here. Chapters 1-10 were covered briefly and only took a small portion of the exam. This study guide will provide the main things you need to know for this
Uploaded: 02/28/2016
9 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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