Classical Mythology Quiz One Study Notes
Classical Mythology Quiz One Study Notes CLA 40
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Classical Mythology: Quiz 1 Outline One I. Myth a type of traditional tale referring to something of collective importance and often associated with religious, cosmic or heroic beliefs II. Approaches to Myth A. Rationalism (=”Euhemerism”) explains them as if they were factual B. Metaphor, Allegory, and Symbolism 1. Ritualist Approach (Mircea Eliade) explains reason for ritual 2. Linguistic (Nature) Myths (Max Muller) nature gave rise to certain Gods 3. Anthropological Approach (James Frazer) origins are explained through myths 4. Psychology (Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung) dreams, myths are grounded in our psyches 5. Structuralism (Levi Strauss, Propp, and Burkert) breaks apart myths into sections 6. Feminist Approaches separation of males and females III. Chronology A. Neolithic Age, 60003000 B.C Greece was never a single city in the ancient world, independent groups can go to war with one another, similar worship B. Bronze Age, 30001100 B.C, including 1. Minoan Age, 30001100, flourished 16001400 B.C 1. King Minos, lived in Palace of Knosses 2. Lived in Crete 3. Snake goddess, earth, rebirth 4. No heavy warrior culture 2. Mycenaean Age, 16001100, flourished 14001100 B.C 1. Mycenae, mainland Greece 2. Took over Crete, warrior culture 3. Waged Trojan War against Troy, Europe vs. Asia a. Helen of Sparta, queen was taken, 10 year war 4. Death Mask of “Agamennon”, gold mask C. Greek Dark Ages, about 1100800 B.C we don’t know exactly why D. Archaic Greece, about 800500 B.C 1. Renaissance period, never looks back 2. Invented writing 3. Including Homer (ca. 75025), Hesiod (ca. 700) and Sappho of Lesbos (only female) (650600 BC) E. Classical Period, about 500350 BC includes drama of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides 1. Golden Period 2. Medicine, great philosophers intellectual revolution greatly due to democracy F. Hellenistic and Roman Periods, about 350 B.C to A.D 400 1. Apollonius, Voyage of the Argo 2. Plutarch, Lives of Noble Greeks and Romans 3. Catullus, Lyric Poems 4. Ovid, Metamorphoses Outline Two Hesiod o Hesiod’s Theogony, “Birth of the Gods” (700 BC) The Nine Muses, Mnemosyne (“Memory”) o Muses= sources of validation, Memory gives authority to the people on Earth o Memory is the mother Chaos o “Yawning Gap”, not a deity but a beginning came into being and everyone then came out of Chaos Gaia (Ge) o differentiated, physical and the goddess, goddess of fertility and the earth o First to come from Chaos Tartaros o the underworld, place of punishment for gods and people o Separated from Earth, anxiety and punishment in being separated that is being personified here Eros o desire or love, union and being drawn to something, for the Romans, Eros was called Cupid (or Amor) Erebos and Nyx o Pairs from Chaos, Nyx or Black Night o Erebos is the darkness under the earth and Nyx is the darkness on Earth Aither and Hemera o Both born through Night and Erebus o Light and day Ouranos (Uranus) o a god of the sky, union with Ge o Came from Ge through parthogenesis o Equal to Ge, to cover her on every side Heiros Gamos o Sacred or holy marriage The Twelve Titans o Children of Uranus and Ge o Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys o Last born is Cronos who hates his father The Kyklopes o Also born from Uranus and Ge o Built armor for the gods, lightning bolts for Zeus o Blacksmiths for the gods, Zeus’ allies The 3 Hundred Handed (Hekatoncheires) o Hands= strength, violence o Good guys, helped Zeus come into power Kronos and Gaia vs. Ouranos o Earth goddess couldn’t give birth to Titan o Cronus helps by making a sickle to allow the birth to take place, castrates father (Heaven/Sky) o He wants to be the power to displace his father o Became King of the Cosmos Giants and Furies (Erinyes) o Were products from the castration, from blood o Furies: Erinyes revenge on the world o Giants “Earthborn ones”, humansnake, serve Earth Aphrodite “Philomeides” o Mighty goddess of love, potent sexual divinity, comes out of the sea (like being in the womb) The Children of Night (After castration) o Sleep (Hypnos) o Death (Thanatos) o Dreams o The Three Moirai (“Fates”= Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos) o Retribution (Nemesis) o Strife (Eris) can be good or bad Creatures and Monsters