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UIUC / Sociology / SOC 100 / What is the meaning of endogamy?

What is the meaning of endogamy?

What is the meaning of endogamy?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Sandefur rebecca
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: SOC 100 Exam Three study guide
Description: These notes are the book notes for exam three
Uploaded: 04/28/2018
18 Pages 189 Views 5 Unlocks
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1. Endogamy


What is the meaning of endogamy?



a. Marriage to someone within a social group

2. Exogamy

a. Marriage to someone outside one’s social group

3. Monogamy

a. Have only one sexual partner or spouse at one time

4. Polygamy

a. More than one sexual partner or spouse at a time

5. Polyandry

a. Having multiple husbands simultaneously

6. Polygyny

a. Having multiple wives at the same time

7. Traditional Family (Malinowski)

a. Heterozexual couple lives with their dependent children in a self contained, economically independent household

b. Patriarchal with dependent wife and kids

c. Malinowski

i. Claimed that the Aboriginal natives did have familial arrangements 1. Maintained central place where family gathered


What is the meaning of exogamy?



2. Bestowed feelings of love, affection, and are

d. Family accepted as a universal institution

i. Was a necessary institution for fulfilling the task of child rearing

e. Talcott Parson Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of marginal benefit?

i. Nuclear family was a functional necessity because fulfilled need for productive workers and child nurturers

f. Problem with functionalist arguments is that other institutions can play the same function

8. Western World Family

a. Nuclear

b. Extended family

i. Kin networks that extends outside or beyond the nuclear family

c. Increasing amount of remarriage and divorce rates

d. Cohabitation

i. Living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning


What is the meaning of monogamy?



ii. End in marriage

iii. Claim that living together before marriage curtails future divorce e. Number of women who never marry or never have children is rising f. Women more likely to delay pregnancy associated with the rise in number of twins and triplets We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that influence attitudes towards sex?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is frustration?

g. Single parent families on the rise

9. Early Modern Families

a. Traditional family new concept

b. Each household operated like a small business where it was a site for both production and consumption

c. Kinship networks

i. Strings of relationships between people related by blood and coresidence (marriage)

d. Minimal division of labor

10. Family in the Industrial Era

a. Separate spheres of work and home

b. House is now a site strictly for consumption

c. Men earned the money and the women decided how to spend with because child rearing and house maintenance

d. Gendered division of labor

e. As mobility of families searching for jobs increased, kinship networks decreased i. Vertical kinship ties with reliance on children and parents instead f. Cult of domesticity

i. True womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing ii. Provide the emotional shelter in the private life Don't forget about the age old question of Epithelial tissues are what?

11. Families after WW2

a. Only upper class white families had stay at home wives

b. Most males could not afford it as gap between real and ideal wages increased c. Post WW2 Economic boom

i. Families moved to suburbs, more jobs, higher wages, subsidies

ii. Women quit their jobs

iii. Divorce rates dropped and increase in fertility rates

iv. This was all just a temporary trend, just an anomaly We also discuss several other topics like What is an intending to harm someone, stemming from their emotions, hurt by someone, angry with someone?

1. Fertility rates dropped, divorce rates and women labor

participation rates on rise based on the larger overall trend for

centuries of time

12. Work and Family

a. If mother do not work, the daughters end up earning less than the sons and are less likely to graduate from college

13. Feminism and Family

a. Head of family is all about power

b. Women’s money is devalued as “fun money” because it spent on extra luxury items

c. Men’s money spent on essentials like taxes We also discuss several other topics like What is the tariff of abominations?

