Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide
Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide ANTH 002
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 002 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Biological Anthropology Final Study Guide 70% Ch.1114, 30% Ch. 110 – 110 points Chapter 11: The Origins and Evolution of Early Homo Charles Darwin believed that Africa was the birthplace for early hominins Ernst Haeckel believes that humans share more similarities with Asian great ape o Pithecanthropus “ape man” Eugene Dubois o Fossil hominin: Pithecanthropus erectus “upright walking ape man” o Actually a member of Homo erectus Homo habilis: The First Species of the Genus Homo Australopithecus boisei o Cranium known as “OH 5” o Massively robust o Enormous chewing complex back teeth, jaws and face were very large o Small brain Homo habilis o “handyman” o Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi and South Africa o The one found on eastern side of Kenya’s Lake Turkana is called Homo rudolfensis Slightly bigger but same general body plan and overall morphology o Smaller chewing complex and larger brain (than Au. Boisei) Gave skull a more rounded appearance o Small teeth o Began lineage to modern humans o Ancestor: Australopithecus garhi Face, jaws and teeth most similar o Transition took place 3.02.5 mya o Cranial capacity 650 cc Olduvai Gorge important skeleton of Homo habilis, “OH 62” o Short legs in comparison to arms o Could not have been walking efficiently o 3.5 ft Retained primitive form of bipedality Made and used tools due to small chewing complex, larger brain and small teeth, fingers show precision grip muscles Dietary versatility due to skull and teeth morphology and increasing food resources Homo Erectus: Early Homo Goes Global Homo erectus o Appeared 1.8 mya 300,000 yBP o Founded at Trinil in Java also in Europe, Asia and Africa o Large brow ridges, long and low skull and bigger brain In Africa (1.81.3 mya) o Earliest record, 2 mya o 80% complete juvenile skeleton from Nariokotome 1.6 mya, between Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs o Modern characteristic combination of relatively short arm and long legs o Completely committed to terrestrial life modern full stride o 6.5 ft o Cranial capacity 900 cc o Can be gracile and robust, high degree of variation (Ileret) o Ileret footprints first of ancient hominins to be discovered First solid evidence of modern walking Double arch and abducted big toe o Oldavia cranium are very robust and have large brow ridges In Asia (1.81.3 mya) o Five skulls o Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia o 1.8 mya colonized west Asia not long after Africa o Faces and jaws were smaller and brow ridges less developed o Legs bones are relatively long compared to arm bones o Kocabas specimen 500,000 yBP in Turkey Massive brow ridges and sagittal keel (slight ridge of bone found along the midline sagittal suture of the cranium) o Rapid spread to Asia adaptive success o Sangiran, Indonesia Sangiran 17 800,000 yBP Thick cranial bones and large brow ridges Cranial capacity 1,000 cc o Gongwangling Lantian, Shaanxi Province Skull 1.2 mya 800 cc o Most impressive remains in a cave in Zhoukoudian, Dragon Bone Hill near Beijing 400,000700,000 yBP 4050 individuals In Europe (1.2 mya 400,000 yBP) o Later than Africa and Asia o Sierra de Atapuerca, Northern Spain 1.2 mya900,000 yBP Cannibalism o Gran Dolina, complete skull is Atapuerca 3 Left facial bones, upper jaw and teeth of a child Appeared more modern than other members of H.erectus Differences between H. erectus and H. habilis o H. erectus is bigger in body size and height happened quickly o Rapid increase due to climate change and its impact on food supply o Access to food due to hunting o In order to routinely acquire meat: 1) right tools 2) social structure o Acheulian Complex the culture associated with H. erectus including handaxes and other types of stone tools, more refined than the earlier Oldowan tools Wider variety of raw materials, greater range of tool types and greater range of functions Kill large animals and butcher them o Larger brain increased by 33% Used fire to help cook their foods by 1 mya Didn’t have to eat food raw smaller jaws Foodsharing Chapter 12: The Origins, Evolution, and Dispersal of Modern People Modern Homo sapiens o High and vertical forehead o Round and tall skull o Small brow