Exam 2 (Bio 1134)
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Trung Do on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bio 1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Evan Kaplan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
What collects proteins made from the Golgi Apparatus Rough ER? Processing, Sorting and Secretion What are the 3 functions of the Golgi Apparatus? Lysosomes What are the small sacs which are used for storage of digestive enzymes called hydrolases? Peroxisomes What breaks down hydrogen peroxide and other toxic substances via enzymes? Catalase What is another term for Enzyme? Plasma Membrane What provides a protective boundary between the insides of the cell and the extracellular? It allows for the transport of materials in and out of the cell, and also the cytoplasm of all animal cells are enclosed by this? Selectively permeable What term means "allows only certain substances in and out"? ATP production What is the function of the Mitochondria? Aerobic Cellular Respiration Mitochondria are the sites of what? Do all Eukaryotic cells have Yes Mitochondria? True T/F Mitochondria, similar to the nucleus, have two membranes, an outer membrane and an inner membrane. This is not part of the endomembrane system. Extracellular Matrix Unlike plant cells which are packed in tightly and touching one another, animal cells can be loosely arranged in whats known as? This is mainly composed of proteins and polysaccharides? Help to support and organize cells into tissues What are the functions of the Contributes to the physical properties of cartilage, Extracellular Matrix? skin and etc. Filters materials passing between tissues Orients well movements during development and repair Allows for cells to communicate with one another What is a part of the "plant" endomembrane Vacuole system that stores water, enzymes and proteins and also degrades macromolecules? These can be found in animal cells, but Vacuole smaller and gives plant cells their structure? Site of Photosynthesis? Chloroplasts Chloroplasts captures light energy to produce Glucose organic molecules such as what? What functions to support and protect the cell, Cell Wall help maintain its shape, and prevents excessive water uptake? It is comprised of cellulose and other molecules. T/F. Plants do not have lysosomes and True centrioles? What do Prokaryotic (bacteria) and Plasma membrane Eukaryotic (plants, animals, and humans) Cytoplasm cells both have? Genetic material and ribosomes Enzymes Require energy for survival The simplest and smallest of all The simplest and smallest of all organisms/cells and organisms/cells and what does it mean? what does it mean? Prokaryotic; Prokaryotic means "before the nucleus" What do Prokaryotic cells "not" have? Membrane bound nucleus Prokaryotic cells have appendages such as Pili (for attachment) what? Flagella (for movement) Do Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound Yes nucleus? What are some traits of a Eukaryotic cell? Their organelles have membranes Contain many DNA molecules Mostly multicellular organisms All living cells are surrounded by what? Plasma Membrane What is the structure of the Plasma Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane? What is a Fluid Mosaic Model? Membrane that is composed of many different kinds of molecules embedded or attached to the double layer of phospholipids "Different pieces put together" How does the structure of the Plasma Without the correct structure, it will not be able to do Membrane correlate with its functions? the correct functions What is the molecular structure of a 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate phospholipid? One end of the phospholipid molecule is Polar _______ while the fatty acid chain is______ Nonpolar Hydrophobic means? Waterfearing Hydrophilic means? Waterloving What is the relationship between Phospholipids are the most abundant molecules in the phospholipids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, membrane. A phospholipid is named for its two main and lipid bilayer? parts, a phosphate group and a lipid. The phospholipid has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The hydrophilic heads are polar, while the hydrophobic heads are nonpolar. The structure of a lipid bilayer explains its function as a barrier, which will result in the 2 different regions. These phospholipids organize themselves in a bilayer to hide their hydrophobic tails and expose the hydrophilic regions to water. This process does not require energy. The lipid bilayer functions as a highly impermeable structure meaning it does not allow molecules to freely pass across it. What is the function of the Plasma The plasma membrane functions as a selective Membrane? permeable membrane that allows oxygen, nutrients and wastes "pass through" What are some characteristics of membranes? They have fluidity They remain in close association yet they have the ability to readily move within the membrane They are held in place by relatively weak hydrophobic interactions The type of lipid will effect the fluidity of the membranes T/F. For cells to survive they must be able to True transport materials (nutrients and wastes) in and out of the cell. Biological membranes have selective permeability. What are the transport mechanisms used by Passive