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TEXAS STATE / Engineering / ENG 111 / Who wrote the cult of true womanhood?

Who wrote the cult of true womanhood?

Who wrote the cult of true womanhood?

Description

School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: American Literature Since 1865
Professor: Blair
Term: Fall 2013
Tags: Literature and english
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for final
Description: These notes cover what material will be on the final. These are notes based off of the slides and in-class lecture. Anything highlighted was emphasized during the lectures. Good luck!
Uploaded: 04/29/2018
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Study Guide for English Final


Who wrote the cult of true womanhood?



 4/28/18

Chopin 

Cult of True Womanhood: 

- Cult of true womanhood = cult of domesticity. We see this trickle into  the 20th century, but it is challenged more.

- Writings are depictions of these ideas.

-A good woman was expected to be pious. Women were not expected  to “over stimulate” their minds outside of the teachings of the bible.  

- Domesticity was more demanding.

The cult of true womanhood (CTW) was a nineteenth century cultural  ideology that outlined expected qualities and behavior for a “true  woman.” Which of the following is NOT outlined by CTW: Beauty 

Rest Cure: 

A period spent in inactivity or leisure with the intention of improving  one's physical or mental health.

This treatment is seen in The Yellow Wallpaper, it was written to  showcase the failure of it.

Story of An Hour 


What happens at the end of the yellow wallpaper?



1: Identify passages that suggest Mrs. Mallard was dissatisfied with  her marriage (or the expectations placed on women to marry). 

1a: She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same.  She said it over and over under her breath: “free, free, free!”. “And yet  she had loved him-sometimes. Often she had not.” If you want to learn more check out alhz

2: Identify passages that indicate the social/cultural perception that  women were emotionally or psychologically frail. 

2a: First passage, showing us that she is frail and great care should be  taken “heart trouble”. She has to receive the news in a certain way,

because women are fragile. They are unable to handle this type of  news. She went alone to her room, no one followed her. 

3) Identify imagery that symbolizes Mrs. Mallard’s transformation.  

3a) “She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will – as  powerless as her two white slender hands would have been. When she  abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted  lips. She said it over and over under her breath: ‘Free, free, free’ “ 


What is John Steinbeck known for?



We also discuss several other topics like uncg political science

4) Analyze the phrases “heart trouble” and “ heart disease—the joy  that kills” that frame the story. Explain the irony and double meaning  implied by Chopin. 

4a) She’s not happy to see him. Heart trouble and heart disease  frames the story. Seeing him broke her heart, stripped away new  experience of being free that she just had. 

Gothic Genre 

Made popular by Edgar Allan Poe

Gilman 

The Yellow Wallpaper 

1) Describe the atmosphere of the setting. Are there any noticeable  gothic characteristics?  

1a) The wallpaper itself, broken greenhouses, house is in disrepair,  windows are barred with rings on the wall. 

2) Identify evidence of The Cult of True Womanhood within the  narrative.

2a) Preferred room downstairs but husband wanted to be in the  wallpaper room. “John laughs at me, but that’s expected in a marriage. “The people are gone and I am tired out. John thought it might do me  good to see a little company…” We also discuss several other topics like general physics 1 study guide

3) How does the description of the wallpaper develop during the story? Identify some thematic descriptions of the wallpaper.

3a) Connection between wallpaper and the speaker’s state of mind.  Sees things in the wallpaper, women wanting to get out. Pattern and  sub-pattern that comes out in the moonlight. Pattern takes on more life as story continues. At night it becomes bars.

“At night in any kind of light, in twilight, candlelight, lamplight, and  worst of all by moonlight, it becomes bars! The outside pattern, I  mean, and the woman behind it is as plain as can be.”  

According to class discussion, this description suggest the wall paper  symbolizes which of the following:  

A. Patriarchal oppression of women 

4) How does narrator’s state-of-mind mirror the description of the  paper?

4a) She feels trapped and kind of crazy, like the woman in the  wallpaper. Act of tearing down the wallpaper symbolized her seeking  freedom. Freeing the woman trapped in the wallpaper freed her.  

5) Analyze the final passage of the story. How do you interpret the  image of the narrator crawling over her fainted husband?  

5a) She pulled off more of the paper so she could not be put back.  Crawling over husband - A victory and triumph for her, dominance and  submission. 

Faulkner 

No one really knows the truth about Emily; it’s more about what the  town thinks they know about her. Story told from the perspective of the town. Truth is objective. There are multiple speakers of the story. Narration is disjointed sense of time. Point of view gives us a lot to  think about a group of people building a narrative that isn’t necessarily factual. 

