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USC / Journalism Core / JOUR 201 / What is public relations?

What is public relations?

What is public relations?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Journalism Core
Course: Principles of Public Relations
Professor: Kelly j. davis
Term: Spring 2018
Cost: 50
Name: JOUR 201 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Completed
Uploaded: 04/29/2018
30 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks

Last updated: 4/30/18 11:20pm

What is public relations?

“In addition, please make sure you have read chapters 14, 15 and 16 in your textbook and reviewed your notes from the guest speakers​. Questions from both will be included on your final exam. To prepare for the final exam, you should go back to the review slides prepared for exams 1, 2 and 3 as well as this new slide deck.​ Approximately 50% of your exam questions will come from material covered in the first three exams, with the remainder coming from the areas of practice and guest speakers” If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between atoms and molecules?

This is a lot of information, so I suggest using a “Find…” tool during the exam so you can quickly locate what you’re looking for! Email me if you have any questions and I’ll get back to you ASAP. Good luck!

What are the types of organizations that practice pr?

Don't forget about the age old question of christopher paskoff

I. Exam 1 review

A. What is Public Relations 

1. Definitions of PR

a) PRSA Definition: Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of incentive in economics

(1) 2013: “Public relations is a strategic communication

process that builds mutually beneficial relationships

between organizations and their publics.”

(2) 1982: “Public relations helps our complex, pluralistic

society ot reach decisions and function more effectively by

What are the responsibilities of pr practitioners?

contributing to mutual understanding among groups and

institutions. It serves to bring private and public policies

into harmony.

b) Textbook Definition:

(1) Public relations is a leadership and management function

that helps achieve organizational objectives, define

philosophy, and facilitate organizational change. Public

relations practitioners communicate with all relevant We also discuss several other topics like bu hu

internal and external publics to develop positive

relationships and to create consistency between

organizational goals and societal expectations. Public

relations practitioners develop, execute and evaluate

organizational programs that promote the exchange of

influence and understanding among an organization’s

constituent parts and publics.

2. Differences among public relations, advertising, and marketing.

a) Advertising: ​Time/space purchased for the purpose of If you want to learn more check out a en 475 textbook notes

persuading people to buy product/service

b) Marketing:​ Increasing sales/customers for a company’s

product/service; Targeted audiences; Focus is on building brands;

The Four P’s?

Last updated: 4/30/18 11:20pm

c) Public Relations:​ Management function; Earned media; Need to think about ALL publics; Focus is on building relationships; Difficult to measure and control, but can yield long-lasting results

3. Types of publics Don't forget about the age old question of redeemers and bourbons

a) Publics: Groups of stakeholders or groups of individuals or

organizations with a common problem, cause or goal

(1) Employees

(2) Media

(3) Community

(4) Consumers

(5) Financial Markets

(6) Government Agencies

4. Types of Organizations that practice PR

a) Corporations

b) Gov’t

c) Nonprofit orgs

d) Public Relations/Marketing/Communication Firms or Agencies 5. Responsibilities of PR practitioners

a) Scan the industry/operational environment

b) Research public perspectives

c) Counsel senior management; steer rational, ethical organization decision making 

d) Seek, identify, and establish new opportunities and relationships e) Create, conduct and measure planned, sustained communication programs

f) Write, edit, translate (in plain English); create written and

audiovisual materials, videos, infographics, etc.

B. PR Eras or Models

1. Rhetorican/Press Agent (Press Agentry/Publicity)

a) Began in Ancient Greece/Rome when public speaking and public opinion helped shape the building of city walls, elections, etc.

(1) 17th Century: Roman Catholic Church established the

Congretorio de Propaganda (the congregation for

propagating the faith) - key point in PR history

b) 1758: ​King’s College​ (now Columbia University) issued the first​ ​press release​ to announce commencement ceremony

c) Journalistic/Publicity (Public Information)

d) 1882 - “public relations” used in address to graduating class of Yale Law School

e) American Industrial Revolution; Rise of business and media (and skepticism) made PR Necessary

f) Gillett Amendment - Gov’t PR became “public information”

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g) The Creel Committee (Committee on Public Information):

mobilized support for WWI

h) President Roosevelt conducted fireside chats

i) Nonprofit orgs

(1) YMCA

(2) Red Cross

(3) National Tuberculosis Association

j) Westinghouse electric established first “corporate

communications” dept; Macy’s hosted first parade in 1924

k) Henry Ford began first employee magazine, Ford Times

2. Persuasive Campaigns (Two-way Asymmetrical)

a) Two way Asymmetrical: uses research for persuasion

3. Relationship Building (Two-way symmetrical)

a) Two way symmetrical: uses research to achieve mutual


C. PR “firsts” and Early Campaigns

1. PR “firsts”

a) Press Release

b) Use of the term “public relations”

c) Corporate PR Department

d) Employee magazine

e) University PR program

2. Early PR campaigns

a) Diamonds

(1) DeBeers Mining Company: 1938, engineered a PR

campaign urging the public to buy diamond by linking

diamonds with romance and courtship

(i) Diamond sales explode by 55% in three


b) Eggs and bacon

(1) Edward Bernays - gave Americans bacon and eggs for

breakfast, conducting a survey of 5,000 doctors to

advocate hearty protein loaded breakfast

c) Coca-cola

(1) War Consumption: Every man in uniform gets a bottle of

Coca-Cola for five cents wherever he is and whatever it

costs; 5 billion bottles sold to troops

d) “Torches of Freedom”

