Classical Mythology Final Study Guide
Classical Mythology Final Study Guide CLA 40
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLA 40 at University of California Riverside taught by Scanlon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Final Study Guide Lecture 15 Apollo Homeric Hymn 3. To Apollo o Delos (as female fear’s child’s scorn; assured by Leto, speaking for her son) o Leto (expectant mother of Apollo, by Zeus, allied with Rhea, Themis and other goddesses) o Eileithya (birth goddess so Leto can’t give birth until Iris sets her free) o Poseidon covered Delos with waves so the sun doesn’t shine there, eligible place to give birth to Apollo and Artemis o Iris the messenger god coaxes Hera to let Eileithya come (Female solidarity and rivalry (Leto allies vs. Hera) o Apollo had Bow and lyre have strings symbolic of tension, need tension (good, life) Oracular medium can tell the future but in obscure ways o Delphi Temple of Apollo, oracle there Hera owns this place, gives birth to Typhaon (parthenogenesis) Typhaon is given to a “she dragon” at Delphi to be raised “She dragon” is killed by Apollo and gets put under a mountain, renamed Python (rotten one) Leaves for 9 years, exiled Calls festival Pythean Festival Spiritual pollution (miasma) Origins o Sites of Apollo’s origin 700 BC on Delos 750 BC on Delphi Character o Plagues, Death and Healing o Apollo is the father of Asclepius, God of Healing, by Coronis, thought he caught Coronis cheating and shot her o Bow and Lyre Bow= power over life, death and healing Lyre= arts, creativity and order, rhythm o Oracle Sybil on Tripod (three legged seat, vessel) tells truth to people who ask her questions. Priests stands next to her and interprets the enigmas but still isn’t quite clear Apollo Loxias the obscured god, at an angle, partial glimpse of truth Blood guilt expiated by Apollo: Zeus put two birds at opposite ends, when they met, center of the world @ Delphi, had a rock Go to rock, ask Apollo for cleansing, also god of purification o Sayings (gnomai) Meden agan nothing in excess Gnothi sauton know thyself anthropological saying, don’t challenge gods o Distance Apollo, lord at a distance Keeps humans away Pediment of Temple of Zeus @ Olympia Lecture 16A Voyage of the Argo Apollonius of Rhodes (Argonautica) ca. 295235 BC, author and librarian o Hellenistic Era (Alexander the Great) o Born in Alexandria, Egypt o Library of Alexandria director o Wrote also Ktiseis (Foundations of Cities) o Genealogy of Jason Genealogy of Jason o The Golden Fleece King Athamas + Nephele and then Ino Ino tried to have Phrixus killed because she wants her son as the heir Nephele takes Phrixus and Helle on a golden ram away from home, to Black Sea Helle falls off into the sea Hellus Point. Neck of water that connects Black Sea to Mediterranean Phrixus gets to Colchis, sacrifices ram to Zeus. Gives fleece to King Aeetus which is hung in grove of war god (Ares) o Tyro + Poseidon make Pelias (from affair, King Cretheus is Tyro’s husband but also brother of King Athamas o King Creatheus have Aeson who marries Alcimede and they make Jason Pelias tries to take over, pushes Aeson away Jason is sent off to be educated by a centaur until he’s 20 Pelias will be disposed by a man with one sandal (Jason) Jason is helped by Hera, limps back to town. Lost a sandal while crossing a stream, sends Jason to get golden fleece and come back Jason is a wimp of a hero Heroic journey: do, get, return, rule (private vs. public interest) Gods involved, fate and fame determine what happens Lecture 16B Book I: Voyage of the Argo King Pelias of Ioichus, “King Pelias sent us out” The Argo o Means bright, flashing or fast o First ship ever built o Symbol of creation o Built by hero, Argos with Athena’s help a magical ship Crew o Orpheus famous musician and oracle, important voice o Tiphys steers ship o Heracles contrast to Jason o Polydeuces and Castor the Dioskouroi born by Leta, children of Zeus, divine twins. God of horses, here just to ship people o Parallels with Apollo, goes right by priestess of Artemis (bad) o Jason ask heros who they wants as their leader and they want Heracles but he says Jason should Queen Hypsipyle and Women of Lemnos o Queen tells Jason a story: men deserted us (lie), they killed their husbands Would like to populate, island happy to see Jason Stays on island for a year until Heracles tells him to move on Pelops and Hippodameia o Daughter of king, overthrow king o What happens when Jason gets fleece King Cyzicus and Doliones o Happily receive Argonauts o Giants, earth born savages killed by Heracles and the Argonauts o Storm, blown back to island and Doliones think they are enemies and they engage in a full blown war o “We are like birds caught in the wide net of Destiny” Book II King Amycus and Bebryces (barbarians) o Challenges everyone that comes to his island to a boxing match Polydeuces vs Amycus o Polydeuces, good a boxing and son of Zeus vs monster offspring of Typhoeus or Earth itself o Rematch of Zeus of Typhoeus o Amycus is beaten and ties to a tree, kills him Phineus o “for he showed no reverence even for Zeus, whose sacred purposes he did not scruple to disclose in full to all” o Did not revere Zeus o A prophet, have to be ambiguous but Phineus didn’t do it Don’t tell people what Zeus is thinking o Goes blind in compensation for his knowledge, lingering old age o Harpies (winged female birds) took food away o Argonauts came to the rescue o Two of the Argonauts, sons of N. wind, blew and chased the harpies away Cynaean (Clashing) Rocks o Phineus told them how to get through it o Says to Jason that Aphrodite will help him, greatest ally: Medea falls in love King Lycus and the Mariandyni o At mouth of Acheron