14. Second shift

a. Women’s responsibility for housewife and child care

15. Household and Gender

a. Leisure gap between men and women

b. Gap is closing and men do more and women do less housework

c. Men in charge of outdoor activities and women work inside

d. Men do more of what they like to do and women end up with the undesirable chores

e. Adult daughters are more likely to be the primary caregivers to parents 16. African American Families

a. Combined work and family

b. Reply on extra-familial female networks

c. Female AA has three shifts because she is the breadwinner

d. Matriarchy

i. Domineering and unfeminine

ii. Too bossy and strong at home and emasculates her man

iii. W.E.B. DuBois argues this matriarchy is the result of poverty

e. Expanded notion of kinship (brother and sister)

i. Due to slavery where they expanded definition of family from bloodlines to racial ones

17. Latino Families

a. Strong family ties and strong sense of community

b. Women listen to men, children to their elders, establish hierarchy

c. Highly religious

d. High rates of marriage at young age, low rates of divorce

18. Flat Broke with Children

a. Single women survive on welfare

b. If they got jobs they would face a larger gap in earnings and expenses c. Responsible worker makes for irresponsible mother

19. Pecking Order

a. There is a pecking order or status hierarchy among siblings that can lead to competition and resentment

i. Can be due to birth order, which tends to make a difference in larger families with limited resources

b. In poor families, the success of one siblings can lead to negative backlash among the others and usually all of the resources are put into one child 20. Divorce

a. Paradox because American value marriage but divorce rates are high i. We want to be married but also want to be individualistic

b. Highest divorce rates states are relative poor and conservative

c. Divorce can negatively affect the kids

d. But sometimes the kids fare better if they are not part of a high conflict family that tried staying together

21. Blended families

a. Might cause kids to havestabiity or trust issues but others think the children are more robust and adaptable to changes in the future

22. Gay and Lesbian Couples

a. Civil union

i. Legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar state provided legal rights and benefits as marriage

b. Domestic partnership

i. Legally recognized unions that guarantee only select rights to same sex couples

23. Multiracial Families

a. Miscegenation

i. The technical term for interracial marriage, literally meaning a mixing of kinds. It is politically and historically charged- exogamy or outmarriage 24. Streib Marrying Across Class Lines

a. Mike side was rich (middle class) and she was not (working class) b. Still Christie didn’t think the classes differences mattered in their relationship c. Christie thought their differences were due to personality but personality is a trajectory of class differences

d. Christie likes taking laissez faire approach and go with the flow

e. Mike tends to prefer managerial approach to their daily lives

25. Americans believe elite schools offer more opportunities to their graduates than less selective institutions and that those admitted into the prestigious school should be the most academically deserving

26. Education

a. Process through which academic, social, and cultural idea and tools, both general and specific, are developed

27. Functional illiteracy

a. The inability to read or write well enough to be a functioning member of society 28. Innumeracy

a. Having insufficient math skills to function in society

29. Socialization: schools pass down values and beliefs that are important in american society

30. Hidden curriculum (Philip Jackson)

a. The non academic and less overt socialization functions of schooling 31. Marxist theorists

a. Schools are pawns of the capitalist classes and teach the skills that are conducive to maintaining dominant and subordinate positions in the workforce 32. Pitirim Sorokin

a. Schools are sorting machines

b. First they test students for ability and talent and they eliminate students c. Once sorted, they are taught skills that are valuable to future positions 33. Coleman Report

a. Found that differences in resources between schools didn’t matter for educational outcome

b. Most differences attributed to family background and other peers

34. Project STAR

a. Schools with smaller class sizes benefited students

b. The effect was stronger for lower income and minority students

35. Private schools vs public

a. Upward mobility and meritocracy

b. Catholic schools had highest achievement on tests

c. Private schools have impact but not about how expensive they are d. Students did more homework, took more college prep classes, and had better attendance and fewer fights

e.