(1) Edward Bernays - Lucky Strike Cigarettes

D. Key Figures in PR History

1. Press Agency/Publicity Era

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a) Samuel Adams​: Leveraged emotions re: the American Revolutionary War; Helped stage the ​Boston Tea Party​ to protest unfair taxation (1773)

b) Amos Kendall: ​Part of President Andrew Jackson’s “kitchen cabinet” - first pollster, press secretary

c) PT Barnum:​ Barnum & Bailey Circus; called a “master showman” and a “harmless deceiver”

2. Public Information Era

a) Ivy Lee

(1) Business and industry = public interest

(2) Maintain open communication with media

(3) Management support is imperative

(4) Performance determines publicity. If you can’t tell the truth without fear of damaging the organization, the problem

needs to be corrected (management function of PR)

(5) Declaration of Principles

(a) “This is not a secret press bureau. All our work is

done in the open. We aim to supply news. This is

not an advertising agency… Our matter is

accurate. Further details on any subject

treated will be supplied promptly, and any

editor will be assisted most carefully in

verifying directly any statement of fact… In brief,

our plan is, frankly and openly, on behalf of

business concerns and public institutions, to supply

the press and public of the US prompt and accurate


3. Pervasive Campaigns

a) Edward Bernays​: wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion, gave Americans bacon and eggs for breakfast, conducting a survey of 5,000 doctors to advocate hearty protein loaded breakfast

b) Doris Fleischman Bernays​ - helped edward start agency 4. Relationship Building Era

a) Arthur W Page​ - VP of AT&T, developed Page Principles (1) Tell the Truth

(2) Prove it with Action

(3) Listen to the Customer

(4) Manage for Tomorrow

(5) Conduct Public Relations as if Whole Company Depends on it

(6) Remain Calm, Patient and Good-Humored

b) Harold Burson​ begins his own firm i n1946; Burson-Marsteller established in 1953 - still one of the world’s largest agencies

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c) Moss Kendrix​ - African-American PR pioneer who established his own firm in D.C. in 1944

d) Ofield Dukes

(1) Served in Johnson White house and every Democratic

presidential candidate in 1960s

(2) Instrumental in making Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s birthday

a national holiday

e) Betsy Ann Plank ​(1924-2010): “First Lady of Public Relations” (1) Hired by Edelman in Chicago in 1952; Opened first

European office in Paris; Became EVP of Edelman


(2) Returned to AL in 1965 to join Civil Rights Movement

(3) Established Plank Center for Leadership in PR at

University of Alabama in 2005

(4) Became first female president of PRSA and helped found


f) Patrick Jackson:​ “no matter what the technological advances that come, nothing will ever beat face to face communication”

E. Theories

1. Systems Theory

a) a system consists of three things: Organization, Stakeholders, Environment (political, economic, social); Emphasized


(1) Open Systems = seek info from publics; adjust;

multi-directional; publics direct PR/communication

(2) Closed Systems = do not seek info; manage from past or

based on preference; unidirectional

(a) Getting information out, not necessarily getting

information in

(b) Patrick Jackson​: “no matter what the technological

advances that come, nothing will ever beat face to

face communication”

2. Situational Theory (problem recognition, constraint recognition, involvement)

a) Problem Recognition, Constraint Recognition, and Involvement influence Information Seeking and Processing about various


(1) For example: If you are working on a political campaign,

you’re primarily focused on registered, likely, and active

voters. You may call them and ask certain questions to see

if they meet this criteria.

(2) Example 2: some people look at football schedule way in

advance and write it on their calendars and plan to attend

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ahead of time, while others may not even know that there

is a game until the night before when they see a poster in


b) Has evolved into Situational Theory of Problem Solving

(STOPS). Through research, Kim and Grunig (2011) have

changed info seeking and processing into Communicative Action, which consists of six info-related behaviors

(1) 4 different types of publics:

(a) Every Issue - every issue is important to them

(b) Single Issue - one issue is very important to them

(c) Bandwagon - is concerned with whatever everyone

else is concerned with

(d) Apathetic - not engaged at all

3. Social Exchange Theory: People think about consequences before acting and, generally, want to keep costs low and rewards high

4. Diffusion of Innovations Theory: people accept ideas/info only after going through following steps: Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial, and Adoption.

a) Example: Flu shot - let people know flu shots are available,

explain health benefits, deciding whether it’s worth your time, tried it last year (your experience), and deciding to do it again.

5. Social Learning Theory: We learn new behaviors by observing others. 6. Uses and Gratifications Theory: People use different media for different reasons.

7. Agenda Setting/Agenda Building/Framing

a) Agenda Setting: The media may not tell us what to think, but they do tell us what to think about.

b) Agenda Building: PR Practitioners influence the media agenda through “information subsidies”

c) Framing: The media (and other communication) tell us how to think by including or omitting certain phrases, voices,


F. Key Areas of the Law

1. First Amendment Rights

a) 5 freedoms

(1) Religion, speech, press, petition, and to assemble

b) Individual v. Corporate Free Speech

(1) Individual Free Speech

(a) Continuing controversy in areas such as art and

religious expression

(2) Organizational Free Speech

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(a) Corporations have freedoms similar to those of

individuals, however, corps are more susceptible to


(b) Some court decisions have been favorable

regarding commercial speech by allowing

corporations to speak out regarding public issues.