ridges o Small face o Small teeth o Projecting chin (mental eminence) o Have gracile, narrow bones o 25,000160,000 yBP o First in Africa then in Europe, global by 25,000 yBP Archaic Homo sapiens o Longer and lower skull o Larger brow ridge o Bigger and more projecting face o Taller and wider nasal aperture (opening for the nose) o More projecting occipital bone or bun (occipital bone projects substantially from the skull’s posterior) o Larger (front) teeth o No chin o 350,000500,000 yBP o Arrived in different times and places Skhul 5 and Herto skull have a combination of both Two main hypothesis about modern origins o OutofAfrica: Modern H. sapiens first evolved in Africa and then spread to Asia and Europe and replaced the archaic H. sapiens there o Multiregional Continuity: taken place regionally and without involving replacement Early archaic Homo sapiens 350,000 yBP From Homo erectus: reduction in skeletal robusticity, smaller tooth size, expansion in brain size and increasing cultural complexity Africa (300,000 200,000 yBP) o Kabwe (Broken Hill), Zambia o Enormous brow ridges, facial bones and muscle attachments in the back of the skull for the neck muscles are small in comparison to Homo erectus o 1300 cc Asia (350,00130,000 yBP) o Ngandong, island of Java o Ngandong 11, 1100 cc o Skill is long and low but higher than Homo erectus o Massive brow ridge o Crania are large and robust Europe (500,000 130,000 yBP) o Sima de los Heusos cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca near Burgos, Spain o 28 individuals founds o Atapuerca 5 greatly preserved male 1125 cc Large brow ridge and pronounced facial projection Front teeth worn down to gums used front teeth as a tool Late archaic Homo sapiens Continues to show increased brain size, reduced tooth size, and decreased skeletal robusticity New morphology: regional variation and adaptation to cold Neandertal o Wide and tall nasal apertures o Projecting face o Occipital bun o Long, low skull o Large front teeth (some with heavy wear) o Wide, stocky body o Short limbs In Asia (60,00040,000 yBP) o Western Asia (middle east) Israel o Amud Neandertals 55,00040,000 yBP Complete skeleton of a male Enormous brain 1740 cc Small and round eye orbits Tall and wide nasal openings Forward projecting face Lack occipital bun Small teeth o Kebara Neandertal 60,000 yBP Complete mandible and body skeleton with legs and cranium missing o Tabun Neandertal Complete female skeleton 170,000 yBP Large brain like Amud Small and round eye orbits Tall and wide nasal openings Forward projecting face Lack occipital bun Small teeth o Shanidar site in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq Seven adults and three young children Shanidar 1, older male 45,000 yBP Typical neandertal face Severe arthritis Upper incisors are entirely worn, used as a tool like the Atapuerca one Lower right arm was missing, had to use teeth In Europe (130,00030,000 yBP) o Eastern Europe, Krapina site in Croatia o 130,000 yBP32,000 yBP o Recovered from a series of strata inside a rockshelter o Krapina 3, almost complete cranium Typical Neandertal features Very large front teeth, some of the biggest in human evolution o Krapina bones mostly in fragments o Cannibals o MoulaGuercy cave in France, 100,000 yBP, cannibals too o El Sidron in Northern Spain, 50,00040,000 yBP, not associated with animal remains o Maybe ate flesh because of severe food shortages due to the Ice Age o La ChapelleauxSaints, France prototype for all Neandertals Some think Neandertals are evolutionary dead ends too primitive, too stupid, too abberant Neandertals had very large noses o Large in width and projection o Adaptive complex because of the cold o Nose function: transform the are we breathe into warm, humid air o More internal surface can better warm the air Neandertals breathed Had large blood vessels to prevent exposed facial features from freezing infraorbital foramina European Neandertals had stocky trunks and short limbs promote heat retention People who live in cold short tibias and short femurs (vice versa for warm climates) Hunting o Mousterian or Middle Paleolithic o Stone tool technology o 300,00030,000 yBP o Levallois preparing a stone core and flaking raw materials to make the final stone tool o Late Neandertal participated in Upper Paleolithic Modern and complex tools o Successful in hunting because they ate a lot of meat stable isotopes of both nitrogen