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Classical Mythology Midterm Notes

by: Tina Tan

Classical Mythology Midterm Notes CLA 40

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Classical Studies > CLA 40 > Classical Mythology Midterm Notes
Tina Tan

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About this Document

Covers the material needed to know for the midterm in this class. Outline provided through class lecture but material are my own notes I took.
Classical Mythology
Study Guide
Classical Mythology, Greek Mythology
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Classical Mythology Midterm  Outline 1 Herakles (Roman Hercules) Hera­kles­ “Glory of Hera”  Kleos­ “fame”, “reputation” Amphtryon + Alcmena (mom) + Zeus Zeus pretends to be Alcmena’s husband and sleeps with her, ends up getting her  pregnant, Hera tries to hex the birth but Heracles is born semi­divine Iphicles is the other kid that Alcmena had  Twelve Labors (Athloi)­ had to do them because Hera cursed him to going mad, he killed his  family and had to do these labors as compensation 1. Wrestle Nemean Lion­ Skin could not be penetrated, strangled and skinned the lion,  used the lion’s own claws 2. Kill Lernean Hydra­ used bile as venom for his arrows, sears neck of hydra so neck  doesn’t grow back 3. Crynean Stag­ sacred to Artemis, golden horns, wounded and later released 4. Capture Erymanthean Boar­  5. Clean the Stables of Augeas­ at Olympia, founded Olympian games 6. Shoot the Stymphalian Birds­ 7. Capture Cretan Bull 8. Tame the Mares of Diomedes 9. Fetch the Girdle of Hippolyta­ Aphrodite has a girdle as a part of her sex appeal 10. Steal the Cattle of Geryon­ had three heads, 6 arms and leg, monster 11. Fetch the Apples of Hersperides­ wedding gift to Hera, Ladon the Dragon guarded it  12. Fetch Cerberus from Hades­ the hound of hell, gave the dog a cake that makes him  fall asleep, has three heads, snakes from his head and feet, while he is in Hell, he sees  Thesius and Heracles saves him, gesture of friendship Euripedes’ Herakles  Amphitryon­ Heracles’ mortal father Megara­ Heracles’ wife Lycus­ usurper of power in Thebes Iris­ messenger of the gods Lyssa­ Madness personified Theseus­ king of Athens Outline 2 Sophocles 496­406 BC Trachinian Women (ca 450­430 BC) Omphale­ after killing Eurytus and his son Iphitus (his archery teacher), he seeks to be purified  by Apollo who refuses to do so. So, he steals his tripod, a 3 legged bronze vessel that symbolizes victory. As a punishment, he is enslaved to Omphale for one year Deianeira­ wife of Heracles, tries to win the love of her husband back by listening to the Centaur  advice in using a love potion, does not see the threat in the advice. Ends up killing herself Hyllus­ son, tries to unite his parents  Lichas­ Messenger of H Iole­ mistress, wages a 3 month siege of Oechalia and wanted to capture the city, falls in love  with Iole and kills the king Achelous­ River god, suitor of Deianeira (sea serpent god) but Heracles defeats him Nessus­ centaur (body of horse, head of a man) tries to also take Deianeira Heracles­ attitude to his wife is not very loving Outline 3 A. Demeter and Mysteries 1. Myth a. Demeter­ son Plutos (creten hero­ Iosoian) ½ divine, wheat goddess b. Persephone­ daughter of Demeter, taken and becomes the Queen of the  Underworld at age 15 c. Hades­ has Persephone, Persephone was given to him by Zeus who did not tell  Demeter  d. Hecate e. Helios  f. Celeus and Metaneira­ King and Queen at Eleusis, center of worship of Demeter g. “Doso”­ “I will give” h. Iambe (“Iampoon”, “invective”)­ Nurse i. Demophoon­ son of King and Queen, was a young baby and was going through a  ritual to turn him into a god but they interrupt the process and she changes her  mind j. Pomegranate­ Because Demeter was stopping crops from growing, people had  nothing to give as sacrifices to the gods. Zeus talks to Hades in a compromise and he grants Persephone a pomegranate so she can only go for part of the year  k. Triptolemos 2. Athens and Eleusis a. Eleusinion­ sanctuary b. Hiera (“holy things”) c. Iambic invective  d. Epoptes e. Heirophant B. Hades and Afterlife  a. Eschatology­ “last” “final” b. Soma (body) and psyche (soul)­ soma by itself is a corpse  c. Geography of the underworld d. Hades (“The Unseen” or “The in­gathere”?)­ brother of Zeus e. Five Rivers i. Styx (R. of Hate)­ swear an oath ii. Acheron (R. of Woe) iii. Pyriphlegethon (R. of Fire) iv. Cocytus (R. of Wailing) v. Lethe (R. of Forgetfulness)­ souls can be reborn, must drink from here.  