However, courts are also interested in maintaining

truth in advertising.

2. Defamation​: a communication that holds an individual up to contempt, hatred, ridicule or scorn

a) Slander​ = verbal defamation

b) Libel​ = published defamation

(1) Criminal libel​: may involve “inciting to riot” or “breach of

the peace”

(2) Civil libel​: involves only defamation

3. Invasion of Privacy

a) Appropriation​ = the unauthorized commercial use of an entity’s picture, likeness, or name

b) Publication of Private Information​ = publishing true information not known by many people

(1) Requires prior consent

c) Intrusion​ = videotaping, bugging, or otherwise snooping into others’ private affairs

d) False light​ = publication of truthful information that is exaggerated or used out of context

4. Freedom of Information Act: Requires that all gov’t records are open to the public

5. Copyright and Trademark Laws

a) Intellectual property, fair use

6. FCC

a) Regulates broadcasting

7. FDA

a) Information and labels conforming to health and safety standards 8. FTC

a) Truthful communication of economic exchanged or trade; veriable claims in ads or press releases

G. Ethics

1. Commitment to High Standards, regardless of advantage or reward a) Definition: Ethics are what is morally right or wrong in social

conduct, usually as determined by standards of professions,

organizations, and individuals.

2. Role of PR practitioners in maintaining ethics

a) often the source of:

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(1) Ethical statements from an organization

(2) Organizational policies on ethical conduct

3. Individual v. Org Ethics

a) Personal ethics can be in conflict with organizational ethics

(Example: Police officer and stealing Dad).

b) Professional codes, corporate policy and law do not guarantee

actual ethical behavior.

(1) Actual behavior is always rooted in individual choices.

(2) There is a difference between absolutist ethics (same rule

applies every time) and situational or relativistic ethics

(choices can be made rationally, based on the situation)

4. PRSA’s 6 professional values and how to apply them

a) Advocacy

b) Honesty

c) Expertise

d) Independence

e) Loyalty

f) Fairness

5. PRSA’s 6 provisions of conduct and how to apply them

a) Free flow of information

b) Competition

c) Disclosure of information

d) Safeguarding confidences

e) Conflicts of interest

f) Enhancing the profession

6. Accreditation in Public Relations (APR)

a) Voluntary professional credential

b) Asserts professional competence

c) Communicates professional expertise, plus personal and

professional dedication and values

d) Reflects progressive public relations industry practices and high


e) Demonstrates mastery of today’s strategic communications

practice and your commitment to lifelong learning and ethical


f) Maintained every 3 years

II. Exam 2 Review

A. The 4-Step PR Planning Process

1. The acronyms

a) R​esearch

A​ction Planning



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b) R​esearch




c) R​esearch





2. *Understand what happens in each step of the process

B. Research

1. Why research is an important first step

2. Primary v. Secondary research

a) Secondary Research​ - background information, previously published data/studies

b) Primary/Formative Research​ - information specific to your audience(s), original data, new insights

3. Qualitative v. Quantitative Research

a) Qualitative Research ​(Think why?​)

(1) Gathers deeper insight into attitudes and motivations

(2) More interpretive

(3) Less counting

(4) Ways to ask why:

(a) Focus groups

(b) interviews

b) Quantitative (Think how much?​)

(1) Gathers statistical data for analysis

(2) More analytical

(3) Ways to ask how much:

(a) Surveys

(b) Content analysis

(c) Experimental research (field v. lab)

4. Sampling Methods

a) Non-probability Sampling: ​we don’t know or can’t access all members of a population

(1) Types: convenience or purposive sampling

(2) Snowball sampling: participants refer others

b) Probability sampling: ​every member of target population has equal chance of being chosen

(1) Simple random: ​drawing from a hat; Nielson ratings

(2) Systematic: ​Using a list, start at random, select every 5th

(3) Stratified: ​divide into groups, then select randomly

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5. Research Methods (i.e. focus groups, surveys, interviews, experiments) and how to use each method to gather specific types of information

a) Environmental Scanning - ​monitoring, evaluating, and

dissemination info to key decision makers

b) Public Relations Audit - ​examines public opinion, internally and

externally, of an organization

c) Communication Audit - ​assess amount and type of info sent by

an org and/or received by different publics, i.e. readership

surveys, content analysis, readability studies

6. SWOT Analysis

a) What are the organization’s

(1) What are the challenges and goals for the organization?

(2) How can those challenges and goals be addressed by

communication and public relations?

(3) S​trengths




C. Action Planning

1. The different types of publics and how they play a role in the campaign a) Primary Public:​ group to which the action is ultimately directed

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b) Intervening Public: ​have direct contact with primary audience and can pass messages along (all channels except personal experience)

c) Moderating Publics:​ groups that share common goals and can make an impact on primary public

d) Latent Public:​ not aware of a need to change or act

e) Aware Public: ​Recognizes need but not prone to taking action (yet), such as accepting new idea/info

f) Active Public: ​people who are aware and ready to do something 2. Strategic v. Tactical Plans

a) Strategic plans​ - long-range plans, usually made at upper levels of management

(1) Decisions concerning the major goals of an organization

and policies for other implementation

(2) Deal with future events

(3) Approach or plan to achieve goals and objectives

b) Tactical plans ​- develop specific decisions about what will be done at every level or the organization to accomplish strategic plans