See Miss Emily resisting progress, utilizes Southern Gothicism. If you want to learn more check out ma212
If you want to learn more check out soc 352 asu

• Can you recall any examples of the grotesque from “A Rose For  Emily?”

- Synthesis of real and unreal, normal and un-normal.

Example. Pg1010 – “Her skeleton was small and spare…while the  visitors stated their errand”. Giving the image that she is not human  looking = grotesque 

Pg1015 – Opens tomb and finds Homer’s body. “For a while we just  stood there.”

• “A Rose For Emily” acknowledges several changes that occur in  Jefferson. Identify some of these changes, and discuss how Emily reacts to the changes.  

• What do you think Faulkner is implying about “change,”  “the past,” and “progress.”  

The town leadership has changed and Emily has not. The people that  were working around her needs are no longer there to do that for her.  The new people that run the town now want her to pay taxes. Emily’s  dad dies, at first she denied it, keeps his body for 3 days, doesn’t take  

it well. Eventually people stop sending their kids over for painting  lessons. Her house has changed; the streets have changed too due to  industrialization. Don't forget about the age old question of forensic psychology jury selection

Fear of change and progress. She kills Homer, who represents  symbol of the north and progress. She killed him to keep him the same, control over the environment.  

In the 2nd paragraph of “A Rose for Emily,” Faulkner represents the shift from the Antebellum (pre-Civil War) south to the Modern-Industrial age  by juxtaposing Miss Emily’s house to which of the following images: Gas pumps, cotton gins, and garages 

∙ If Gothicism is interested in a character’s psychology what do  you think Faulkner hoped to reveal about Miss Emily’s motives,  choices, and state of mind?  

See Miss Emily resisting progress. She tries to hold one to the men in  her life, they took away her fathers body and she made sure that she  could keep Homer. Her father is being criticized because of his control? Maybe exacerbating her inability to find a partner in the town. She  keeps Homer because of the social norms and structures that she  should have a partner. 

∙ What social structures, values, conventions, or other “structures  of human life” does “A Rose For Emily” call into question? What  passages exemplify this?  

∙ You might consider broader social norms or pressures that  influence Emily’s behavior and the town’s perception of Emily?

Social norms are responsible for some women's state of mind. Is she  crazy? Or is she driven by societal pressures and outside factors? Faulkner uses literary techniques to highlight societal pressures placed  on women. 

Steinbeck  

Tries to give a voice to those that don’t have a voice in society. Attention to a woman/heroine 

Elisa is the protagonist. Henry, her husband in a farmer or rancher. She meets a traveling salesman. Then goes to dinner with her husband.

• Revisit the opening few paragraphs. What’s the setting of the  story? Does any particular description stand out as symbolic of  Elisa’s reality?  

She’s in her garden. It’s winter (December specifically). Sense of  confinement and dimness. Self-contained. Dialogue with her and her husband is short and not intimate. Sense of sexual repression when  she’s talking to the handyman, she wants more opportunity. Sense  of isolations and confinement in describing the environment and  setting. Power struggle between Elisa and her husband.

• On pages 1045 and 1046, there is a clear distinction between  Allen’s work and Elisa’s work. Compare the two versions of work  and explain the difference. 

She is dedicated to her flowers, seen not as important work by the  men. Should be working in the orchard producing food. 

• Compare the interactions Elisa has with her husband Allen and  the travelling handyman. What is revealed and suggested about  Elisa’s marriage and sense of herself as a woman? 

She has more passionate conversation with the handyman. Has to  dig out a pan for him to fix and he takes in interest in the flowers  he’s working on. She starts to feel empowered because she can do  everything that he can do. Shows what she is lacking in her  marriage. Handyman misspells the signs on his wagon, not very well educated. Travels up and down the coast. Once he asked about the  flowers she becomes engaged and it brings her to life. She desires  to live the life that the handyman does, because she wants to do

more. She becomes empowered through the conversation, the only  thing keeping her from being like the handyman are the social  restrictions. Speaks up about what she could do as a woman,  empowered by her abilities. Also has a sexual awakening during  conversation. Shows a sexual element is missing from her marriage. Sexual and intellectual stimulation from the conversation.

• Elisa’s appearance and dress change after her interaction with  the handyman. How do you interpret this transformation? 

She feels more confident in herself. Her husband says that she looks strong and happy. Not satisfied with the way her husband first  approaches her saying that she looks “nice”. Baths are symbolic in  literature = sort of transformation or baptism. Riding high with  interaction with the tinkerer.

