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Penn State - MICRB 201 - MICRB 201 Final Exam Study Guide - Study

Created by: Julia Cipparulo Elite Notetaker

Schools > Pennsylvania State University > Microbiology > MICRB 201 > Penn State - MICRB 201 - MICRB 201 Final Exam Study Guide - Study

Penn State - MICRB 201 - MICRB 201 Final Exam Study Guide - Study

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background image MICRB 201 Section 001 Final Exam   
What do phagocytes produce to kill bacteria? - Oxygen compounds: hydrogen peroxide and 
superoxide 
 
Defense of bacteria against poisonous oxygen compounds - catalase, peroxidase 
 
Cytokines - Small soluble proteins that triggers immune response 
 
Extravasating phagocytes - Triggered by cytokines, phagocytes leave bloodstream and 
enter between cells to fight infection 
 
Cell-mediated immunity - T cells 
 
Antibody-mediated immunity - B cells 
 
Lymph nodes - Where lymph vessels meet; packed with macrophages and lymphocytes 
 
Antigen presenting cells (APC's) - macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells 
 
MHC protein - Where b cells present antigens 
 
Helper T cell interaction with B cell - Helper T cell binds to antigen on B cell. T cells releases 
cytokines. Cytokines trigger B cells to replicate 
 
Granzymes - Produced by cytotoxic T cells: Proteins that kill cells through production of 
perforins, etc once the T cell cells recognizes the antigen 
 
Th1 - signals creation of cytotoxic T cells, helps macrophages produce inflammatory 
response, responsible for tissue rejection 
 
Th2 - signals creation of plasma cells, binds to antigen on MHC II on B cell, produces 
cytokines, B cell turns into plasma B cells, antibodies are produced 
 
IgM - pentamer, found in blood, first produced when exposed to a virus 
 
IgG - produced by plasma B cells; monomer, secondary response after reexposed to 
pathogen; memory response 
 
background image IgE - monomer, bound to mast cells, causes allergies 
 
IgA - dimer; found in blood and mucus, important in gut 
 
Structure of antibody - Heavy chain: inner "Y" shape, held together by disulfide bond. Light 
chains attach to the heavy chains by disulfide bonds. Tips of "Y" (light chain and heavy 
chain) are variable 
 
Disulfide bond - Created from 2 cys residues on each side of the chain 
 
J chain - Connects chains together in dimer/pentamer cells 
 
Antibody production - A gene from a variable, diversity, joining, and constant region are 
randomly assembled 
 
epitope - smallest piece of protein that antibody will bind too (6-8 amino acids) 
 
What type of randomly assembled gene do light chains not have? - diversity gene 
 
Agglutination - clumps bacteria together, makes phagocytosis easier 
 
Opsonization - coats antigen with antibodies, enhances phagocytosis 
 
Activation of complement - creates the membrane attack complex (MAC), which causes the 
cell to lyse 
 
Inflammation - phagocytes are drawn to the area 
 
Neutralization - Blocks active site of bacterium, virus, or toxin 
 
Clonal deletion - Removes self reactive T cells 
 
Positive Selection - T cell cannot recognize MHC, so it can't bind and produce cytokines 
 
Negative selection - T cells interact too strongly with MHC 
 
Problem with bacterial strep throat - antibodies that recognize streptococcus pyogenes 
also recognize proteins on heart and kidneys; if infection is not treated, antibodies will 
begin attacking the body 
background image  
Cross reactive - antibodies that attack both bacteria and self cels 
 
Rheumatic Heart Disease - Result of untreated strep throat; big problem in developing 
countries 
 
Group A Streptococcus - GAS adheres to pharyngeal epithelial tissue, B cells and 
macrophages present antigens, cross reactive B cells, T cells, are created 
Secondary exposure to GAS when untreated is dangerous because B cells produce high 
amounts of cross reactive IgG 
 
How do allergies work -  
1. B cell processes allergen, Th2 releases cytokines to make plasma cells 
2. Plasma cell produced IgE 
3. IgE coats mast cell 
4. Allergen crosslinks IgE and makes it dimerize 
5. Mast cell releases histamines, seratonin, etc 
 
Cromolyn - Stabilizes mast cells so they don't produce histamines 
 
Dr. Altounyan - Used cromolyn, derived from khella plant, to treat asthma 
 
What is delayed type hypersensitivity (like urushiol) caused by? - T-cells 
 
How do allergy shots work? - Cause production of IgM, which causes the production of IgG. 
IgG antibodies surround allergen before it reaches the mast cell and can dimerize the IgE 
 
Natural Immunity: Active - antigens enter the body, body develops immune response, 
antibodies are created 
 
Natural Immunity: Passive - Person obtains antibodies through mother's breast milk (IgA) 
 
Artificial Immunity: Active - antigens are induced through vaccine 
 
Artificial Immunity: Passive - Antibodies are developed from an outside source, like sheep, 
and injected into bloodstream 
 
Carl June - New treatment for cancer 
1. Collect T cells from patient 

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Introductory Microbiology
Professor: Olanrewaju Sodeinde
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Epidemiology, vaccination, Pathogenesis, and immunology
Name: MICRB 201 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Includes everything we went over in class, including information not on slides
Uploaded: 04/30/2018
10 Pages 49 Views 39 Unlocks
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