(1) Specific tools or communication channels to accomplish

the strategy

(2) Day-to-day operations and immediate future

3. G​oal - Broad, general desired outcomes

O​bjective- specific, measurable indicators

S​trategy - method for achieving outcomes

T​actic - specific tools/vehicles/components

4. Types of objectives and how to decide which to use

a) Informational

(1) Build awareness; educate public; disseminate information (2) What you want the audience to know

b) Attitudinal

(1) Modify the way people feel, or reinforce/reverse attitudes; make them aware of the effect on their lives

(2) What you want the audience to believe

c) Behavioral

(1) Create new or change old behaviors

(2) What you want your audience to do

d) How to write SMART objective statements

(1) S​pecific

(2) M​easurable

(3) A​chievable

(4) R​ealistic

(5) T​ime-Sensitive

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5. The difference between strategies and tactics

6. Examples of tactics used in PR campaigns

a) Media Relations

b) Newsletters

c) Magazines

d) Annual Reports

e) Brochures

f) Press Kits

g) Direct Mail

h) AV Programs

i) TV/Radio PSAs

j) Podcasts

k) Social Media

l) Speeches

m) Features

n) Editorials/Op-Eds

o) Posters

p) Creative Tactics

7. The PESO model and examples of each:

D. Communication

1. Channels of Influence: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption a) Mass Media

b) Biased Intermediaries

(1) Those who benefit from another adoption, e.g.,


c) Unbiased third parties

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(1) Consumer groups, gov’t agencies, other credible sources d) Significant others

(1) Friends, relatives, others who might influence potential adopter

e) Personal experience

(1) Actual use of innovation

2. Controlled v. Uncontrolled Media

a) Controlled

(1) PR practitioner dictates what is published and how


(2) Internal publications, direct mail, posters, advertising

b) Uncontrolled

(1) Someone else makes decisions about content

(2) Newspapers, television, radio

3. Message Design:

a) Auditing - Understand what messages are already out there and what works

b) Mapping - identify and work with stakeholders to design key messages; build message up

c) Testing - share drafts of actual messages with groups of stakeholders; do they resonate?

4. The importance of budgeting and different types of budgets a) Agency:

(1) retainer/annual fee and billable hours with costs billed to client

(2) Project-based budgets

b) In-house (corporate/nonprofit):

(1) Pre-determined budgets

c) Types of Budget Items

(1) Program and Production costs

(a) Venue, F&B, printing, photography, A/V, etc.

(2) Administration Costs

(a) Office supplies, travel, insurance for events

(3) Personnel Costs

(a) Staff time, salaries, freelancers, etc.

5. Effective communications - i.e. writing style, readability studies, impact 6. The keys to being heard by audiences

a) Attention

(1) How do you cut through the noise?

(2) Humanize message, emotional truth

b) Understanding

(1) Acknowledge and negotiate differences in perception

c) Retention

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(1) Make it memorable

d) Action

(1) Must motivate; provide call to action

7. What makes something newsworthy?

a) Timeliness

b) Prominence

c) Proximity

d) Significance

e) Unusualness

f) Human interest

g) Conflict

h) newness

E. Evaluation

1. Why evaluation is important

a) Ensures that the goals were met

b) Make adjustments to the next phase of the campaign (or next event, etc.)

c) Determine the effectiveness of the budget

d) Identify successful and unsuccessful tactics

2. Types of evaluation and when to use each one in the PR campaign a) Ongoing Evaluation (Implementation Checking)

(1) Used to adjust or fine-tune the program while in process

(2) Analyze and explain variations from original plan

(3) Focus groups, questionnaires, staff/participant feedback

b) Formative Evaluation (In-progress Monitoring)

(1) Determine effectiveness in meeting objectives and why

some results differ from the plan

c) Summative Evaluation (Outcome Evaluation)

(1) Compare objectives and results. Any variance?

(2) Suggestions for future planning.

3. How to measure campaign impact

4. Output v. Outcome

a) Output (Process)

(1) Quantifiable actions taken in executing a PR program

(a) Number of news releases distributed

(b) Number of meetings and events held, etc

b) Outcome (Results)

(1) Describe desired results of your program

(a) Increase in sales/contributions

(b) Number of members joining association

(c) Name recognition

5. What did Mary Caldwell say about evaluation

a) “Evaluation is the most important part.”

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6. What is AVE and why is it not a good measure of PR

a) Advertising Value Equivalency

(1) Misleading and unethical

(2) No basis in scientific research

(3) Inability to deal with negative stories

(4) Does not take into account editorial mentions

(5) Not consistent between print and broadcast

F. Class Examples

1. “TV Doctors of America”

a) Goal:

(1) To help save 100,000 lives through preventive care.

(2) To promote disease awareness and encourage people to

schedule a preventive care visit with their doctor.

b) Objectives:

(1) increase the # of adults seeking preventive care appts with

their doctors

(2) Increase social media sentiment towards cigna brand

c) Strategies: To maximize the reach of the TV Doctors campaign by

capitalizing on its social relevancy and shareability.

d) Tactics

(1) On-set interviews and behind-the-scenes access to Extra

TV, PEOPLE and Advertising Age.