36. Social capital

a. The information, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks

37. Differences among students within schools were greater than differences among kids between schools

38. Tracking

a. A way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans 39. Non catholic kids in catholic schools do well because their parents desire to see them success and their involvement

40. Teacher experience and teacher expectations of the student can affect their success a. Tell them they are smart, did better on IQ test

i. Self fulfilling prophecy or Pygmalion effect

41. If low achieving kids are placed in a classroom with high achieving kids, they will do better

42. Functionalist perspective

a. Rise of education due to supply and demand

b. As jobs become more technical and required more educated workforce, by attaining more education, students were responding to employer demand 43. Conflict Perspectives

a. Education viewed as elite status

b. As education became more universal the elite had to obtain more and more education to set themselves apart

c. Credentialism

i. An overemphasis on credentials for signaling social status or

qualifications for a job

ii. Employers increase job requirements but the skills needed for the job don’t change so most workers are overqualified

44. SAT accurately predicts class rank, likelihood of graduation and chance of obtaining a degree

a. But high school GPA is a better predictor

b. SAT only a good predictor for white students

c. Does the SAT scores reflect the abilities that should matter?

i. Biased because African Americans and hispanic do worse

d. Correlated with family background

i. Accept the students that are wealthier and more likely to do better so it seems like the SAT has a high predictive power but it doesn’t

45. Affirmative action

a. A set of policies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population- typically women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities

46. IQ Test

a. Measures only one type of intelligence, excludes creativity

i. Multiple intelligences???

b. Culturally biased toward white middle class knowledge

c. Don’t measure innate or genetically determined intelligence because when they take the test they have interacted with the environment which affects their cognitive development

47. Class

a. Social class (SES)

i. In individual position in a stratified social order, is composed of parental educational attainment, parental occupational status, family income and wealth

b. Teacher don’t receive lists of this so it affects education through mediators like SAT scores

i. Class affects SAT scores and SAT scores affect college admission 48. Cultural Capital

a. Symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations

b. Three types: embodied, objectified, and institutionalized

c. Embodied

i. Skills rest in our body

1. Learn to play piano

d. Objectified

i. The piano itself which required money and investment of time to acquire e. Institutionalized

i. Accepted into elite music conservatory for the piano playing ability f. Parents volunteer and more involved in higher class families while working class believe the responsibility is on the teacher

49. Race

a. Bill Cosby blamed African American parents and students for achievement gaps 50. Stereotypes

a. Underperformance is due to negative stereotypes

b. Stereotype threat

i. When members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes

51. Gene Movement

a. Racial differences in intelligence are genetic (Arthur Jensen)

52. Ethnicity

a. Hispanics have highest high school dropout rates

b. Asians and model minority

53. Boy- Girl Achievement Gap

a. Outperformance of boys by females in reading and writing test scores and higher number of women attend college and graduate, more degrees

b. However, it does not payoff in the workforce

c. Men better at AP and SAT tests and science and math

d. Girls started doing equally well at the same time that boys from lower class have started doing worse

54. Family

a. The bigger the family, the lower the kid’s test scores and grades

b. Students with siblings spaced closer together had lower scores

c. Additional siblings, specially additional brother into the family is damaging to other children’s grades

d. Resource dilution model

i. Parental resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them ii. If children spaced closer together, there is more competition for the same resources at once

e. Middle child suffer and latter child gets more the resources becauses the parent’s financial status increases

f. Lower birth weight means lower educational attainment

55. Arum Academically Adrift

a. College is sorting machine

b. Achievement gap not due to quality of schooling

c. When faculty have high expectations, students learn more

d. Some variation in scores can be attributed to student characteristics e. Students asked to read and write performed better on CLA

i. Students who did either or was not adequate

f. Intellectual engagement with faculty is lower for younger kids

g. Peer climates and interactions didn’t play much of a role in facilitating student learning

h. Students spend more hours of their day socializing than studying

i. The more time the students spent on academics, the more gains in CLA i. Students who study more or fewer hours differ from each other in ways that explain their differential performance on CLA

j. Employment on campus is helpful (to an extent of certain number of hours) and employment off campus inhibits student involvement

k. Students who study alone show gains while students who study with peers are negatively impacted

l. Collaborative learning environment can help but most of the time the conditions are not met

m. Individual and institutional differences are important for understanding the consequences of student employment for learning

n. More time in fraternity and sorority resulted in lower scores

o. Highest performance majors are social science/humanities and math/science i. Lowest are business or education minors

ii. Due to reading and writing requirements

56. Doctor power peaked in 1980 and now on the decline

57. Why do doctors have so much power?

a. A lot of schooling and skills required

b. Number of medical schools regulated

c. Offer health and longevity

d. Individualized objectivity

i. Can be personal with you but also technical

e. Deploy specific props and scripts

i. Front stage is the wall separating them and backstage is the examination room

f. Set their own pay rate

g. Prescription power

h. Self regulation

i. AMA are their jury and if they do something wrong they can still find another job because of the shortage of doctors

