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Penn State - The Sea Around Us - Study Guide

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Penn State - The Sea Around Us - Study Guide

School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: The Sea Around Us
Professor: Chris Marone
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Tides, waves, and tectonics
Name: GEOSC 40
Description: Complete exam study guide
Uploaded: 04/28/2018
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background image GEOSC 40 Exam study guide. Spring 2018.      Plate Tectonics : - Three Types of Plate Boundaries 1. Divergent  2. Transform  3. Convergent  - THE "WILSON CYCLE" – creation and destruction of ocean basins: 1. Uplift and rifting of continents Example: East African rift basins  2. Initial opening of ocean basin Seafloor spreading and ocean basin widens  Example: Red Sea  3. This is followed by subduction along oceanic margins  4. Eventual closure of ocean basin Continent­continent collision and "suturing"  Example: Himalayan orogeny  - Sea floor spreading: ­Magnetic "stripes" on seafloor  ­Bilateral symmetry about the midocean ridge;  ­Radiometric dating of polarity reversals 
background image ­Yipes, Stripes: ­Magnetic "stripes" on seafloor (Vine and Matthews, 1963)  ­Bilateral symmetry about the midocean ridge;  ­Radiometric dating of polarity reversals  Three main forces that move plates:  1. Ridge Push  2. Basal drag  3. Slab pull  - Reconstructing seafloor age  ­Use paleomagnetic timescale  ­Oldest seafloor is about 210 m.y. old  ­Calculate long­term seafloor spreading rates­­  ­­half rates 1­10 cm/yr  ­­3 to 7 meters opening of oceans in lifetime  Continental margin  ­ Shoreline  ­ Continental Shelf  ­ <300 km wide  ­ water depth <150 m  ­ (0.5 degree slope) to "shelf break"  Continental Slope 
background image ­ <100 km wide,  ­ water depth usually 100­1000 m  ­ (3 ­ 6 degree slope)  ­ submarine canyons cut shelf and slope  Continental Rise  ­Apron of accumulated sediments  ­100­ 100 km wide,  ­water depth 1.5­ 5.0 km  ­(0.5­ 1.0 degree slope)    2. Deep ocean basins  ­Abyssal Plain  ­Very flat, up to 1000 km wide, water depth generally 4­6 km  ­(<0.5 degree slope)  Abyssal Hill  ­ Sea mounts and extinct volcanoes that extend through sediments on abyssal  plains, water depth to top >3 km  Tides: - Two Models: Equilbrium (with simplifying assumptions)­­ helps to understand general origin  2) Dynamic (with complexities and realism)­­ develop understanding of variability and 

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: The Sea Around Us
Professor: Chris Marone
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Tides, waves, and tectonics
Name: GEOSC 40
Description: Complete exam study guide
Uploaded: 04/28/2018
12 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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