(2) Multi-media news release

(3) Media day with Donal Faison and Lisa Edelstein

(4) Facebook Live Sessions

(5) Broadcast Segments

(6) Online Interview

(7) One-on-one interviews with Noah Wyle and Patrick


2. “Always Like a Girl”

III. Exam 3 Review

A. Media Relations

1. How PR practitioners help reporters and the nature of that relationship a) Providing experts, facts, details, quotes, photos

b) These “information subsidies” save media time and money

c) 40-70% of total news coverage comes from PR

2. Media catching: PR practitioners can now be alerted to reporters’ needs by using services such as ProfNet or following @helpareporter

3. Media pitching and interview tips

a) Pitching

(1) Plan your pitch (do your homework)

(a) Research past stories about your org or issue:

(i) Who was the reporter

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(ii) What sources did they use? (Why not you?)

(b) Contact target reporters to introduce yourself as a source for them

(c) Compile “easy search” database of documents

from which reporters may want information

(2) Think and write like a reporter (5 Ws and H)

(3) Find a story angle - or two or three

(4) Pitch a specific section and/or person

(5) Have a Plan B or “bag of tricks”

(6) Speak in bullet points of “sound bites”

(a) Soundbites:

(i) Short = 12-20 seconds

(ii) Avoid Jargon

(iii) Clear

(iv) Honest

(v) Simple

(vi) Information plus VIP

(7) Give a clear call to action

(8) It’s never a good time (know/respect deadlines)

(9) They won’t “buy” if you don’t believe

(10) Become a valued resource (cultivate contacts) b) Interview Tips

(1) Interviews are not conversations

(2) Know what you want to say

(3) Use 2 or 3 major points - keep them simple

(4) There is no such thing as “off the record”

(5) “I don’t know” is OK

(6) Respect reporter’s deadlines

(7) Before the Interview:

(a) Interview the reporter

(i) How familiar are they with your issue

(ii) Who else are they talking to?

(iii) Live or taped?

(iv) Deadline?

(b) Negotiate when and where

(c) Determine your 3 main points

(d) Rehearse

(8) Final Preparations

(a) Printed materials

(b) Consider the location

(c) Suggestions for B-Roll

(d) Appearance

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(i) People remember 85% of what they see

and 15% of what they hear

(9) During the Interview

(a) Look at reporter, not camera

(b) Each statement stands alone (soundbite)

(c) Open with 25-40 second summary

(d) Bridge to your points (crafted messages)

(e) Focus on topical issues

(f) Stay calm and in control

(i) Listen, pause, think, answer

(ii) Do not speculate or allow yourself to be


(10) Non-Verbal Cues

(a) Hands together

(b) Drink water before going on camera

(i) Lemon, Lime or Cough Drop to coat throat

(c) Glasses

(i) Don’t touch = credible

(ii) Touch = lying

(iii) Never wear sunglasses

(11) After the Interview

(a) Ask when the story will air, but not for copies

(b) Evaluate your answers. Grade yourself

(c) Provide requested info

(i) Owe answers or anything inaccurate

(d) Watch, read, or listen to the story

(e) Respond accordingly

(i) Always thank reporters for their coverage

(ii) Thank a journalist for any positive story

related to the topic, even if it’s not “your”



4. How to use newswires

5. Press kits

B. Social Media Strategy

1. How to determine what platforms your company should be on a) Consider:

(1) Which media should your org be on, and why?

(2) What is the objective of your social media communication?

(3) What value can you add?

(4) What content will you share?

(5) WHo is/should be the messenger(s)?

(6) Where are your audiences? Where might new publics be?

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(7) When are your audiences engaged?

(8) What are they saying? “Listen” before posting/responding

(9) How can you manage SM to meet your objectives and

establish positive, lasting relationships with your publics?

2. How PR practitioners use social media to engage with customers a) Publics seek dialogue, not lectures

b) Small, consistent interactions are best

c) Knocking what and how to share is key; multi-task and promote content across all platforms

d) Monitoring and management tools can help

e) ROI is important, but so are relevance and relationships

f) Know your audience and put them first; create compelling content, and use the right channels

g) Be careful with legalities of social media marketing, especially re: endorsements, user-generated content, and contests

h) When in doubt, consult legal dept

3. How to use social media in the event of a crisis

a) Have a crisis plan that integrates social media

b) Formulate messages to be distributed across platforms

c) Consider level of credibility of platforms for audiences (might affect message strategy)

d) Be present on social platforms before crisis happens

e) Engage in dialogue and provide real-time feedback whenever possible, but be careful of attribution

C. Employee Communication

1. Alternate terms: Internal Communication and Employee Relations 2. Definition of employee communication and why its part of PR a) A specialization of public relations concerned with how in-house public relations professionals help promote effective

communication among employees and between employees and top management

b) Creates and maintains internal systems of communication

between employers and employees from recruitment to beyond


c) Why it’s a part of PR:

(1) Employees are a company’s first spokespeople and most

important brand ambassadors

(2) They interact with media, customers, the community,

investors, volunteers, donors, etc.

(3) Well informed, happy employees are reflective of a strong

brand, and also help build a strong brand

3. Organizational culture

a) The character of an organization

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b) History

c) Approach to decision-making

d) How it treats employees

e) How it deals with the world outside

f) The sum total of shared values, symbols, meanings, beliefs, assumptions, and expectations

g) How PR Contributes to Organizational Culture

(1) Establishes organizational communication policies

(2) Can help in designing and implementing organizational

change and/or new programs

(3) Provides expertise on internal communication

4. Examples of authoritarian and participative company cultures (including examples shared in class)

a) Authoritarian

(1) Managed from top down

(2) All info comes from upper management

(3) No feedback is sought

(4) Employee perspectives not considered

(5) Closed system

b) Participative

(1) Focuses on teamwork

(2) Goals of the org reflect the goals of employees

(3) Employees feel empowered to make their own decisions

(4) Employees feel valued as people, not just employees

(5) Open system

5. How employees use & distribute internal media

a) Internal media focuses on...

