Classical Mythology Midterm Notes
Classical Mythology Midterm Notes CLA 40
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Classical Mythology Midterm Outline 1 Herakles (Roman Hercules) Herakles “Glory of Hera” Kleos “fame”, “reputation” Amphtryon + Alcmena (mom) + Zeus Zeus pretends to be Alcmena’s husband and sleeps with her, ends up getting her pregnant, Hera tries to hex the birth but Heracles is born semidivine Iphicles is the other kid that Alcmena had Twelve Labors (Athloi) had to do them because Hera cursed him to going mad, he killed his family and had to do these labors as compensation 1. Wrestle Nemean Lion Skin could not be penetrated, strangled and skinned the lion, used the lion’s own claws 2. Kill Lernean Hydra used bile as venom for his arrows, sears neck of hydra so neck doesn’t grow back 3. Crynean Stag sacred to Artemis, golden horns, wounded and later released 4. Capture Erymanthean Boar 5. Clean the Stables of Augeas at Olympia, founded Olympian games 6. Shoot the Stymphalian Birds 7. Capture Cretan Bull 8. Tame the Mares of Diomedes 9. Fetch the Girdle of Hippolyta Aphrodite has a girdle as a part of her sex appeal 10. Steal the Cattle of Geryon had three heads, 6 arms and leg, monster 11. Fetch the Apples of Hersperides wedding gift to Hera, Ladon the Dragon guarded it 12. Fetch Cerberus from Hades the hound of hell, gave the dog a cake that makes him fall asleep, has three heads, snakes from his head and feet, while he is in Hell, he sees Thesius and Heracles saves him, gesture of friendship Euripedes’ Herakles Amphitryon Heracles’ mortal father Megara Heracles’ wife Lycus usurper of power in Thebes Iris messenger of the gods Lyssa Madness personified Theseus king of Athens Outline 2 Sophocles 496406 BC Trachinian Women (ca 450430 BC) Omphale after killing Eurytus and his son Iphitus (his archery teacher), he seeks to be purified by Apollo who refuses to do so. So, he steals his tripod, a 3 legged bronze vessel that symbolizes victory. As a punishment, he is enslaved to Omphale for one year Deianeira wife of Heracles, tries to win the love of her husband back by listening to the Centaur advice in using a love potion, does not see the threat in the advice. Ends up killing herself Hyllus son, tries to unite his parents Lichas Messenger of H Iole mistress, wages a 3 month siege of Oechalia and wanted to capture the city, falls in love with Iole and kills the king Achelous River god, suitor of Deianeira (sea serpent god) but Heracles defeats him Nessus centaur (body of horse, head of a man) tries to also take Deianeira Heracles attitude to his wife is not very loving Outline 3 A. Demeter and Mysteries 1. Myth a. Demeter son Plutos (creten hero Iosoian) ½ divine, wheat goddess b. Persephone daughter of Demeter, taken and becomes the Queen of the Underworld at age 15 c. Hades has Persephone, Persephone was given to him by Zeus who did not tell Demeter d. Hecate e. Helios f. Celeus and Metaneira King and Queen at Eleusis, center of worship of Demeter g. “Doso” “I will give” h. Iambe (“Iampoon”, “invective”) Nurse i. Demophoon son of King and Queen, was a young baby and was going through a ritual to turn him into a god but they interrupt the process and she changes her mind j. Pomegranate Because Demeter was stopping crops from growing, people had nothing to give as sacrifices to the gods. Zeus talks to Hades in a compromise and he grants Persephone a pomegranate so she can only go for part of the year k. Triptolemos 2. Athens and Eleusis a. Eleusinion sanctuary b. Hiera (“holy things”) c. Iambic invective d. Epoptes e. Heirophant B. Hades and Afterlife a. Eschatology “last” “final” b. Soma (body) and psyche (soul) soma by itself is a corpse c. Geography of the underworld d. Hades (“The Unseen” or “The ingathere”?) brother of Zeus e. Five Rivers i. Styx (R. of Hate) swear an oath ii. Acheron (R. of Woe) iii. Pyriphlegethon (R. of Fire) iv. Cocytus (R. of Wailing) v. Lethe (R. of Forgetfulness) souls can be reborn, must drink from here. Knowledge, anamnesis recollection f. Journey of the Psyche i. Charon Ferryman who brings souls across the river, must have a coin in mouth for him or will wait 100 years to cross the Styx River ii. Hermes Psychopompus the go between, “conductor of souls”, messenger God, God of Transition/Doorways iii. Cerberus last guard of Hades, 3 heads, 3 bodies, 100 heads with snakes iv. Chthonic (“of