born of sea gods: o Keto + Phorkys> The Gorgons incl. Medousa (Medusa) Echidna o Echidna + Typhoeus > Cerberus (the Hound of Hades) Hydra Chimera Sphinx Nemean Lion (later wrestled by Heracles) o Kronos and Rhea > Cronus reunites with his sister Rhea Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus (the first Olympians) Kronos eats all of them except for Zeus o Rhea with Gaia and Ouranos vs. Kronos Kronos eats his children because he is afraid of being overthrown by his own children Rhea was tired of his bullshit, went to her parents for advice Disguises a rock as Zeus and feeds the rock to Kronos and conceals Zeus from him o Titanomachy: Titans vs. Olympians + allied Hundredhanded (Hekatancheires) First thing Zeus did was freeing the cyclops and 100handers from the underworld Olympians come to birth once Kronos realizes he swallowed a stone Earth advises the Olympians to release the Hundred Handers to prepare the battle with the Titans Zeus is a politician, a diplomat in convincing the 100 Handers to fight They threw rocks, 300 hands, throwing boulders at the Titans all at once, buries the Titans (can’t kill gods) o Battle of Zeus and Typhoeus Second test of Zeus Hand to hand combat with a monster Earth mated with Tartarus and gave birth to an Earth monster (helped by Aphrodite) Sky God vs. Earth Monster Typhoeus is condemned o Zeus’ Consorts Metis (cleverness, cunning, intelligence) Athena First wife, Heaven and Earth advise him to put his first wife in his belly Was pregnant so ate the child too but then gives birth to Athena from his head Athena won’t overthrow him, one and only child straight from him Themis (religious correctness) Horae (seasons) Also bore Euhomia (Order), Dike (Justice), Eirene (Peace) Moerae (Fates) Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos measure out your life Eurynome (daughter of the Ocean) three Charitites (Graces) Demeter Persephone (Olympian gods) Hera (7 wife) Hebe, Eileithyia, Ares (birth goddesses) Maia (daughter of Atlas) Hermes, the herald of the deathless gods Semele (daughter of Cadmus) Dionysus, a mortal woman an immortal son, both are now gods Alcmene/Alemena Heracles Outline Three I. The Twelve Roman Names Parents Olympians Zeus Juppitter Cronos and Rhea Hera Juno Cronos and Rhea Poseidon Neptune Cronos and Rhea Hephaestus Vulcan Hera parthenogenically Ares Mars Zeus and Hera Apollo Apollo Zeus and Leto Artemis Diana Zeus and Leto Demeter Ceres Cronos and Rhea Aphrodite Venus Ouranos Athena Minerva Zeus parthenogenically (+Metis) Hermes Mercury Zeus and Maia Dionysus Bacchus Zeus and Semele II. Zeus Name: Indo European *Dyews, “Bright Sky” Minoan Substratum “Father of both gods and men” Fate and Justice Greek Dike= justice, fairness, and balance Heirarchy is in correct order: Gods, humans, animals. If you try to transgress, overstepping boundary Outline Four Prometheus (god of forethought) The Five Ages of Man Golden Age Theism Dike (Justice) First race of men and women Silver Age Atheism Hubris (Arrogance, self centered indulgence) Bronze Age Warriors Hubris Heroic Age Good Warriors Dike Myths took place here Iron Age I (present age) Workers Mixed Labor, pain, cares Iron Age II to come Workers Hubris Might is right Mecone Banquet at Mecone took place during the Golden Age, both gods and mortals. This is where Prometheus did his trick about the meat and bones covered in skin and fat. Theft of Fire In order to punish Prometheus, he punishes his creation which are the humans. As an act of revenge, Prometheus steals fire from Zeus to give to humans Pandora Kalon kakon “beautiful evil” Athena gives garments, skill of weaving Aphrodite grace and painful longing Hermes mind of a bitch and character of a thief Graces and Persuasion gave gold necklaces Seasons flower Epimetheus brother of Epimetheus, god of afterthought. Zeus gave him Pandora as a gift, a wife Helen + Menelaus of Sparta/ + Paris of Troy (Aphrodite helps) Prometheus’ Legacy Byron P.B Shelly Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein Michaelangelo Milton’s “Lucifer” (Lightbearer) Outline Five Sapho, about 612 B.C at Mytilene, Lesbos, Greece One of the earliest Greek writers, 100 years after Hesiod Thiasos Poem 55: Mythography Paris, prince of Troy Judgement of Paris Hera Athena Aphrodite Helen, Queen of Sparta kalliston, “finest” (thing) Amazons Homeland Name: amazos Epithets: antaneira deianeira
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