(1) Employees’ understanding of their role in org

(2) Clarification of management policies

(3) Employee well-being and safety

(4) Recognition of employee achievements

b) Consider organizational setting

c) Pickup in work areas

d) Print materials directly to employees

e) In-house mail

f) Mail to employees’ homes

6. What makes something newsworthy to employees

a) Timeliness

b) Scope

c) Importance

d) Human Interest

D. Community Relations

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1. Examples of community relations programs based on the list of criteria for community relations activities

a) Criteria for Community Relations Activities

(1) Creating something needed that did not exist before (ie a park)

(2) Eliminating something that is a community problem (crime) (3) Developing awareness/means of self-determination


(4) Broadening use of something that exists to those without (daycare)

(5) Sharing resources, facilities, professional expertise (in-kind donations or pro bono services)

(6) Reconstructing, repairing, “dressing up” (beach cleanup) (7) Tutoring, counseling or training (encouraging employees to do so)

(8) Activating others (fedEx-St. Jude PGA Golf)

b) Examples:

(1) google expert might seve on california state gov’t

technology board/council

(2) United Way Loaned Executive Program

2. Definitions and examples of

a) Corporate Social Responsibility

(1) The continuing commitment by a business to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the

community and society at large

(2) Ex: BMW in SC

b) Corporate Philanthropy

(1) Legally, corps can donate up to 10 percent of earnings to charity (4% is more typical)

(2) Ex: KFC to Breast Cancer Research

c) Cause-Related Marketing

(1) Increases sales

(2) Enhances image

(3) Must be appropriate

(4) Can be controversial

d) Corporate Social Advocacy

(1) The social-political issues addressed by corps are divorced from issues of particular relevance for the org

(2) Engagement in social-political issues is controversial and serves to potentially isolate stakeholders while

simultaneously attracting activist groups

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(3) As a result, there is particularly necessary emphasis on

desired goals and outcomes for the company

E. Integrated Marketing Communications

1. Definition of IMC

a) A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the

strategic role of a variety of communication disciplines (e.g.,

general advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relations) and combines these disciplines to provide clarity,

consistency, and maximum communication impact.

2. Communications disciplines included in IMC

a) Advertising

b) Public Relations

c) Online/Mobile, Viral Marketing

d) Events & Sponsorships

e) Product placement

f) Sales & customer service

g) Content marketing

h) Direct marketing

3. How to determine if an organization needs IMC

a) The more complex = the greater need for IMC

b) Consider complexity of

(1) Target audience

(2) Product or service

(3) distribution

4. Strategic planning steps for IMC

a) Identify appropriate Target Audience(s)

b) Determine how audiences make product and brand decisions c) Establish brand positioning within market, and select benefit to support that position

d) Set communication objectives (SMART)

e) Identify appropriate media options consistent with objectives to optimize delivery and processing of messages

5. The role of IMC in building brands

a) Correctly position brand

b) Create positive brand attitude

c) Build strong brand equity

F. Financial Communications & Investor Relations

1. The role of investor relations

a) Strategies, tactics, and tools used to share financial data and recommendations with investors and other interested parties

b) Investor relations is a specialty within financial communications 2. What types of companies need investor relations

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a) Companies with publicly traded stock are required to manage

investor relations

b) But orgs of all sizes and types (including nonprofits) must build

relationships with “investors” and other key publics

c) Financial stability and transparency are essential to any

organization’s reputation

3. The main task and key audiences for investor relations

a) Main task: to create and maintain investor confidence

(1) By building relationships with financial community

(2) By communicating corporate information to various


b) Key Audiences

(1) Individual Stockholders (through annual and quarterly

reports, websites, annual meetings)

(2) Financial Analysts (fund managers, brokers, dealers,

institutional buyers)

(3) Financial Media (Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Fortune,

BusinessWeek, Bloomberg)

4. SEC, Form 10-K and Sarbanes-Oxley

a) Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC):

(1) Gov’t agency that oversees financial reports and info;

oversees cases of insider trading

b) Sarbanes-Oxley Act:

(1) Since 2002 requires more rigorous financial reporting

practices including

(a) Reporting of stock trades by company insiders

(b) Public reporting of CEO and CFO compensation

(c) Larger fines and criminal penalties for violations

c) Form 10-K

(1) Annual report that must be filed with SEC (10-Q is

quarterly); PR is often also involved in creating more

general annual reports for wider audiences

5. Typical tasks of investor relations professionals

a) Conference calls with financial analysts

b) Annual meetings in which stockholders discuss and often vote on

effectiveness of corporate management

c) Build interest in and understanding of a company

d) Report on mergers and acquisitions, new management, contracts,


e) Build trust and positive relationships over time

IV. New Slide Deck: Areas of Public Relations Practice

A. Public Affairs/Government Relations

1. Public affairs or government relations focuses on the following:

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a) Shaping public opinion

b) Developing effective responses to matters of public concern c) Helping an organization adapt to public expectations

d) Influencing legislation and public policy

2. Public Affairs Activities

a) Issues Management

(1) The proactive process of anticipating, identifying,

evaluating, and responding to public policy issues that

affect an organization’s relationships with its publics

b) Lobbying

(1) Attempt to influence governmental decisions, especially legislative votes

c) Grassroots lobbying or advocacy

(1) Attempting to influence people/voters in order to influence politics

d) Issue Advertising

(1) Influencing people through ads that you hope will influence politics

e) Political Action Committees (PACs)

(1) Group of people who raise or spend at least $1,000 in

connection with a federal election

(2) Usually have common political concern or interest

(3) Can be formed by unions, businesses, industry groups, religious groups, professionals or others.