58. Members of a profession are oriented toward peers not clients

a. While doctors serve patients, they are equally concerned with the approval of other doctors

59. Interpersonal confidence is most important factor in rating doctors 60. Medicalization

a. Process by which problems or issues traditionally not seen as medical are come to be framed as such

i. Alcoholism

61. Doctors not powerful in the ancient past

a. Didn’t offer health and longevity like today

b. Licensing gave them economic clout

c. More powerful position in hospitals

62. Why the decline in authority after 1990?

a. Rising cost of health care

b. Rise of external regulation

c. Alternative medicine

d. Rise of technology

e. Internet: do your own research

63. Sick role (Talcott Parsons)

a. Concept of describing the social rights and obligations of sick individuals b. Two rights

i. Not to perform normal social roles and to not be held accountable for his or her condition

c. Two obligations

i. Try to get well and to seek component help and comply with doctor orders d. Categorizing the sick role puts emphasis on individual which is a paradox because they are blamed for their condition to a certain extent

64. First growth spurt in US healthcare industry during great depression 65. Risk adjustment: charge more for coverage depending on condition 66. Doctors have incentive to overtreat

a. Treat to fix by changing it to fee per person instead of fee per treatment b. Could cause doctors to undertreat

67. Health care systems are not important in predicting life expectancy and mortality rates and such: nutrition, clean water, lifestyle choices are important

68. Men with lower ranks had higher rates of illness

a. More risk factors like obesity and more stress and less physical activity 69. Whitehall Study

a. Where you live, who you are, how much you earn all play a role in determining your health (social forces)

b. Lower ranks led to poor health outcomes

70. Morbidity

a. Illness in a general sense

71. Mortality

a. Death

72. Taller people have better health and more powerful???

73. Why are Dutch taller?

a. Equality plays a role

74. More males than females born but males have higher mortality rate 75. More amount of twins and triplets born

a. Should they try to reduce because higher order births increase risk for mother and embryo

i. Also birth weight and prematurity problem

1. Show inequality before birth

76. Lower birth weight babies have lower average educational attainment and SES 77. White have high life expectancy than African Americans

a. Racism in day to day life can affect this

b. Higher stress levels, even among upper class African Americans

78. Selection theory

a. Relationship between lower income and higher morbidity is spurious because other factors like genetics and biology affect both health and SES

79. Drift Explanation theory

a. Reverse causality exists, health causes social position

80. Social Determinants Theory

a. Social status position determines health

b. Why?

i. Psychosocial interpretation: Cause more stress, depression, etc if you feel worthless and negative stigma

ii. Materialistic interpretation: differential access to healthy life is a result of socioeconomic factors

iii. Fundamental Causes Interpretation: people of higher SES have more resources and therefore are better able to maintain good health

c. Extra year of schooling decreased chances of dying

d. People who received less social security lived longer

i. Those with less social security worked longer for part time and the decrease in social isolation increased longevity