• The story is titled “The Chrysanthemums.” Given Elisa’s  “planting hands,” we might infer that the presence of the flowers in the story symbolize Elisa and her growth/place in society. If  that’s the case, how do the flowers represent Elisa? 

Sexually suggestive imagery. She is seen as ornamental and does  not have much value as utility. Thrown out on the road, she feels  discarded. 

- The handyman threw out the saplings and kept the pot, to  probably sell. Makes her upset because of this and he kept the pot.  She starts to cry because it bring isolation and disconnect to the  forefront. The world is not ready for her. Powerful image at the end  of the story: Her happiness ends up being thwarted by the  handyman in the end, dreams disappear. 

Carver: Cathedral

Adopted by institution. Seen as America’s Chekhov, his favorite author. Birdman based off of one of his stories.

Two versions of Raymond Carver 

Bad= pre-cancer diagnosis: infidelity, substance abuse and spousal  abuse, poverty and youth. 

Good= Post-cancer diagnosis: New lease on life, writing less important 

Style and influences:

Between modernism and post modernism 

(The big 3)

Hemingway, Faulkner and Chekhov 

They told very short stories, could sit down and enjoy a story in one  sitting 

Personal:

John Gardner (Teacher)

Gordon Lish (Editor)

Tess Gallagher (Widow)

Vices and Portrayal: 

Alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana: all featured in Cathedral Associated with poverty at this time. Working class medicine 

Alcohol: Catalyst or Enabler

Nicotine: Deterrent

Marijuana: Distraction/absence of self

Key Terms:

Modernism: breaking of traditional storytelling conventions, post WWI  (emphasis  

on individual) 

post-modernism: Rejections of modernism, post WWII 

minimalism: Straight forward delivery 

realism: Still fiction 

anticlimax: Refusal of decisive endings 

Autobiographical: dealing with writer’s own life. Cathedral actually did  happen. 

Characters:

-Narrator - Robert calls him Bub

-Robert (Blind man)

-The Wife

Calling Bub because he is not giving him the respect of calling him by  his name. Acting dismissively. 

Discussion -

- Gets ideas about blindness from the movies. Is surprised that he isn’t wearing glasses or doesn’t have a cane.

- Can’t describe a Cathedral because he has a preconceived idea about what a Cathedral is. Blind man is better at communicating because  he’s always taking things in. Vision becomes a handicap for the  narrator. In trying he discovers barriers because he hasn’t connected  right, he just observes and doesn’t actually take anything in. 

- Drawing the Cathedral with the blind man is a new experience for  him; he notices that he’s feeling. They are physically connected, which  is new for the narrator. Experiences something for the first time, a  humbling experience for him. Is being deconstructed as an individual. 

- He doesn’t open his eyes at the end of the story because he is feeling bliss and connected. Is able to see deficits. If he opens his eyes he may not stay humble or connected.

- Why the title? A lot of detail and work in it. The most important part  was drawing the people. Need for community and connection. Religious threads?  

- “It’s really something” he’s referring to the experience of feeling, not  something that has happened to him before. Substance abuse? He was having an out of body experience.

Themes and ideas:

Isolation; representation vs experience; fact vs interpretation.

- Story may be talking about artistic endeavors because something’s  aren’t always what they seem. Show new perspectives. Hope that  people will look at your work and listen to your stories. 

Meta-Fiction: fiction in which the author self-consciously alludes to the  artificiality or literariness of a work by parodying or departing from  novelistic conventions (especially naturalism) and traditional narrative  techniques.

Carver’s “Cathedral” exemplifies post-modern ideas by thematically  demonstrating the failure of ___________ and the importance of  _____________.  

A. Representation/experience 

Updike: Separating

Very different stylistically than Carver.

- Wordy, descriptive, superfluous 

- Characters are pretty tame, all-American family, eating lobster and  drinking champagne for dinner, upper-middle class. 

- Reflects Updike’s life and reality as an adult 

Maple family:

Affluent family; has tennis court etc.

Remodeling of home is an ominous symbol of what’s to come. New  start, symbolic change, a distraction from the real issue. Consumer America says we have to replace things, change things  externally to deal with the internal. 

Seen as a distraction or coping mechanism. Doesn’t want to face the  stigma by confronting the problem with religion or a counselor.

Tennis court is clay and needs to be repaired every year. This year isn’t being repaired. Disrepair has increased within the seasons. Tennis  courts left baron and cracks become trenches. Reflects state of  marriage. 

Battening down the house against his absence. Fixing the house before he leaves. Symbolic act. 

Emphasis on personal happiness, cultural ideas about family.  Transformed values. A notion about love takes precedence. Points to  bigger things that are happening in society.