3. Government Guest Speakers

a) Adrienne Fairwell, APR, South Carolina Department of Commerce b) Reba Campbell, Municipal Association of South Carolina 4. Nonprofit PR and Fundraising

a) Key features of nonprofits

(1) Voluntary, non-coercive

(2) Do not generate profits to stakeholders

(3) Operate without simple, clear lines of ownership and


b) Nonprofits have many stakeholders

(1) Constituents or Members seved by the organization

(2) Donors

(3) Volunteers

(4) Board members

(5) Government entities

(6) Employees

(7) Media

c) Similarities between Nonprofits & other Companies

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(1) They earn revenue through donations, sponsorships and grants, just like a company earns revenue through the sale of a product

(2) They provide a service, like a company provides a product (3) Communication, trust, and reputation are even more important than for corporations. Their long-term

sustainability depends on donors, so earning that trust is key.

d) Success in Nonprofit PR

(1) Increasing visibility and awareness

(2) Creating positive perceptions and attitudes

(3) Meeting fundraising goals

(4) Relationship building is key

e) Challenged in Nonprofit PR

(1) An increasing number of nonprofits = competition for donors, volunteers, visibility

(2) Can be dependent on gov’t or corporate funding and economic circumstances

(3) Highly competitive - multiple causes in any given market (4) Typically, budgets may be smaller - have to do more with less

f) Nonprofit Guest Speakers:

(1) Jason Rapp, South Carolina Arts Commission (2) Bett Williams, Children’s Trust of South Carolina

(3) Ashley Dusenbury, APR, Palmetto Health Foundation

(4) Padgett Mozingo, APR, Family

Connection of SC

g) Health Communications Guest Speakers

(1) Tammie Epps, Palmetto Health

(2) Jacqueline Chappell, Palmetto Health - USC medical group

(3) Principles of PR (Palmetto Health)

(a) Healthcare Communications

(i) Healthcare Trends

(a) Despite the US’s position as an

economic powerhouse at the

forefront of the tech boom, our

health lags behind some countries

(ii) New Partnerships in Healthcare

(a) External disruptors

(i) Aetna and CVS

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(ii) Amazon, Berkshire

Hathaway and JP Morgan


(iii) Apple hires Chief Medical


(b) New Mergers and Partnerships

(i) Bon Secours Health System,

Mercy Health to merge: 4

things to know

(c) Why are there new strategic

partnerships in health care?

(i) Kaufman Hall reported that

87 hospital mergers had

been recorded through the

third quarter of 2017,

compared to 102 overall in

2016. By that point, eight

transaction shad included

hospitals with $1 billion more

in revenue, twice as many

big-ticket mergers as in all


(ii) “These transactions are

driven primarily by strategic

imperative and less so by

financial drivers,” said Anu

Singh, managing director of

Kaufman Hall

(iii) SC Health Company Timeline

(a) Formation announced June 2017

(b) Formation of the new company

finalized Nov 21 2017

(c) Mike Riordan and Chuck Beaman to

serve as co-CEOs through Dec 2019

(d) Jan 2018, New Executive Cabinet


(e) Jan - April 2018

(iv) Palmetto Health and GHS have created a new health company for a better health care


(a) SC Health Company serves nearly

half of SC

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(b) Can reach 2.6 million patients with

accessible care

(i) 45% of SC residents live

within 45 minutes of one of

our 15 hospitals

(ii) 42% live within 15 minutes of

one of our 200+ outpatient


(iii) 100% will have access to our

telehealth programs

(c) Brings substantial resources to SC

(i) 28

(d) Health care needs a new approach

(i) SC is ranked 44th nationally

in health care

(b) Our Organizational Structure

(i) Palmetto Health - USC Medical Group


(a) Not-for-profit company that brings

together physicians, nurse

practitioners, physician assistants,

and other health care providers from

two of SC’s more respected

organizations - Palmetto Health and

the USC School of Medicine. We are

the midlands region’s largest

multispecialty, clinically integrated

medical group and 11th largest


(b) Combining the medical excellence,

compassionate care and clinical

research expertise of the USC

School of Medicine

(ii) Palmetto Health - USC Medical Group Facts (a) Over 100 practice locations

(b) More than 700 physicians and

advanced care providers (including

nurse practitioners, physician

assistants and other providers who

will care for patients

(c) A staff of 2,500 team members

(d) 370,000 patients cared for by our


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(e) One million patient visits last year to

our provider

(iii) Palmetto Health Overview

(a) The largest health care system in

SC Midlands region and one of the

state’s largest employers

(b) Kkkk

(c) Our nearly 15,000 team members,

physicians and volunteers are here

to care for you throughout our

palmetto health hospital system,

which includes

(i) Palmetto Health Baptist (413


(d) Recognized nationally as one of the

best places to work and receive care

(e) Supported by two 501 ©(3)


