Classical Mythology Quiz Two Study Notes
Classical Mythology Quiz Two Study Notes CLA 40
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Classical Mythology Quiz 2 Outline 12: War and Madness AJAX of Sophocles produced ca 440’s B.C Characters: Athena drives Ajax mad so he doesn’t kill anyone, Odysseus in particular, kills cattle, sheep, rams Odysseus awarded arms of Achilles by ballot Ajax friend of Achilles, now slain. Doesn’t get armor, feels dishonored and wants to kill everyone and Odysseus Tecmessa, Ajax’s mistress and a Trojan girl Eurysaces, Ajax’s son by Tecmessa and Ajax “the broad shield” Teucer, Ajax’s brother, fights to preserve the name of Ajax Menelaus and Agamemnon Greek generals (bad guys); brothers Odysseus and Athena (pg. 13): Menasephemeralshadows theme: Ajax’s “Deception speech”: pledges reform (p. 32) “Give way to heaven, and bow before the sons of Atreus. They are our rulers.” Treat your enemies as if they may become your friend & vice versa, going to commit suicide Ajax’s double error, twice offends Athena (3536) Told by messenger, originally told by seer chalcas to Ajax’s bro. Says he doesn’t need gods, father is pious but he is not. Athena stands with Greek heroes, Ajax rejects Athena Ajax’s monologue on seashore (38ff) before suicide: Zeus: gets messenger to tell brother about suicide Hermes: swift leap upon blade, fall on sword Furies (vengeance): get back at generals because he couldn’t do it Hades & Helios (sun god): greet you one last time, Hello and Goodbye Outline 13 A. Artemis – Roman Diana < arktos, “bear”, goddess of the hunt, protects hunters AND animals, goddess of birth Zeus + Leto = Artemis and Apollo (twin), born on island of Delos, middle of the sea, wanted to give birth on mainland but couldn’t because Hera would be pissed. Sacred island, held on to palm trees Niobe Queen of Thebes, daughter of Tantalus, boasted having more children than Leto and that her fertility is greater. Apollo and Artemis killed all of her children except for one daughter by shooting them. Mom turned into a rock on mountain w/ stream coming down. Mt. Sypilus, always crying. Near Eastern Shrines at Ephesus (mod. Turkey) (most famous shrine, 1 of 7 wonders of the ancient world, black Artemis with animals all over her garments and multiple breasts), Samos (island near Ephesus) Cybele identified with Cybele, the “Great Mother” Magna Marter Potnia Theron = Gr. “Mistress of the Beasts” Agrotera = “Wild One”, do not hunt baby animals Keladine = “Din of the Hunt” Parthenos (Virgin Goddess, virgin corresponds to women prior to childbirth, not necessarily not having sex) Actaeon hunting with dogs and accidently sees Artemis bathing in the woods. Turns dogs on him, sees him as a deer and the hunter becomes the hunted Adalante can out run her then you can marry her, if you lose then you get your head cut off. Hippomenes wins, marries her, forgets to thank Aphrodite. Have sex in a sanctuary and Cybile punishes them, turns them into lions Callisto Callisto, one of Artemis’ devoted followers and a mortal woman, has an affair with Zeus because he disguises himself as her. Artemis’ and her followers were all bathing when Callisto notices the baby bump and banishes Callisto. Hera is angry and changes her into a bear after her son is born. Son becomes a hunter and kills his mom unknowingly but then Zeus is like “whoa, let me fix that” and took the both and turned them into constellations. Callisto Versa major and Arcas Sagittarius Iphegeneia Artermis Tauropolis (sanctuary near Brauron) Artemis Orthia, shrine at Sparta Brauron Festival Arkteia, Artemis Braurania. Sanctuary in E. Africa, premarital initiation ritual Selene, Artemis, and Hecate; cp. Trivia “Goddess of the Three Ways” Selene name of moon in Heaven, Artemis is on Earth and Hecate is the underworld B. Aphrodite Birth A. Aphrodite Urania (“Heavenly”) Epithets: Cytherean (<Cythera), born near island Cyprian (<Cyprus at Paphos), shrine or major temple B. Aphrodite Pandemos, <Zeus + Dione Aphrodite < aphro “Gr. Foam” Near Eastern Origins A. Ishtar (Babylonian) allowed by Ershkigal, “Queen of the Dead”, to depart, but her son, Tammuz, was left behind and is mourned. Later he is resurrected B. Astarte (Cypriote = Phonecian myth) “Queen of Heaven” Aphrodite worshipped at Astarte’s temple at Paphos in Cyprus Adonis myth located on Cyprus Pygmalion + Galatea (statue) dedicated to Aphrodite… Adonis + Aphrodite changed statue into a real life woman, becomes his wife, have son named Paphos who has a son named Cinyras who has a