Knowledge, anamnesis­ recollection  f. Journey of the Psyche i. Charon­ Ferryman who brings souls across the river, must have a coin in  mouth for him or will wait 100 years to cross the Styx River ii. Hermes Psychopompus­ the go between, “conductor of souls”, messenger  God, God of Transition/Doorways iii. Cerberus­ last guard of Hades, 3 heads, 3 bodies, 100 heads with snakes iv. Chthonic (“of the earth”) sacrifices­ rituals for the dead v. Elysian Fields­ reserved to the people revered by the gods vi. Tartarus 1. Tantalus­ fed his son to the gods, gods knew and the son got  resurrected. He was continually tantalized with food and water out  of his reach 2. Sisyphus­ tried to rape a goddess, daughter of a river god. Zeus  sentenced death and outwitted him by chaining him. People  weren’t dying so Zeus sent Ares, god of war, to unchain him. Push  the Boulder up the hill, always fails  3. Tityus­ assaulted Letos, Zeus gf, his liver was eaten away by  vultures 4. Ixion­ King of these people, son of Ares, killed father in law,  human killed relative a. Put into exile, Zeus pitied him and invited him to dinner.  Grew lusty for Hera so Zeus makes a cloud that looks like  Hera and he has sex with it ­> Centaurus (Father of  Centaurs), Hermes chained him to a fire wheel g. Mortals who returned alive from Hades i. Heracles ii. Theseus­ rescued by Heracles iii. Orpheus­ prophet, rescued his wife, Euridice. He looked around when told not to and they took her back Outline 4 Euripides’ Alcestis 1. Euripides’ Alcestis a. Presented 438 B.C 2. Dramatis personae a. Pheres (brother to Pelias)­ Admetus (King of Thessally) b. Pelias (has) Alcestis c. Admetus + Alcestis= Eumelus 3. Apollo­ kills the cyclops (allies of Zeus) because Zeus kills Asclepius, becomes a slave to Admetus, a mortal 4. Death­ was deferred by Apollo because he was so nice to him, may only defer death if  someone takes his place  5. Heracles­ arrives to Admetus only to find that Alcestis is taken by Death and no one told  him Other Illusions: Hestia­ Alcestis prays to the Earth, Hestia, to take care of the house Charon­ sees winged Death, asks Admetus not to marry Orpheus­  Themes to think about  Why does Admetus allow his wife to die for him? [Note: wife as status; wife in silence] o Because he does not want to die and values his more though he is grateful that the wife is doing what she is doing   Why did Admetus’ father not volunteer? Pheres doesn’t believe he owes Admetus  anything, “likes the sun light”, counts life as “sweet”  Whose life is most valuable? Husband over wife? Child above parent or parent above  child?  Why does Admetus hide his grief to Heracles? Because he de wanted to be a good host   How are selflessness and selfishness the central virtue and vice? What is the worth of the  self? Outline 5 Pallas Athena­ Girl of Athens, Palladium= “Maiden of Athens” or “swinger” [of weapons] Athena Potnia­ Mistress Athena Athena Parthenos­ The Virgin Athena= born fully armed out of Zeus’ heads­ head of city Minoan and Mycenaean Origins?­ more warlike, has shield from the shield goddess of  Mycennean origins Athena and her epithets Athena Polias­ (of the city, state, the polis)­ Goddess of city and citadel, goddess as “protectress  of city”, rulers and priests Name of ‘Athens’­ Athene > Athenai as place name, plurality ­ # of citizens devoted to her  Athena Nike (Victory)­ in every sense, military Hygieia­ (of health), farming Metis­ Athena’s mom, she was eaten by Zeus Pathenon­ of Athens located in Acropolis Pediments of Parthenon­ E. Pediment, birth of Athena Athena Parthenos status Phidias­Cult statue made of gold and ivory, 30 ft Sphinx and 2 Pegasus on Helmet­  Gorgon on Aegia­ Gorgon like a snack, Aegia, impenetrable goat skin rimmed with snake, chest  piece Amazons and the Giants battles on shield­ Amazon battle is in the front, Giants in the inside Pandora story on base Palladion­ another city statue, Troy had one, it was stolen and the city fell Aegis Athena Nike Temple Athena Promachis (For the Battle)­ epithet and statue on Acropolis for battle Peplos­ robe woven by Athenian women in the Panathenaia, invented weaving Panathenaia Festival Argo, first ship st Bridle­ invented the 1  bridle for horses Trojan Horse­ inspired the Trojan Horse Athena vs. Poseidon­ control for city­ myth, Athens was a big navy power not land power but  citizens voted for who would be in charge, took away vote from women Pallas­ daughter of Triton, was playing with her and accidently killed her so she took her name to honor her Arachne­ claimed she can outweave Athena, wove a tapestry about gods and their silly affairs,  Athena was poised as an older woman and turned Arachne into a spider Marsyas­ played the flute against Athena and laughs at her, Apollo skinned him alive  Poseidon­ civilization vs. nature Outline 6


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