River o Happy that Jason killed Amycus o Tells Jason about how Heracles helped them too (parallels) Idmon’s and Tiphys’ death Land of Chalybes Mossyneoci o Different people with different ideas of what is right and proper o Do everything backwards, public things in private and vice versa Isle of Ares o Met sons of Phrixus, warn of serpent (born of Typhaon) City of Aea Book III Here (=Hera), Athena and Aphrodite o Hera and Athena are discussing how to help Jason o Recruit Aphrodite to get Medea, daughter of king, to fall in love with Jason to help o Aphrodite receives them with sarcasm and the other two get mad o Hera is supporting Jason, King Pelias forgot to give a sacrifice to Hera o Aphrodite gets Eros, little kid, playing dice with Zeus first love boyfriend, to shoot an arrow at Medea Eros is cheating, deception all over the place Gives Eros a ball, toy of baby Zeus Aeetes o Sets tasks for Jason, succeed will give golden fleece o Two tasks: put together the bronze footed bulls (link) Medea gives anti fire ointment o Plant the teeth of the serpent of Ares weird earthborn men o Should get golden fleece but King Aeetus is still hesitant Ariadne and Theseus o Jason tells Medea “Remember Ariadne… she did not scruple to befriend Theseus and save him in his hour of trial” Book IV Apsyrtus o Medea promises to help him get the fleece in exchange for him marrying her, he agrees o She puts the snake to sleep and he grabs it, they go off together o Hera sends a breeze for the Argonauts ship o Medea’s brother Apsyrtus pursues them on Ister o They are outnumbered and they make a treaty with Medea as a point of contention but she persuades Jason not to give in to her brother Circe o Daughter of the sun, sister of Aeetus o Medea tricks her brother, telling her that she is held captive but will return with him o He is ambushed and then stabbed to death by Jason o Due to bloodguilt, they go to the city of Aea for cleansing o Circe does not approve of Jason and Medea o Hera comes to aid Jason and Medea and persuades Thetis to help them navigate Sirens o They get through sirens, women who try to lure you into rocks Scylla and Charybdis o Pushing you into rocks and whirlpool Libya Lake of Triton Golden Apples of Hesperides in Garden of Atlas Mopsus Talis of Bronze Race at Crete o Zeus kept him to guard island of Crete o Have to fight him, Medea does a chant, weakness is a heal. Blood spills out and dies King PeliasIolcus o Go to Pagasae Medea cause death of the king instead of just the kingship Lecture 17 Euripedes Medea Medea wife of Jason Jason son of Aeson Creon, King of Corinth Daughter of King Creon (Glauce) Nurse to Medea Two sons of Jason and Medea Tutor to the two sons Aegeus, King of Athens savior of Medea, gets her out of Korinth Jason and Medea are exiled to Corinth, King Creon Medea tells the king’s daughter that they’ll save him cuts dad and boils pieces Supposed to be a new man just dead, no youth or life Medea is loyal to Jason but he decides to marry another woman, daughter of a king Nurse is scared for the children, Medea is dangerous. Talks about Medea’s history and character Medea prays to Themis and Artemis Themis= justice, Artemis wildness Curses Jason, his bride Glauke and the palace Calls on her father and country Nurse reports that Medea also calls on Zeus, keeper of oaths, because Jason broke his Medea’s First Speech Women are unfortunate creatures Must buy a husband with a ton of money, get a master Men go out and see as many people as they want but women cant Would rather fight a war than give birth Medea’s emotion vs Creon’s reason Says she is too smart for him and that’s why he wants to get rid of her Eventually lets her stay Medea vows violent revenge, embraces the evil reputation that women have Talks to Jason, he says Aphrodite saved him instead of her Medea benefitted from Greek culture She will benefit from him marrying a princess Medea meets King Aegeus Aegeus, king of Athens, comes from Delphi Medea promises him children if he takes her in Wedding gifts of dress and diadem (crown) burn the bride Kills children in palace Leaves Corinth Deception speech: She lies to Jason Lecture 18 The Twelve Principal Roman Deities and their Greek counterparts Juno (Hera) Jupiter (Zeus) Minerva (Athena) Ceres (Demeter) Diana (Artemis) Venus (Aphrodite) Mars (Ares) Mercury (Hermes) Neptune (Poseidon) Vulcan (Hephaestus) Apollo (Apollo) Vesta (Hestia) Roman Myth The Roman Triad Jupiter from “Deupater” God the Father Mars agrarian origin o Si vis pacom, para bellum, peace o If you want peace, prepare for war Quirinus (Romulus) fap fertility, agriculture and production 753 BC legendary date for the founding of Rome Res publica people’s business Res divina God’s business Plutarch’s Romulus Plutarch wrote A.D 100, lives of noble Greeks and Romans Etruscans north of Rome, gets ideas from the Greeks 2 versions of birth story Mother is hand maiden of daughter of King Tarchetius of Alba o T. sees phantom of a “male figure” phallos in hearth o Oracle says virgin with phantom to bear a famous son Rhea (daughter of desposed King Nomitor) bears twins; they are sent away by King Amulius; servant Faustulus gets them; she wolf nourishes them (ruma “teat”) Mundus trench, cosmos, a ditch Axis mundi meeting point of the heaven and the sky, sacred space Pomerium boundary, post murum Rape of the Sabines games for consus, seagod, Neptune. Romans took wives of the Sabines, ran off with them carrying you across the threshold. Romans were gonna fight, the women got in the way. Acron vs Romulus King of the Ceninehenses, King Romulus defeats in one to one combat, takes spoils, royal armor, becomes sacred. Many victories afterwards
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