81. Fundamental Cause theory

a. Look up on powerpoint

82. Married people live longer

83. In US, women live longer

a. Some diseases like heart disease are more likely in males

b. Women are more likely to see the doctor

84. Mortality rates of black men vs white women?

a. Way higher for black males

85. Larger families have higher child mortality rates

86. When kids are spaced closer together, there is higher mortality

a. Harder to supervise more kids and also related to available resources 87. First borns are more likely to die young

a. Parents less experiences

b. Unintended pregnancies

88. Higher risk of death when only child

89. DSM III was atheoretical, meaning diseases were not attributed to certain causes like life events; adopted a medical model

a. More about symptoms instead of internal conflicts

90. Adopting biomedical model

a. Focus on chemical imbalances

91. Leading killer worldwide

a. Waterborne illness

92. Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major problem

93. Scott Life at the Top

a. Architect, utility worker, maid all faced heart attack but their social class played a role in their recovery

b. As advances in medicine and disease prevention have increased life expectancy, benefits have disproportionately done to people with higher education and good jobs

c. Some activities more common in lower class such as physical inactivity or smoking

d. Mortality rates are decreasing for both poor and rich but not as fast for the poor so the gap is increasing

e. The architect had the best hospitals around with the best surgeons and so many connections

i. For recovery, he followed a healthy diet and stuck to it

ii. Didn’t have to check up many times or go to the doctor: minimal

complications

f. The utility worker had to pick from two mediocre hospitals and they didn’t have state permission to do angioplasty, the procedure that Jean received

i. Clot reformed after given drug

ii. Spent more days in the hospital

iii. For recovery, he went back to eating junk food and stopped taking medications

g. Eva’s experience was the worst

i. Hesitation to allowing her husband call the ambulance

ii. Not given choice of hospital

iii. No angiogram ever done

iv. Had an infection and got sick

v. Spent weeks in the hospital

vi. For recovery, couldn’t eat healthy food

1. Fast food was more convenient and cheap

vii. Saw the doctor so many times because of complications

viii. Couldn’t even work because of her complicated situation

ix. Then resorted to restrictive eating which was bad too

x. Becoming a borderline diabetic

94. Culture

a. Set of beliefs, traditions, practices; sum of the social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors, and practices; that which is not nature

95. Ethnocentrism

a. Belief that one’s culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own

96. Nonmaterial culture

a. Values, beliefs, behaviors and social norms

97. Material culture

a. Everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology

98. Sapir-Whorf thesis

a. Language we speak directly influences the way we think and experience the world

99. Ideology

a. A system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect 100. Cultural relativism

a. Taking into account differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value

101. Cultural scripts

a. Modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural 102. Geertz

a. Cultural is a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life

103. Subculture

a. Distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by a set of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society

b. Sometimes seen as vulgar and deviant

i. Emos and hippies

ii. Goth

104. Values

a. Moral beliefs

105. Culture shapes our values

a. Example is equality of opportunity

106. Norms

a. How our values are put into play

107. Reflection theory

a. Culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is shown

i. Violence in rap music

b. Marxist version of reflection theory

i. Cultural objects reflect material labor and relationships of production that went into them

ii. Our norms and values and laws and language are outgrowths of the technology and economic modes of production

1. Limited liability

c. Doesn’t account for changes in meaning

d. Unidirectional

i. Culture has no impact on society

108. Collective action

a. Action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation

b. Must be part of group and against the expected social norms of the situation 109. Crowd collective action

a. Must be face to face with others members of your group

110. Mass collective action

a. Collection action in which the people aren’t physically together

b. NRA where the members write letters to the senators to protest

111. Convergence theory

a. Collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather in the same place

b. Problem is that it is often reduced to the sum of its parts; doesn’t explain inconsistency of group action

112. Contagion theory

a. Collective action arises because of people’s tendency to conform to the behavior of others with whom they are in close contact

b. Downplays individual agency and doesn’t explain inconsistency

113. Emergent norm theory

a. Theory of collective action that emphasizes the influence of keynoters in promoting particular norms

b. Doesn’t explain why particular groups of people emerge as leaders c. Does explain why some actions become the emergent norm in the situation 114. Value added theory

a. Six conditions for movement to be successful

i. Must be social strain that existing power holder are unable or unwilling to alleviate

ii. Folks have to agree on the definition of the problem

iii. Folks must be free to act on their grievance

iv. There must be a spark that ignites the controversy

v. Mobilization for action; folks need to gather in an organized fashion vi. Failure of social control by established power holders