Transport: Facilitated Transport and cells? Osmosis Active Transport Endocytosis Exocytosis What is the net movement of a substance Diffusion from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration? When molecules are dispersed and movement Equilibrium is equal in all directions, it is said they have reached what? What 4 things are related to the rate of Molecule size diffusion? Kinetic energy Electrical charge Concentration gradient When molecules are diffused directly through Passive Transport the membrane, this is called what? *Example of passive transport diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of lung cells into blood cells The passive movement of molecules down its Facilitated Transport (this can be selective; the concentration gradient via a channel or structure of the protein admits only certain types of transport protein is called what? molecules through) What is the diffusion of water across a Osmosis selectively permeable membrane? The total number of molecules (solute) The movement of water present in the local environment will dictate what? Will the water move in the direction towards High the low solute concentrations or the high solute concentrations? When the solute concentration is the same Isotonic solution inside and outside of the cell? *Results in no net movement of water When the solution with the higher Hypertonic concentration is outside and the lower inside? *Results in water diffusing out of the cell When the solution with the higher Hypotonic concentration is inside and the lower outside? *Results in water diffusing into the cell The movement of a solute across a membrane Active Transport against its concentration gradient? Active transport always needs what? A transport protein Why is active transport critical? Active transport is critical for a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across the membrane Does active transport require energy? Yes What involves packaging material inside the Exocytosis cell into vesicles and the excreted into extracellular? What is it called when the plasma membrane Endocytosis folds inward to form a pocket, resulting in an internalized vesicle that brings substances "into" the cell? The contents of the vesicle will be digested Lysosome when the vesicle fuses with what? What is defined as the ability to promote Energy change or to do work? What are two forms that energy can exist in? Kinetic Energy (Energy associated with movement; Heat or light) Potential Energy (Stored energy; Chemical energy is a form of Potential Energy in molecules that contain covalent bonds) The ______ provides energy to all living Sun systems on the planet? What involves using energy from the sun to Photosynthesis combine small molecules into more complex ones? What are the 3 main kinds of work a cell Mechanical does? Transport Chemical Which form of work involves movement of Mechanical cilia and flagella, contracts muscle cells, and is involved in the movement of chromosomes? Which form of work involves pumping Transport substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement? Which form of work involves stockpiling, Chemical building, rearranging, and breaking apart substances? What is the immediate source of energy that ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate powers cellular work? ATP is a type of nucleotide consisting of what Sugar ribose 3 things? Nitrogenous base adenine Chain of 3 phosphates Resulting in the release of a large amount of ADP or Adenosine Diphosphate energy the ATP can the broken down or hydrolyzed into what? In the cell, the energy from the hydrolysis of Phosphorylation ATP is coupled directly to the release of energy by transferring the phosphate group to another molecule. The energy containing phosphate attaches temporarily to an intermediate molecule via a process called __________. What is known when the ATP is used as a ATP cycle renewable resource that is continually regenerated by adding a phosphate group to ADP? In the ATP cycle, when the phosphates break Yes off, can each of them make energy? T/F. The reactions that occur in cells are so True slow that they could not contribute to life unless the cells did something to speed them up. What is needed to speed up a chemical Catalyst reaction without being permanently changed or consumed? In living cells, the most common catalyst is in Enzymes the form of special types of proteins called? Which would be a faster reaction? A reaction A single enzyme can speed up a reaction over one containing an enzyme or not? million times faster. T/F. Enzymes do not make anything happen True; enzymes just make the reaction faster that could not happen on its own. When the reaction has an enzyme it requires Less _______ activation energy. When the reaction does not have a enzyme it More requires ________ activation energy. In order to initiate a reaction, a small amount Activation Energy of energy is needed which is called? *Example: Cranking a car or lawn mower T/F. Chemical reactions require energy. True In living things, one cannot have too much Enzyme increase in the temperature to accelerate a *Enzymes end in "ase" reaction, so an ___________ is needed. Enzymes provide a _________________ that Microenvironment is energetically favorable for the reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier. What