At the end of the story, Dickie asks Richard “why” Richard and Joan are separating. What is Richard’s response?  

Richard has forgotten what the reason was. The reason seems to be  that they just don’t love each other anymore. The story doesn’t give  any real reason; sometimes there is a hint of a 3rd person.

Sandra Cisneros: The House on Mango Street

What thematic symbol is associated with Esperanza’s great grandmother?

A. Window  

Sentence structure serves herself, not the reader. Doesn’t conform to  traditional narratives.  

Vignette: Very brief encounters. Comes together to give a vision of  Esperanza and Mango Street.

No clear chronology in story. Reads kind of like Faulkner.

Semi autobiographical: some characters are a few people woven into  one made up person.

Very impoverished part of Chicago.

Didn’t want to write a book that a reader wouldn’t understand and  wouldn’t feel ashamed for not getting.

The real house is nothing like the dream house; it is much smaller

The image of the house is the “American dream”. Esperanza wants a  house that she wouldn’t be ashamed to point out to people. 

Esperanza has “lazy hair” it can’t be contained in a certain place for  long. It doesn’t conform to conventional beauty. 

Being born in the year of the horse like her grandmother: women are  born strong, something that the Chinese and Mexicans don’t like.  Cultural knowledge about strength of women, threat to male  dominance. 

She sees herself as more unconventional and chooses a name to  reflect that. Get rid of previous baggage, new control over her future.

Marin can’t come outside until her aunt comes home, “and even then  she can only stay out in front.” Why do you think these limitations are  placed on Marin?

- To keep her under control, control her sexuality.

That racial prejudice is an issue in all aspects. The people in  Esperanza’s neighborhood are seen as scary to outsiders and visa versa.

-People feel safe with their own kind

Men provide structure and discipline in the households.

The daughter’s role should take over the mothers. The father is feared. Boys aren’t expected to follow mothers’ orders while women are  supposed to be ready to take over the mothers’ role. 

When wearing the high heels:

They notice their legs. Developmental tag that they have women’s  bodies with the high heels on that they are getting attention from men. Sexual interest.

They go back to their real life after taking the shoes off, they were seen as something else for a bit. Rags to riches story. - Like Cinderella

Bildungsroman: coming of age story that emphasizes the  transformation of a young character.

Esperanza is transforming into a woman. The neighborhood is  transforming, according to Cathy. Social norms of women are  transforming, at least in Esperanza’s mind she views women as being  able to be more independent. Acceptance of Mango Street as part of  who she is. Return to it in a more dutiful way.

What does Esperanza’s poem express about her internal conflict? What does she want?  

Resist cultural norm 

Esperanza told to write by her aunt:

Writing can keep you free because there are no barriers, self expression, maintain imagination. Free from judgment, uncensored and unfiltered, autonomy.

Home isn’t necessarily a physical space, more of what is inside of you,  more of an identity. Her perception and connection to Mango Street is  part of who she is. 

“Four Skinny Trees”

Trees perceiver even under undesirable circumstances. She is  connected to the place like the trees. She is skinny like the trees. Metaphor: Is rooted to Mango street, but they are always reaching. Pepsi commercial: Shows that her son is assimilating, separation  between her and her son. Shows a divide.

Sally’s father is physically violent. She is stuck in a cycle of abuse with  her father. She keeps on going back and forgiving him. Ends up getting married at 14 to a marshmallow salesman, also  restricts her. Only left with things in her house, material progress but  not emotional. 

The Monkey Garden: 

Was once a place of refuge and innocence (Garden of Eden) for  Esperanza, in this vignette it changes.

Witnesses Sally’s acts, in response goes to Tito’s mom with no avail,  goes to the tree and transforms. 

Moment of transformation, tried to will herself to die. Green dress  symbolizes growth and maturity. New perception about her body.

Red Clowns: 

Esperanza is raped or assaulted. Has a sexual experience that is not  like what she has been told. Transformative experience, loss of  innocence. 

Coming of age heavily pronounced in this chapter.

“The Three Sisters” 

Allusion of the Greek fates, associated with ones destiny.  

Sisters help her process what she’s been through and help her see her  future.

Housing desires change from wanting a house that she wouldn’t be  ashamed to point out to a space all her own.

A space all her own, doesn’t need to be a big or fancy space. Once  wanted a house that she could point to, now that has changed into her  just having a space for herself. Less focused on appearance and more  of one that is reflective of who she is and autonomy. 

“Mango Says Goodbye Sometimes”

Wants to always remember where she came from, that it’s always a  part of her. Socially minded and dutiful role about Mango Street.

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