115. Paradox: what makes you an individual is your affiliation with multiple group identities 116. Social movement

a. Collective behavior that is purposeful, organized, and institutionalized but not ritualized

b. Doesn’t happen every year like New year’s Eve times square (ritual) c. Achieve aims through conflict and action directed at particular opponents d. Common commitment to social change

117. Alternative social movements

a. Seek the most most limited social change and often target a narrow group of people

b. Issue oriented and seek to change behavior toward that issue

c. Examples

i. Mothers against drunk driving

118. Redemptive social movements

a. Target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in their behavior b. Example

i. Covenant house

1. Tries to change more than one behavior like drug use and instead helps organize your whole life like find employment, etc

119. Reformative social movements

a. Social movements that advocate for limited social change across an entire society

b. Example

i. Critical mass

1. Advocates bicycle friendly commuting in Portland, Oregon, San

Francisco, and other global locations

2. Not limited to small amount of people but the change the group

seeks is relatively minor

120. Revolutionary social movements

a. Advocate radical reorganization of the society

b. Example

i. Weather Underground

1. Wanted to overthrow government through armed attacks

121. Classical model

a. Model of social movements based on a concept of structural weakness in society that results in psychological disruption of individuals

b. Social movements are a collective response to structural strain that has a psychological effect on individuals

c. Political achievements and goals don’t play a role

d. Criticisms

i. Strain is everywhere so why aren’t there social movements there ii. Model removes desire to attain specific, rational political goals while overemphasizing psychological tensions

122. Resource-mobilization theory

a. Emphasizes political context and goals but also states that social movements are unlikely to emerge without the necessary resources, or if they do, are unlikely to succeed.

123. Political process model

a. Focuses on structure of political opportunities

b. When these are favorable to a particular challenger, the chances are better for the success of a social movement led by this challenger

c. Three conditions: expanding political opportunities, indigenous organizational strength, and shared cognitions

124. Three stages of Social Movements

a. Emergence

i. Social problem being addressed is first identified

b. Coalescence

i. Resources are mobilized around the problems outlined in the first stage c. Routinization or institutionalization

i. Social movement is institutionalized and the formal structure develops to promote the cause

d. After they are institutionalized, social movement organizations SMO’s develop to recruit new members and coordinate participation

125. Types of SMO’s

a. Professional movement organization

i. Full time leadership staff and large membership base with minor role ii. NARAL

b. Participatory movement organization

i. Rank and file membership is directly involved

1. Two types

a. Mass protest organization

i. Advocated social change through protest and

demonstration

ii. Relies heavily on member participation

b. Grassroot organizations

i. Relies on high levels of community based

membership participation to promote social change

ii. Lack hierarchical structure like professional

organization

iii. Unlike mass, it works through existing political

structures to promote change

iv. Involved in letter writing campaigns and local

political organizing

126. Alexis de Tocqueville praised America for equality but says the people barely have power

a. Americans are so likely to join voluntary groups? Our participation in election is so low so why?

b. Helps them get political power, equality= voluntary; more egalitarian 127. Aim of all social movements is to change society

a. Can be big or small

i. African American rights vs change in popularity of clothing

128. Premodern Society

a. Concentric circles of social affiliation, a low degree of division of labor, relatively undeveloped technology, and traditional social norms

b. Individuals are the source of authoritative knowledge

c. Rely on myths to and tradition is important for guidance on daily life 129. Modernity

a. Social relations characterized by rationality, bureaucratization, and objectivity, as well as individuality created by non concentric but overlapping group affiliations b. Common the is progress

c. Max weber

i. Modernity emerged from Protestant Revolution

130. Postmodernism

a. Social relations characterized by a questioning of notion of progress and history, the replacement or narrative with pastiche and multiple perhaps even conflicting identities resulting from disjointed affiliations

131. Causes of social change

a. Technology and innovation

b. New ideas and identities

c. Conflict

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