is the specific location where the Active site reactants bind onto the enzyme? In a catalyzed chemical reaction, the reactants Substrates that interact with the enzyme are called ____________. The binding of a substrate to the active site of Enzyme substrate complex an enzyme produces a __________________. The specificity of an enzyme is due to what? The fit between the active site and the substrate *Resembles lock and key As the substrate binds to the enzyme, the Induced fit enzyme changes shape resulting in a *Like a hand clasping over a ball _____________________. There is a limit to how fast a reaction can Saturated occur. At some substrate concentrations, the active sites on all enzymes are engaged. The enzyme is then said to be ___________. Enzyme function characteristics. The rate that a specific number of enzymes converts substrates to products depends in part on substrate concentrations. At low substrate concentrations, an increase in substrate speeds binding to available active sites The only way to increase productivity is to add more enzyme molecules Examples: 1 hand can catch 1 tennis ball, 1 active site can work with only one substrate. Our hand can catch a tennis ball bc its an exact match, but we would drop a marble Binding by some molecules, called Enzyme Inhibitor _____________________, prevent enzymes from catalyzing reactions or "turn it off". If the binding is weak, can the inhibition be Yes reversible? If the inhibitor noncovalently binds to the Competitive Inhibition same site as the substrate, then it blocks the substrate binding via _________________. In other words, the inhibitor is competing with the substrate for the active site. If the inhibitor binds noncovalently to a Noncompetitive Inhibition location outside the active site, it blocks substrate binding via _______________________. What is the location of the inhibitor during Allosteric Site Noncompetitive Inhibition? Binding by the inhibitor to this site causes the enzyme to change shape, rendering the active site unreceptive to bind to the substrate. The inhibitor used during Noncompetitive Allosteric Inhibitor Inhibition is called the _______________. The conditions that alter the 3 dimensionsal Allosteric Activators structure of the enzyme, which in turn, influences the reaction rate and enzyme activity called ________________. Temperature has a major impact on reaction Faster or possibly could Denature (Destroy) them rates. As temperature increases, the molecules move ___________. Temperature has a major impact on reaction Slower rates. As temperature decreases, the molecules move __________. What is the sum total of all chemical reactions Metabolism that occur within an organism? Chemical reactions are often coordinated with Metabolic Pathway each other and occur in a sequence or series of steps, called _________________. What selectively accelerates or regulates each Enzymes step in Metabolism? What the the 3 general ways of regulation and Gene Regulation Allows cells to make or inhibit explain them. enzymes involved in metabolic pathway Cellular Regulation Environmental signals activate or inactivate the cell Biochemical Regulation A molecule noncovalently binding to an enzyme to activate or inhibit that enzyme What is a product of a metabolic pathway that Feedback Inhibition binds to an allosteric site of an enzyme that catalyzes one of the reactions early in the pathway? The source of all energy comes from the sun. Photosynthesis Energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy in ________________________. Breaking of bonds releases ___________. Energy The reactions that break down the organic Oxidationreduction reactions molecules are called __________________________. They result in the transfer of one reactant to another. The loss of electrons from an atom is called Oxidation ________. The addition or gain of electrons to another Reduction atom is called ___________________. The electron donor is the __________ agent. Reducing The electron recipient is the __________ Oxidizing agent. In cellular respiration, ____________ and Glucose other fuel molecules are oxidized, releasing energy. T/F. The energy from cellular respiration is True found in the electron from the hydrogen atoms that get removed from the glucose molecule. As glucose is oxidized, the electrons get Final Electron Acceptor passed to a_________________. If oxygen is the final acceptor, the process is Aerobic Respiration (oxygen present) called _________________. If the final electron acceptor is a molecule Anaerobic Respiration; Fermentation (oxygen absent) other than oxygen, it is called releasing less energy than Aerobic ______________ and leads to a process called _______________. At key steps, hydrogen atoms are stripped NAD+ and FAD from glucose and transferred to electron carriers, ________ and _______. These electron carriers deliver the hydrogens to the final step of the respiration process resulting in the synthesis of the majority of ATP. The process of oxidation begins in the Mitochondria cytoplasm and is completed in the ___________________ where enzymes of the Kreb cycle complete the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. What are the 3 main stages of oxidation? Glycolysis: the breakdown of pyruvate via oxidation Citric acid cycle (or the Krebs