(iv) Medical Group Marketing and

Communications - Organizational Structure

(a) Report to the CEO and COO of the

Medical Group

(b) Marketing Team

(i) Jeff Davis, Marketing


(c) Communications Team

(i) Simone Tucker,

Communication Specialist

(ii) Bertram Rantim,

(d) Physician Relations

(i) Dana Burgess, Physician

Relations Manager

(ii) Joe Taylor, Physician Liaison

(iii) Paulette Freeman

(iv) Eileen Schell

(v) Debra Waldrop

(vi) Brandt

5. Corporate Public Relations

a) “Corporate” can refer to different forms of business

(1) Publicly trade

(2) Private or “closely held,” i.e. family-owned,

employee-owned or partnerships

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b) Corporate structure depends on an organization's size. PR can report to any of the following:

(1) Marketing or Communications

(2) Human Resources

(3) Legal

(4) CEO, COO or other upper management* (ideal if it’s here) c) Corporate PR is a means by which businesses seek to improve the ability to do business.

d) Key terms:

(1) Target Audience: goal is to reach people via media

(2) Targer Public: Goal is to reach out to people directly to discuss communal issues

(3) Target Market: goal is to influence buying decisions

6. Corporate PR Roles

a) Technician vs. Manager

b) Deal with controlled media = communications materials that a corporation or other entity develops and manages

(1) Newsletters, advertising, websites, marketing

communications materials

c) May also deal with uncontrolled earned media = communication over which we have less control; someone else determines its value and placement

(1) News via news releases and media relations

7. Corporate PR Common Terms

a) Corporate Reputations - the most important goal/tool to achieve business objectives

b) Corporate Branding - promoting the brand name of a corporate entity as opposed to specific products or services

c) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): “The continuing commitment by a business to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large.”

8. Intricacies of Corporate PR

a) Corporate work may limit your experience to a limited set of products or services. Agency work usually provides more diverse clients and experiences.

b) A corporation may provide more employee benefits, opportunities for promotion, and better pay than smaller agencies or nonprofit work

c) In all instances, good communication skills, strong writing, ethics, and teamwork are essential

9. Corporate PR Guest Speakers

a) BlueCross BlueShield of SC

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(1) Patti Embry-Tautenhan, Assistant VP of Corporate


(2) Ryal Curtis, Senior Social Media Strategist

(3) Shawn Skillman, Senior Media Relations Specialist

b) Media relations team

(1) Wanted to make stories about why people buy insurance

and integrate that into marketing & PR

(a) Not just “BUY THIS”

(b) Find out what you’re really selling and make a story

c) Questions

(1) How do you translate your journalism major to your job?

(a) It’s a matter of trying to stay ahead, look ahead

(i) Healthcare there’s always new outlets

(ii) Don’t be surprised

(iii) Be prepared

(iv) A lot of our job is protecting the brand

10. Sports Communications Guest Speakers

a) Charles Bloom, Executive Associate Athletics Director, Chief of

Staff, Chief Communications Officer, UofSC Athletics

b) Steve Fink, Assistant Athletics Director, Athletic Communications

and Public Relations

V. Chapter 14

A. Public Affairs - ​synonym for PR, more often describes the aspect of public relations that deals with the political environment of organizations. Sometimes called governmental relations. A specialization of public relations that concerns building public policy relationships between orgs.

1. Public Affairs Council definition:

a) “Used variously as a synonym for external affairs, gov’t relations,

and corporate communications

B. Issues management - ​related to public affairs, helps public affairs through its relationship building. Helps orgs anticipate or respond to issues affecting their activities.

C. Public Affairs efforts

1. Seeking to shape public opinion and legislation

2. Developing effective responses to matters of public concern

3. Helping the org adapt to political expectations

4. May be involved in monitoring public policy

5. Providing political education for employees or other constituents

6. Maintaining liaisons with various governmental units

7. Encouraging political participation

D. Political activities categories

1. Electoral

2. Legislative

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3. Regulatory

E. Political Action Committees (PACs) - ​a group of people who raise or spend at least $1000 in connection with a federal election

F. Lobbying - ​business firms and other orgs concentrate their efforts on affecting legislation and regulation in relevant areas.

1. “The practice of trying to influence governmental decisions, particularly legislative votes, by agents who serve interest groups.”

G. Grassroots Lobbying -

H. Issue advertising (advocacy advertising) - ​ a way of taking an org’s position straight to the people, with the anticipation that they will support it politically I. Public information officers (PIOs) - ​simply transmit information in an objective and neutral fashion

1. Goal: to promote cooperation and confidence between citizens and their gov’t

J. Public affairs officers (PAOs) - ​develop, execute, and evaluate programs that promote the exchange of influence and understanding among gov’ts constituent parts and their publics

K. Openness is essential to effective governmental PR

VI. Chapter 15

A. PR plays a key role in helping a nonprofit org gather support

1. Help nonprofits balance multiple fickle publics and quantitative and

qualitative bottom lines

B. Tactics in nonprofits

1. Media relations activities

2. Employee and volunteer communication

3. Special events

4. Internet

VII. Chapter 16

A. Effective PR begins with CEO

1. CEO who values communication has a domino affect, enabling

employees to make better decisions

a) Helps attract the best employees who apply their skills and talents

in a competitive environment

B. Effective corporate PR has positive impact on bottom line

C. Major issues facing corporate PR

1. Global PR

2. Diversity

3. Technological change

4. Crisis management

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