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ASU / Sociology / SOC 1000 / What is another word for multiculturalism?

What is another word for multiculturalism?

What is another word for multiculturalism?

Description

School: Appalachian State University
Department: Sociology
Course: The Sociological Perspective
Professor: Kenneth muir
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Introduction to Sociology
Cost: 50
Name: Sociology Final Exam
Description: This is the study guide completed that was given in class. The answers on the study guide I provided came from both the book and the PowerPoints on AsULearn. Make sure to study and know the definitions and terms for the exam. Good luck!
Uploaded: 04/30/2018
64 Pages 58 Views 5 Unlocks
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Study Guide Exam 3 By: Landon Osborne


What is another word for multiculturalism?



Information that will be on the exam!

• Neocolonialism  

• Prejudice is an attitude that cannot be made illegal  • Discrimination is a behavior 

• What is another word for Multiculturalism? Pluralism

Feminization of Poverty

• A condition of US poverty in which most poor families are headed by  women

Social Stratification  

• A system of ranking individuals (or groups) by their perceived value to  society  

• Social Stratification is present in ALL societies and ALL groups


Social stratification system based on what?



• Stratification implies INEQUALITY because the amount of “social  resources” we get is linked to the “value” placed on us  

• Social Hierarchy (DIFFERENT from stratification)  

• The actual ranks of the various positions  

• Ascribed = race, gender, “looks”

• Achieved = training, ability, “looks”

Power, Prestige, and Wealth  

• Power: the ability to get others to do what you want them to do…  even if they object to it  

• The ability to impose one’s will on others  

• Prestige: = respect  

• Status or Honor  

• Based on a combination of: Occupation, income, and education  


Social position is based on what?



• High prestige is typically granted to occupations that: require long periods of training and  generate substantial incomes  

• Wealth: control over some valued thing… money, land, gold, wives,  husbands, cows, sheep... Whatever is valued in a particular society  • Owning or controlling something that others define as valuable If you want to learn more check out How to identify relevant costs?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the colligative properties?

• Value = How much something costs

• In every society, Power, Prestige, and Wealth are concentrated in the  hands of the upper classes

Authority and Influence  

(Two types of Power)  

• 1. Authority

• Power that is legitimately held by a socially recognized status…

• Example: Parents have power to make their children eat broccoli and Police officers have  power to make you behave in a specific way

• 2. Influence  

• The ability to “persuade” others to do what you want them to do  

• People with influence either:

• 1. have their own characteristics that compel other people to do their bidding  • 2. or they are “close” to legitimate authority

Cultural Heterogeneity

• A culture that includes a variety of people from different cultural  backgrounds  

• (US, England, Canada, Russia, Bosnia) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the five major vessels in the body?

Traditional Authority  

• Based on traditional arrangements  

• (Queen Elizabeth II; Pope Francis…)

Structural Inequality  If you want to learn more check out Who led the african americans to launch a prolonged assault on school segregation?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of iron in the human body?

• Structural Inequality is rewarding different people differently based  on their perceived contributions to society  

• As long as it is based on merit, structural inequality is NOT a bad  thing,,, in fact, most people would agree that a physician should get  more of society’s rewards than an “unskilled laborer.” Don't forget about the age old question of How does our color theory explain the fact that people see red as being similar to violet?

Genocide  

• The annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because of  their presumed race or ethinicity

Class System  

• Social Stratification system based on… Achievement 

• Social position is based on MERIT

• Social mobility is not only possible… it is expected (even though  significant upward social mobility is rare)  

• Equal opportunity is believed to be available to all  

• Key Principles:

• 1. Inequality exists, but social mobility is possible!

• 2. A belief that everyone has access to… education, job opportunities,  and an “even playing field”

Exogamy  

• The practice of marrying outside of one’s group

Meritocracy  

• The Class System is based on the ideals of a meritocracy  • You get what you deserve

• Only people who deserve more get more  

• If you fail, it is because of a personal defect

• Inequality is the result of a personal characteristic that prevents some people  from taking advantage of the opportunities that are available to all

Income Inequality  

• Reasons for Income Inequality:

• Deindustrialization  

• Technological advances  

• Political climate  

• Tax cuts, and shift in tax policies to favor long-term capital gains  • Cuts to federal benefits  

• Incomes for executives and superstars in sports and entertainment have  skyrocketed

Racism  

• Racism involves defining a minority group as a race, attributing  negative characteristics to that group, and then creating the  circumstances that keep that group at a disadvantage relative to the  majority  

• Racism is a subtype of xenophobia (fear of strangers or foreigners)  and a form of ethnocentrism (the belief that one’s own group is  superior to other groups)

Amalgamation  

• Dominant and minority groups mix through intermarriage  • Their children can become an additional category  

• Tiger Woods – Cabllnasian (Caucasian, Black, Indian, and Asian)

Davis-Moore Thesis  

• Stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a  society  

• Key elements:

• 1. Members of society have needs  

• 2. Some statuses in society are more important than others in meeting those  needs  

• 3. To attract the best qualified people, they must be given more of society’s  rewards (income, prestige, power)  