daughter. Cinyras seduces her father, changes into a myrrh tree who has a son named Adonis. Adonis falls in love with Aphrodite. She is conquered by love as opposed to the other way around Got killed by wild boar, mourned in the underworld and Persephone wants him and Zeus compromises between the two, seasons. B. Cybele and Attis myth (Phrygian = central Asia Minor, mod. Turkey) Anchises Graces (Charites) and Seasons (Horae); Eros and Himeros (“Yearning”) attend her Graces (Greek “Charities”) consist of Euphrosyne (the Wellminded one), Aglaia (the Glorious one), Thalia (the Flourishing one, blooming) Wisdom upper class, priests and king Glory soldiers, army class Beauty fertility, farming class The three are praised in Pindar, Olympian Ode 14 “Girdle” or zone is her “weapon”, lends girdle to someone who wants to seduce someone else Philommeides “laughter loving”; cp. Philommedes “her own genitals/genital loving” Pandamator “allconquering” Lusimeles “limbloosener” Outline 14 Euripedes’ Hippolytus Play written 428 B.C Euripedes “irrationalist”; concern with emotions and passions ‘Sophistic’: rhetorical arguments (Sophists), rhetorical arguments for right and wrong, nature vs. nature Hippolytus Themes Speech and silence (concealment motif) tablet from Phaedra, Hippolytus Oath, Theseus speech Divine intervention beginning: Aphrodite, makes Phaedra fall in love with stepson, Hippolytus and in the end: Artemis, protects Hippolytus, hates Aphrodite “Nothing in excess”: emotion vs. reason Gender Issues Appearance vs. Reality Phaedra seems to be a victim but is not, Hippolytus is chaste. Theseus is Hippolytus’ dad, wrong about Phaedra and Hippolytus Background Minos + Pasiphae (+ “White Bull” from the Sea) Phaedra and Ariadne Minotaur Theseus + (1) Antiope or Hippolyte + (2) Phaedra Hippolytus 1. Play’s opening Aphrodite prologue, denounces Hippolytus who prays to Artemis and hates Aphrodite Hippolytus introduced (p. 16566) 2. Nurse and Phaedra (“bright one”), nurse tries to make Phaedra feel better about being in love with stepson 3. Phaedra and the chorus Phaedra on 2 kinds of shame 4. Chorus on Love, e.g Iole and Semele (pp. 18586) 5. Nurse promises love charm 184 6. Hippolytus, misogynist or “On the traffic in women” (pp. 18990) women are like a beautiful evil. Wishes Zeus took gifts of valuable metal for sons. Women were drain on fortunes of home and they were useless or too clever 7. Phaedra’s suicide by noose (p. 194) so ashamed, said Hippolytus tried to rape her 8. Theseus laments death; sees tablet; curses Hippolytus (198200) curses Hippolytus to death with a curse from Poseidon that cannot be reversed 9. T. argues with H. (pp. 201205) a. Hippolytus dies with Bull from the Sea brings body back to dad b. Artemis tells the truth, deus ex machina, didn’t interfere but had to say something, aloof and neutral Outline 15 I. Dionysus and Ecstasy A. Women’s Zeus women mainly worshipped Dionysus, men gave him the name “women’s god”, men felt threatened by this Noble Bull Thrace (far Northern Greece) and Phrygia (Near East) B. Birth Myths 1. King Cadmus and Harmonia (of Thebes), Semele + Zeus= Dionysus, Semele was burnt to ashes when she tricked Zeus into revealing that he is a God (Hera told Semele to trick Zeus), Dionysus saved 4rm ashes, sewn into thigh of Zeus who gave birth to him 2. Zeus + Persephone = Zagreus (killed by Titans) Hera is jealous of son, son is murdered and cannibalized. Only heart was saved, Hera brought it to Zeus who eats the heart and mates with Semele who then gives birth to Dionysus 1. Sparagmos (being torn apart) 2. Resurrection C. Aspects of Dionysus 1. Divine thiasos band of followers Bacchae = Bacchantes = Women of Bacchus = Maenads (Mad Women) Satyrs: Sileni, the men 2. Ritual 1. Orgia emotional experience, not usually connected to sex; dancing and drinking 2. Enthusiasmos “in” “god” having god in you 3. Omophagy “raw” “eat” eating raw meat 4. Ecstasis “from or out of” “stand”, standing outside of yourself or letting go 5. Sparagmos tearing apart animals 3. Resistance Myths 1. Pentheus of Thebes god turned on Pentheus, Dionysus in jail. Pentheus watches women (Bacchantes) ritual. Women rips them apart (his mother), women also punished 2. Icarius of Athens first person to plant and cultivate grapes, was killed and had a daughter who hung herself. Dionysus turned it into a festival hung dolls from vines to commemorate also fertility ritual 3. Lycurgus of Thrace resisted Dionysus and then driven mad, kills his own son
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