the earth”) sacrifices rituals for the dead v. Elysian Fields reserved to the people revered by the gods vi. Tartarus 1. Tantalus fed his son to the gods, gods knew and the son got resurrected. He was continually tantalized with food and water out of his reach 2. Sisyphus tried to rape a goddess, daughter of a river god. Zeus sentenced death and outwitted him by chaining him. People weren’t dying so Zeus sent Ares, god of war, to unchain him. Push the Boulder up the hill, always fails 3. Tityus assaulted Letos, Zeus gf, his liver was eaten away by vultures 4. Ixion King of these people, son of Ares, killed father in law, human killed relative a. Put into exile, Zeus pitied him and invited him to dinner. Grew lusty for Hera so Zeus makes a cloud that looks like Hera and he has sex with it > Centaurus (Father of Centaurs), Hermes chained him to a fire wheel g. Mortals who returned alive from Hades i. Heracles ii. Theseus rescued by Heracles iii. Orpheus prophet, rescued his wife, Euridice. He looked around when told not to and they took her back Outline 4 Euripides’ Alcestis 1. Euripides’ Alcestis a. Presented 438 B.C 2. Dramatis personae a. Pheres (brother to Pelias) Admetus (King of Thessally) b. Pelias (has) Alcestis c. Admetus + Alcestis= Eumelus 3. Apollo kills the cyclops (allies of Zeus) because Zeus kills Asclepius, becomes a slave to Admetus, a mortal 4. Death was deferred by Apollo because he was so nice to him, may only defer death if someone takes his place 5. Heracles arrives to Admetus only to find that Alcestis is taken by Death and no one told him Other Illusions: Hestia Alcestis prays to the Earth, Hestia, to take care of the house Charon sees winged Death, asks Admetus not to marry Orpheus Themes to think about Why does Admetus allow his wife to die for him? [Note: wife as status; wife in silence] o Because he does not want to die and values his more though he is grateful that the wife is doing what she is doing Why did Admetus’ father not volunteer? Pheres doesn’t believe he owes Admetus anything, “likes the sun light”, counts life as “sweet” Whose life is most valuable? Husband over wife? Child above parent or parent above child? Why does Admetus hide his grief to Heracles? Because he de wanted to be a good host How are selflessness and selfishness the central virtue and vice? What is the worth of the self? Outline 5 Pallas Athena Girl of Athens, Palladium= “Maiden of Athens” or “swinger” [of weapons] Athena Potnia Mistress Athena Athena Parthenos The Virgin Athena= born fully armed out of Zeus’ heads head of city Minoan and Mycenaean Origins? more warlike, has shield from the shield goddess of Mycennean origins Athena and her epithets Athena Polias (of the city, state, the polis) Goddess of city and citadel, goddess as “protectress of city”, rulers and priests Name of ‘Athens’ Athene > Athenai as place name, plurality # of citizens devoted to her Athena Nike (Victory) in every sense, military Hygieia (of health), farming Metis Athena’s mom, she was eaten by Zeus Pathenon of Athens located in Acropolis Pediments of Parthenon E. Pediment, birth of Athena Athena Parthenos status PhidiasCult statue made of gold and ivory, 30 ft Sphinx and 2 Pegasus on Helmet Gorgon on Aegia Gorgon like a snack, Aegia, impenetrable goat skin rimmed with snake, chest piece Amazons and the Giants battles on shield Amazon battle is in the front, Giants in the inside Pandora story on base Palladion another city statue, Troy had one, it was stolen and the city fell Aegis Athena Nike Temple Athena Promachis (For the Battle) epithet and statue on Acropolis for battle Peplos robe woven by Athenian women in the Panathenaia, invented weaving Panathenaia Festival Argo, first ship st Bridle invented the 1 bridle for horses Trojan Horse inspired the Trojan Horse Athena vs. Poseidon control for city myth, Athens was a big navy power not land power but citizens voted for who would be in charge, took away vote from women Pallas daughter of Triton, was playing with her and accidently killed her so she took her name to honor her Arachne claimed she can outweave Athena, wove a tapestry about gods and their silly affairs, Athena was poised as an older woman and turned Arachne into a spider Marsyas played the flute against Athena and laughs at her, Apollo skinned him alive Poseidon civilization vs. nature Outline 6
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