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OSU / Biology / BIOLOGY 1114 / How are complex characteristics generated?

How are complex characteristics generated?

How are complex characteristics generated?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology
Professor: James chiucchi
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 1114 Final Exam
Description: final exam
Uploaded: 04/28/2018
5 Pages 41 Views 6 Unlocks

Biology 1114  

How are complex characteristics generated?

Final Exam Study Guide

Evolution and Development  

∙ How are complex characteristics generated?  

o Master genes – control the expression of other genes  

 Make proteins that communicate when and how other  

genes are expressed  

o Gene duplication  

 Polyploidy – more copies of all genes  

 Unequal crossing over, mutations, etc.  

o Gene family – genes of similar structure and sequence  

 Ex. Globin genes  

∙ 7 a-globin on chromosome 16 and 6 b-globin on  

chromosome 11

∙ similar structure  

∙ includes pseudogenes that do not function as globin  

What adaptations appear in the fossils of the cambrian explosion?


o usually not transcribed but can eventually  

evolve or gain a new function

∙ product depends on which genes are turned on at a  

given time  

∙ selection acts independently on each gene  

 o complex change arises from simple change 

History of Life  

∙ Life  

o reproduce through mitosis, meiosis, or a higher mechanism, have a critical level of complexity, and be able to evolve

o must have an energy source, have basic chemicals and an  external environment that sustains life

∙ The Hadean (4600-3850 Ma)  We also discuss several other topics like What could go wrong if the body has too much of adipose tissue?

o Begins at the origin of the solar system  

Are prokaryotes found in protists?

o No fossil record and almost no geological record  

o Origin of atmosphere, differentiation of earth into core, crust, and mantle, condensation of water to form larger bodies of water,  continental crust

∙ The Archean (3850-2500 Ma)  

o Origin of life – mostly prokaryotic bacteria-like organisms  o Emergence of photosynthetic organisms  

o Oxygen accumulates and strengthens the ozone layer

o Stromatolites – fossilized cyanobacteria  

 Layers of bacteria mats  

∙ The Proterozoic (2500-542 Ma)

o Origin of eukaryotes and rapid diversification of multicellular  organisms  We also discuss several other topics like What happened to the bodies in the roman catacombs?

o Serial Endosymbiosis Theory – eukaryotic cells were the product  of aerobic bacteria being absorbed by a larger host cell,  establishing a symbiotic relationship

 Mitochondria – purple bacteria  

 Chloroplasts – cyanobacteria  

o Multicellularity  

 requires rigidity and support, and a more sophisticated  reproduction system  

 must maximize surface area to volume ratio  

 cellular and tissue specialization, produce more complex  organisms  Don't forget about the age old question of What field allows us to use a limited sample to make intelligent and accurate statements about a population?

∙ The Cambrian Explosion – fossil record shows sudden appearance of  diverse animal forms  

o Fossils of every phyla first appear  

o Not the origin of triploblasts, this occurred earlier, but this was  the beginning of their diversification  

o Two explanations  

 Intrinsic – the animal changed  

∙ Ex. new developmental patterns  

∙ Hox-like genes were duplicated -> bilaterial  


 Extrinsic – the environment changed  

∙ Ex. more oxygen available  

∙ There was little oxygen available before this, large  

and active animals could not survive

∙ Land mass extinction

∙ Tipping point in complexity resulting in widespread  


o Why no new phyla since the Cambrian?  

∙ Two theories for the creation of life  

o Abiogenesis – life originated to abiotic precursors that were  already present  We also discuss several other topics like What is the best definition of government?

 Miller-Urey Experiment  

∙ Synthesized organic compounds from inorganic  

precursors – water, methane, ammonia, and  


∙ Can produce life-based chemicals, so it is possible for abiotic factors to produce life

 “RNA World” hypothesis  We also discuss several other topics like What data are used to construct phylogenetic trees?

∙ early life was RNA based, became DNA once oxygen  became abundant  

∙ DNA is favored -> lower mutation rate

o Panspermia – life originated from biotic or abiotic precursors that  arrived from extraterrestrial sources  

 Earth frequently encounters material from space, mostly  organic coumpounds

 Ex. Murchinson meteorite contains common amino acids  Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi  

∙ First prokaryotes ~ 3.6 bya  

o Photosynthetic protists helped create oxygen atmosphere o Responsible for half of all human diseases  

o Collective mass 10x more than eukaryotes  

o If reproduction was unlimited, a colony would outweigh the earth  in 3 days  

o Differences in bacterial DNA allow antibiotics to disrupt RNA and  ribosomes  

∙ Domain – highest level of hierarchy

o Bacteria ~ 3.8 bya

 no nucleus, single-celled, prokaryotic

 Common ancestor  

 Asexual reproduction

 Three basic shapes – coccus (round), bacillus (rod), and  spirilium (spiral)  

 Gram stain  

∙ Gram positive or gram negative, based on properties  

of the bacterial cell wall  

o Archaea – no nucleus, single-celled, prokaryotic  

 Similar to bacteria in appearance, and are also single If you want to learn more check out What is cell body or soma?

celled prokaryotes but:  

∙ Different DNA, cell wall composition and flagella  

 “extremophiles” – live in extreme environments

o Eukaryota – nucleus, single or multicellular, eukaryotic   Nucleus, cytoskeleton, mitochondria (oxidative  

metabolism), unique genome  

 New genes have arose through duplication of existing  

genes with divergence of function

 Cells must stay small  

∙ Water  

∙ Nutrients  

∙ Waste  

 Tissues – cells connected by intercellular junctions and  function as a unit

∙ Allow for communication between cells  

 Evolution of multicellularity  

∙ Coloniality with subsequent specialization

∙ Multicellularity evolved independently in several  eukaryotic groups  

o Multiple times in each kingdom  

 Protists  

∙ Share one feature: eukaryotic  

∙ Defined by exclusion, “catch all” category  

∙ Single-celled to multicellular organisms (algae)  ∙ Diversity  

o Animal-like – protozoans

 Chemoheterotrophs  

 Unicellular  

 Giardia, Chagas disease, African sleeping

sickness, Malaria  

o Plant-like – algae  

 Photoautotrophs – yellow, gold, brown,  

red, green

 Seaweed  

o Fungus-like – mold  

 Chemoheterotrophs  

 Slime molds  

 Fungi  

∙ Similar to plants but lack chloroplasts, do not  photosynthesize, some are unicellular, heterotrophic ∙ Share a common ancestor with animals  

o Cell walls contain chitin  

o Store carbs as glycogen, not starch  

∙ Absorptive heterotrophs, decomposers  

∙ Network of thin filaments, penetrate food source and  break down with enzymes  

o Hyphae – tiny fungi filaments that form a  

network underground and a body above  

o Mycelium – network of hyphae underground  o Sporulation – the release of spores  

∙ Chytrids – primitive fungi that produce swimming  spores  

∙ Zygomycota – food mold  

∙ Glomeromycota  

∙ Mycorrhizae – symbiotic relationship with plant roots  o Helps plant absorb nutrients, gets carb from  plants  

∙ Ascomycota – bread, wine, beer

∙ Benefits  

o Gastronomically, antibiotics (penicillium)

o Economical – yeast, beer and wine o Ecologically – improve water and mineral  uptake in plants

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