and carbon o Tooth calculus (hardened plaque on teeth) indicated they ate plants too Some of them buried their dead and were careful about it Kebara individual hyoid bone identical to modern humans they could talk Had brain laterality left dominant brains and were right handed further evidence that they talked FOXP2 gene strongly implicated in the production of speech Used symbols to communicate ideas and expressions o Sea shells that were decorated with pigments, had holes to string around neck o Evidence in Spain, 50,000 yBP Early Modern Homo Sapiens Upper Pleistocene Time of increased population size, adaptability of new places, new technologies Universal appearance of modern characteristics o Reduced face, small teeth, vertical forehead, a more rounded skull and gracile postcranial bones Africa (200,0006,000 yBP) o Herto, Aduma, Bouri, Omo sites in Ethiopia o Herto 160,000154,000 yBP 1450 cc, close to average modern human o Omo 195,000 yBP May be oldest evidence of modern humans o Aduma and Bouri 105,00080,000 yBP Partial skulls Aduma is almost modern in every way o Some retained robusticity, flaring cheekbones Asia (90,00018,000 yBP) o Western Asia, same region as Amud and Kebara Neandertals o Skhul 5 most complete skull Modern humans lived before Neandertals in that region o Scarce remains: Tianyuan Cave in China 41,000 yBP and Tam Pa Ling Cave in Laos 46,000 yBP o Zhoukoudian, China 29,00024,000 yBP o Minatogawa (Okinawa) 18,000 yBP Europe (35,00015,000) o Pestera cu Oase, Romania 35,000 yBP Oase 2 skull Reduced brow ridges and generally gracile appearance o Czech Republic 35,00026,000 yBP Mladec skull mix of Neandertal and modern characteristics Predmosti and Dolni Vestonice skull few Neandertal, more modern Best in CroMadnon in Dordogne, France and Grimaldi Caves Halfdozen individuals 30,00025,000 yBP Modern features: vertical forehead, narrow nasal aperture, small browridge Long tibias and narrow body trunks Cold climates but adapted to warm climates too o Decrease in height because more effort for same amount of calories; increasing population o Ate less protein rich foods like fish and plants o Modern behaviors and practices began in Africa Modern Homo sapiens were hunting catfish 75,000 yBP OutofAfrica model correctly accounts for the origin of modern humans origins but incorrectly asserts that no gene flow occurred between Neandertals and modern Homo sapiens Multiregional Continuity model is not correct about modern Homo sapien regional development Assimilation model: Modern humans first evolved in Africa, then spread to Europe and Asia. Once they arrived in Europe and Asia, modern humans underwent gene flow with the Neandertals After 50,000 yBP, modern humans were global Moved because of population increase, disappearance of food resources, increased competition and climate deterioration Australian and Pacific Migrations Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania = Greater Australia Lake Mungo, New South Wales in Australia o 40,000 yBP o Two skulls of adult male and female o Modern characteristics Kow Swamp, Victoria’s Murray River Valley o 13,0009,000 yBP o More robust Pacific islands weren’t settled until 5,000 yBP Homo floresiensis o “the hobbit” o Indonesian island o Tiny brain 400 cc o 3.5 ft o Characteristics due to isolation Microcephaly a condition in which the cranium is abnormally small and the brain is undeveloped Asian and Native Americans have shovel shaped incisors (incisor’s posterior aspect has varying degrees of concavity) Reread this section Chapter 13: Our Last 10,000 Years Up till 10,000 yBP, humans acquired all their foods through hunting and gathering Final centuries of the Pleistocene epoch, started to domesticate plants and animals Neolithic late Pleistocene/early Holocene Agricultural revolution due to o Warmer, wetter and more stable weather during the Holocene o Human population increased with agriculture Domestication started in 11 independent regions around the world In some regions, domesticated plants replaced earlier ones o Corn replaces native seed crops Western Asia 11,500 yBP Southeastern Turkey 10,500 yBP China 10,000 to 8,000 yBP (millet and rice) Mexico 10,0009,000 yBP New Guinea 7,000 yBP Eastern North America 6,000 yBP South America 5,520 yBP Africa south of the Sahara Desert 4,500 yBP Agriculture spread through diffusion o Corn started in Mexico, went to the American Southwest and was in North