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Classical Mythology Quiz One Study Notes

by: Tina Tan

Classical Mythology Quiz One Study Notes CLA 40

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Classical Studies > CLA 40 > Classical Mythology Quiz One Study Notes
Tina Tan

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About this Document

Covers the material needed to know for the first quiz in this class. Outline provided through class lecture but material are my own notes I took.
Classical Mythology
Study Guide
Classical Mythology, Greek Mythology
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Classical Mythology: Quiz 1 Outline One I. Myth­ a type of traditional tale referring to something of collective importance and  often associated with religious, cosmic or heroic beliefs II. Approaches to Myth A. Rationalism (=”Euhemerism”)­ explains them as if they were factual  B. Metaphor, Allegory, and Symbolism 1.  Ritualist Approach (Mircea Eliade)­ explains reason for ritual 2.  Linguistic (Nature) Myths (Max Muller)­ nature gave rise to  certain Gods 3.  Anthropological Approach (James Frazer)­ origins are explained  through myths  4.  Psychology (Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung)­ dreams, myths are  grounded in our psyches 5.  Structuralism (Levi­ Strauss, Propp, and Burkert)­ breaks apart  myths into sections  6.  Feminist Approaches­ separation of males and females  III. Chronology A. Neolithic Age, 6000­3000 B.C­ Greece was never a single city in the ancient  world, independent groups can go to war with one another, similar worship B. Bronze Age, 3000­1100 B.C, including 1.  Minoan Age, 3000­1100, flourished 1600­1400 B.C 1. King Minos, lived in Palace of Knosses 2. Lived in Crete 3. Snake goddess, earth, rebirth 4. No heavy warrior culture 2.  Mycenaean Age, 1600­1100, flourished 1400­1100 B.C 1. Mycenae, mainland Greece 2. Took over Crete, warrior culture 3. Waged Trojan War against Troy, Europe vs. Asia a. Helen of Sparta, queen was taken, 10 year war 4. Death Mask of “Agamennon”, gold mask C. Greek Dark Ages, about 1100­800 B.C­ we don’t know exactly why  D. Archaic Greece, about 800­500 B.C 1.  Renaissance period, never looks back 2.  Invented writing 3.  Including Homer (ca. 750­25), Hesiod (ca. 700) and Sappho of  Lesbos (only female) (650­600 BC) E. Classical Period, about 500­350 BC includes drama of Aeschylus, Sophocles and  Euripides 1.  Golden Period 2.  Medicine, great philosophers­ intellectual revolution greatly due  to democracy F. Hellenistic and Roman Periods, about 350 B.C to A.D 400 1.  Apollonius, Voyage of the Argo 2.  Plutarch, Lives of Noble Greeks and Romans 3.  Catullus, Lyric Poems 4.  Ovid, Metamorphoses Outline Two  Hesiod o Hesiod’s Theogony, “Birth of the Gods” (700 BC)  The Nine Muses, Mnemosyne (“Memory”) o Muses= sources of validation, Memory gives authority to the people on Earth o Memory is the mother   Chaos o “Yawning Gap”, not a deity but a beginning came into being and everyone then  came out of Chaos  Gaia (Ge) o  differentiated, physical and the goddess, goddess of fertility and the earth o First to come from Chaos  Tartaros o the underworld, place of punishment for gods and people o Separated from Earth, anxiety and punishment in being separated that is being  personified here  Eros o desire or love, union and being drawn to something, for the Romans, Eros was  called Cupid (or Amor)  Erebos and Nyx o Pairs from Chaos, Nyx or Black Night o Erebos is the darkness under the earth and Nyx is the darkness on Earth  Aither and Hemera­  o Both born through Night and Erebus o Light and day  Ouranos (Uranus) o a god of the sky, union with Ge o Came from Ge through parthogenesis o Equal to Ge, to cover her on every side  Heiros Gamos o Sacred or holy marriage  The Twelve Titans o Children of Uranus and Ge o Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne,  Phoebe, Tethys o Last born is Cronos who hates his father  The Kyklopes o Also born from Uranus and Ge o Built armor for the gods, lightning bolts for Zeus o Blacksmiths for the gods, Zeus’ allies  The 3 Hundred Handed (Hekatoncheires) o Hands= strength, violence o Good guys, helped Zeus come into power  Kronos and Gaia vs. Ouranos o Earth goddess couldn’t give birth to Titan o Cronus helps by making a sickle to allow the birth to take place, castrates father  (Heaven/Sky) o He wants to be the power to displace his father o Became King of the Cosmos  Giants and Furies (Erinyes) o Were products from the castration, from blood o Furies: Erinyes­ revenge on the world o Giants­ “Earthborn ones”, human­snake, serve Earth  Aphrodite “Philomeides” o Mighty goddess of love, potent sexual divinity, comes out of the sea (like being in the womb)   The Children of Night (After castration) o Sleep (Hypnos) o Death (Thanatos) o Dreams o The Three Moirai (“Fates”= Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos) o Retribution (Nemesis) o Strife (Eris)­ can be good or bad   Creatures and Monsters born of sea gods: o Keto + Phorkys­>  The Gorgons incl. Medousa (Medusa)  Echidna o Echidna + Typhoeus ­>  Cerberus (the Hound of Hades)  Hydra  Chimera  Sphinx  Nemean Lion (later wrestled by Heracles) o Kronos and Rhea ­>  Cronus reunites with his sister Rhea  Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus (the first Olympians)  Kronos eats all of them except for Zeus  o Rhea with Gaia and Ouranos vs. Kronos  Kronos eats his children because he is afraid of being overthrown by his  own children   Rhea was tired of his bullshit, went to her parents for advice  Disguises a rock as Zeus and feeds the rock to Kronos and conceals Zeus  from him o Titanomachy: Titans vs. Olympians + allied Hundred­handed (Hekatancheires)  First thing Zeus did was freeing the cyclops and 100­handers from the  underworld  Olympians come to birth once Kronos realizes he swallowed a stone  Earth advises the Olympians to release the Hundred Handers to prepare  the battle with the Titans  Zeus is a politician, a diplomat in convincing the 100 Handers to fight  They threw rocks, 300 hands, throwing boulders at the Titans all at once,  buries the Titans (can’t kill gods) o Battle of Zeus and Typhoeus  Second test of Zeus  Hand to hand combat with a monster   Earth mated with Tartarus and gave birth to an Earth monster (helped by  Aphrodite)  Sky God vs. Earth Monster   Typhoeus is condemned o Zeus’ Consorts  Metis (cleverness, cunning, intelligence)­ Athena  First wife, Heaven and Earth advise him to put his first wife in his  belly  Was pregnant so ate the child too but then gives birth to Athena  from his head  Athena won’t overthrow him, one and only child straight from him  Themis (religious correctness)­ Horae (seasons)  Also bore Euhomia (Order), Dike (Justice), Eirene (Peace)  Moerae (Fates)­ Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos­ measure out your  life  Eurynome (daughter of the Ocean)­ three Charitites (Graces)  Demeter­ Persephone (Olympian gods)  Hera (7  wife)­ Hebe, Eileithyia, Ares (birth goddesses)  Maia (daughter of Atlas)­ Hermes, the herald of the deathless gods  Semele (daughter of Cadmus)­ Dionysus, a mortal woman an immortal  son, both are now gods  Alcmene/Alemena­ Heracles Outline Three I. The Twelve Roman Names Parents Olympians Zeus Juppitter Cronos and Rhea Hera Juno Cronos and Rhea Poseidon Neptune Cronos and Rhea Hephaestus Vulcan Hera parthenogenically Ares Mars Zeus and Hera Apollo Apollo Zeus and Leto Artemis Diana Zeus and Leto Demeter  Ceres  Cronos and Rhea Aphrodite Venus Ouranos Athena Minerva Zeus parthenogenically  (+Metis) Hermes Mercury Zeus and Maia Dionysus Bacchus Zeus and Semele II. Zeus Name: Indo European *Dyews, “Bright Sky” Minoan Substratum “Father of both gods and men” Fate and Justice Greek Dike= justice, fairness, and balance Heirarchy is in correct order: Gods, humans, animals. If you try to transgress,  overstepping boundary Outline Four  Prometheus (god of forethought) The Five Ages of Man  Golden Age Theism Dike (Justice) First race of men and women Silver Age Atheism Hubris (Arrogance, self­ centered indulgence) Bronze Age Warriors  Hubris Heroic Age Good Warriors Dike Myths took place here Iron Age I (present age) Workers Mixed Labor, pain, cares Iron Age II to come  Workers Hubris Might is right Mecone­ Banquet at Mecone took place during the Golden Age, both gods and mortals. This is  where Prometheus did his trick about the meat and bones covered in skin and fat.  Theft of Fire­ In order to punish Prometheus, he punishes his creation which are the humans. As  an act of revenge, Prometheus steals fire from Zeus to give to humans Pandora Kalon kakon­ “beautiful evil” Athena­ gives garments, skill of weaving Aphrodite­ grace and painful longing Hermes­ mind of a bitch and character of a thief Graces and Persuasion­ gave gold necklaces Seasons­ flower Epimetheus­ brother of Epimetheus, god of afterthought. Zeus gave him Pandora as a  gift, a wife Helen + Menelaus of Sparta/ + Paris of Troy (Aphrodite helps) Prometheus’ Legacy Byron P.B Shelly Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein Michaelangelo Milton’s “Lucifer” (Light­bearer) Outline Five Sapho, about 612 B.C at Mytilene, Lesbos, Greece One of the earliest Greek writers, 100 years after Hesiod ­Thiasos Poem 55: Mythography ­Paris, prince of Troy Judgement of Paris Hera Athena Aphrodite Helen, Queen of Sparta ­kalliston, “finest” (thing) Amazons Homeland Name: a­mazos Epithets: antaneira deianeira


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