cycle) Oxidative phosphorylation via electron transport chain What is the process of Cellular Respiration Breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen oxidation of glucose facilitated by many enzymes resulting in carbon dioxide and water What is the first stage of cellular respiration? Glycolysis (occurs in the cytoplasm) It occurs with or without oxygen. What is the energy investment phase of ATP energy activates its glucose and its 6 carbon cellular respiration? derivatives 2 ATP are required What is the Energy Liberation phase of The product of the first part are split into 3 carbon cellular respiration? pyruvate molecules 4 ATP are formed by substrate level phosphorylation 2 NaDH are formed and transferred to the final stage of respiration, the electron transport chain What is the pyruvate oxidation step? What is the pyruvate oxidation step? As pyruvate enters the mitochondrian, a multienzyme complex modifies pyruvate to acetyl CoA which enters the citric acid cycle in the matrix of the mitochondrion. Its the link between glycolysis and the remaining components of aerobic cellular respiration. All of the NADH's and FADH's that are Electron Transport Chain produced from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle go to the _________________________. From each NADH that enters, ___ molecules 3 of ATP are made. From each FADH2 that enters, ____ 2 molecules of ATP are made. The vast majority of the ATP produce from NADH and FADH2 the oxidation of glucose comes from the energy in the electrons carried by _____ and ______. The energy used in NADH and FADH2 are ATP used in the electron transport chain to power _______. T/F. The ETC generates no ATP directly. True The movement of electrons along the ETC ATP synthesis sets up a Hydrogen ion electrochemical concentration gradient between the inner mitochondrion membrane and matrix. This leads to a process known as chemiosmosis and ultimately _____________. In the ETC, the only way for the Hydrogen ATP synthase ion to get back into the matrix is through a special transport protein, which is an enzyme ______________. The movement of ions across a selectively Chemiosmosis permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient is called ____________. The theoretical yield of ATP is ____ to ____ 3638 molecules The actual yield of ATP is closer to ____ 30 ATP's being produced. Regulation of aerobic respiration occurs by Negative (inhibition) and positive feedback both _______________ and __________ feedback. What is referred to when the end product Feedback Inhibition feedbacks and inhibits an enzyme that catalyzes an early step in the pathway? Can both citrate and ATP inhibit respiration? Yes What is referred to when the reactant Positive Feedback activates an enzyme that catalyzes an early step in the pathway? What causes ATP? Phosphate; If no phosphate, will result in ADP which acts as activator for cellular respiration T/F. In addition to carbs (glucose), molecules True such as proteins, fats and nucleic acids can be used as sources of energy. Unlike carbs, digestion of proteins and fats Hydrolized used to generate energy require several complex steps such as first being __________. Sun Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Aerobic Pyruvate Cellular Respiration resulting in complete oxidation, waste products of H2O and CO2, 32 ATP net energy trapped. Sun Photosynthesis Glucose Glycolysis Anaerobic Pyruvate Fermentation resulting in Incomplete oxidation, waste products of organic compounds and CO2,2 ATP net energy trapped Glycolysis Pyruvate Pyruvate Oxidation Aerobic (Oxygen present) Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate Fermentation Anaerobic (Oxygen absent) Lactate or alcohol In ________ fermentation, the pyruvate from Lactate glycolysis is converted to lactate or lactic ?? acid. This by some fungi and bacteria are used to make cheese, yogurt and sour cream. What is a result of lactic acid build up? Muscle fatigue and soreness The type of anaerobic respiration that some Ethanol Fermentation; In this pathway, pyruvate is yeast and plant cells use in the absence of converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Like lactate oxygen? fermentation, a net of 2 ATP molecules are produced. this process is being used in brewing, winemaking and bread making. Photosynthesis takes place in organelles Chloroplasts called _____________. Photosynthetic organisms produce their own Autotrophs organic molecules, such as carbohydrates, and use that to produce ATP, called _____________. Non photosynthetic organisms rely on others Herotrophs for their organic molecules to be used to produce ATP, called _______________. What are the 2 stages Photosynthesis takes Captures energy from the sun and uses that energy to place? make ATP, NADPH, and O2 Using the ATP, NADPH and CO2 to power the synthesis of organic molecules (sugars) Is Photosynthesis really the opposite of YES Aerobic Respiration? Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen Gas Where are the photosynthetic pigments found Chloroplasts that capture light energy to drive photosynthesis? What is the main pigment in most plants that Chlorophyll give them their green color? Example of other pigments that give color? Carotenoides and Xanthophylls
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