America’s Atlantic cost by 1,000 yBP o Soutwestern Asia spread wheat and barley to Greece by 8,000 yBP and then to Europe Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated around 15,000 yBP Goats, sheep, cattle and pigs domesticated around 7,0008,000 yBP Domestication fueled population growth which then helped create cities and civilizations China fermented grapes and rice for wine by 8,000 yBP Superfoods cereal grains like rice, corn and wheat, that make up a substantial portion of the human diet today Tradeoff to Agriculture Increase in population size Neolithic demographic transition shift from low birthrate to high birthrate o Reduce period of weaning o Earlier weaning due to processed food o Allowed mothers to produce more offspring because spacing between births reduced 10,000 yBP 2 million to 3 million people 2,000 yBP increased by 250 to 300 million people 1850 AD population increased to 1 billion Towns and cities began to compete for limited resources created organized warfare Environmental degradation is a problem starting from 10,000 yBP o Soil erosion from over farming o Wood needed to keep large communities warm caused forest degradation o Overfishing Affects on Human Biology Reduction in size of the face and jaws due to decrease demand on jaws and teeth Masticatoryfunctional hypothesis change in skull form represents a response to decreased demands on the chewing muscles, temporalis and masseter, as people shifted from eating hard textured wild foods to eating softtextured agricultural food Invention of pottery to store food or cooking it Animals that eat softtextured food have more dental malocclusions or fucked up teeth o Crooked teeth, misaligned jaws, chewing problems Teeth are more controlled than bones o Greater reduction of the bones supporting teeth= teeth overcrowding Highly physically active people’s bones tend to be larger and more developed than less active people Hunter gatherers had bigger bones than agriculturalists Decrease in osteoarthritis or a disorder of the skeletal joints that results from excessive stress on places where the bones articulate Reduced bone mass reflects a 10% decrease in body weight Health and the Agricultural Revolution Communities became more sedentary o Led to negative effects on people’s health o Crowded and unsanitary Injury to the outer surface of bone can cause a periosteal reaction or bone build up, can also be combined with an abnormal expansion of a bone’s diameter o Caused by localized infection o Staph bacteria, Staphylococcus aureas o Infection stimulates new bone growth o Increase in periosteal reactions in crowded places Swollen tibias and cranial cavitations caused by a group of diseases called treponematoses o Venereal syphilis, yaws, endemic syphilis Tuberculosis in the New World and Australia Tooth decay o Domesticated plants can have nutritional drawbacks o Carbohydrates can promote dental caries, tooth decay or cavities o Caries is a process where the natural bacteria in your moth digest the carbohydrates o Lactic acid is a product of this dissolves tooth enamel o Rice can cause it but its less and corn can sometime cause it too Agriculturalists’ diets seem to overemphasize one plant or a couple of them o Poor nutrition because of narrow range of foods Domesticated plants can also have negative nutritional consequences Deficiencies in teeth appear as lines, pits or grooves o Caused when the cells responsible for enamel production (ameloblasts) are disrupted o A defect is called hypoplasia o Agriculturalists have an increase in hyploplasias Iron deficiency anemia insufficient iron can be caused by diet, poor iron consumption, parasitic infection or severe blood loss o Iron essential in hemoglobin, helps transport oxygen Heme iron iron, found in red meat, fish and poultry, that the body absorbs efficiently Nonheme iron found in lentils and beans that is less efficiently absorbed by the body Hookworm disease, hook warm extracts blood from human host in the intestinal wall. Need several hundreds to cause anemia Red blood cells increase in production as a response to anemia o Can lead to porotic hyperostosis in skulls or cribra orbitalia in eye orbits Adult heights decline o Can be a reaction of decline of food because shorter bodies need less food o Those whose height declined because of stress were also more susceptible to illnesses
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