• Key Element  

• MERITOCRACY: people should “get what they deserve”

Upward Social Mobility  

• Movement up the social class ladder

Intergenerational Social Mobility  

• Children are a different class than parents  

• Can be “upward” or “downward”  

• Typically based on individual effort

Scapegoat  

• An individual or a group unfairly blamed for someone else’s troubles

Dominant Group

• The group with the most power, greatest privileges, and highest social  status

Institutional Discrimination  

• Negative treatment of a minority group that is built into a society’s  institutions; also called systemic discrimination

Prejudice  

• An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way

Poverty Line  

• The official indicator of poverty  

• Households falling below a specific threshold are considered not to  have enough to survive

Demographic Transition  

• Stage 1: Preindustrial  

• Simple agricultural societies  

• High death rates and high birth rates  

• The high birth rate is necessary to balance the high death rate and ensure  survival  

• Social values emphasize large families with many children  • Slow population growth

Demographic Transition  

• Stage 2: Early Industrial  

• Beginning of industrialization  

• New agricultural practices and technologies lead to increased food  supply… more people can be fed  

• Result: high birth rates and rapidly falling death rates  • Large numbers of young people in the population  • Rapid population growth

Demographic Transition  

• Stage 3: Mature Industrial  

• Industrial societies  

• Values have shifted… small families with few children are emphasized… there  are fewer young people in the population  

• Women outlive men (for the first time) (higher proportion of widows)  • Slow population growth

Demographic Transition  

• Stage 4: Postindustrial  

• The economic base shifts to service and away from manufacturing

• Values reflect an understanding of the impact of population size on  productivity  

• There are more “childless” couples  

• Both quantity and quality of life increase  

• Very slow population growth – Perhaps even Zero Population Growth

Race  

• Groupings based on what are believed to be similar biological characteristics  

• A Shared Ancestry

Rational-Legal Authority  

• Grounded in the rules that legitimate an office  

• (The President; Members of Congress; Judges; Police Officers…)

Minority Groups  

• People who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard  themselves as objects of collective discrimination

Caste System  

• A social stratification system based on ASCRIPTION 

• Social position (status) is based on BIRTH and it is LIFELONG  

• There is typically a COMPLETE lack of social mobility involving:  

• Occupations  

• Educational Opportunities  

• Religion (and religious participation)  

• Marriage (ENDOGAMY is required)  

• Restricted social interactions (any contact with lower castes “contaminates” higher castes and  requires “ritual cleansing”

Bonded Labor  

• Also called Indentured Service  

• A contractual system in which someone sells his or her body  (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close  to slavery, except that it is entered into voluntarily

Class Consciousness  

• Awareness of a common identity based on one’s position in the  means of production  

• (A workers’ revolution that would overthrow capitalism)

Institutional Racism  

• Discrimination that is “built in” to the normative structure of society  and reinforced by the agents of socialization  

• Race-based discrimination that results from the day-to-day operation  of social institutions and social structures  

• Racism that is systemic within a society  

• The “invisibility” of Institutional Racism:  

• It is far more subtle than individual acts and thus far more difficult to  eradicate

Poorest Country in the World  

• The answer to this will be given on Wednesday in class  • Poorest Nation: Zimbabwe

Patriarchy  

• Men-as-a-group dominating women-as-a-group; authority is vested in  males

Ethnic Cleansing  

• A policy of eliminating a population; includes forcible expulsion and  genocide

Acculturation  

• A minority group abandons its own norms and values and adopts  those of the dominant culture  

• But they are rarely fully accepted into all parts of the dominant culture  • Indian immigrants in all parts of the US  

• Native Americans

Assimilation  

• The process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture

Neocolonialism  

• The economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized  Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations

Power Elite  

• Top people in the US corporations, military, and politics who make the  nation’s major decisions

Downward Social Mobility  

• Movement down the social class ladder

Exchange Social Mobility  

• Changes in the social structure are apparent, but the relative sizes of  the classes involved remain the same

Stereotype  

• A stereotype is a generalization about an entire category of people  that frequently appears in daily interaction

Gender Stratification  

• Males’ and females’ unequal access to property, power, and prestige

Wealth Inequality  

• Wealth is an important factor in gaining advantages in the other  dimensions of stratification  

• The wealthy have access to varied forms of power and control that  are not accessible by others:

• They control most philanthropic organizations  

• They can manipulate the political sphere  

• They can directly gain control of political offices

Discrimination  

• An act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group

Cultural Hegemony  

• People may conform to cultural patterns and interests that benefit  powerful elites, even without those elites overtly forcing people into  conformity  

• Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who  manipulate the culture of that society (beliefs, explanations, values,  etc.) so that their imposed worldview becomes the accepted cultural  norm

Ethnicity  

• Having distinctive cultural characteristics  

• Groupings based on what are believed to be similar cultural characteristics  

• A Shared Way of Life

Charismatic Authority  

• Based on the personal characteristics of a leader  • (Hitler; Jim Jones; Marshall Applewhite…)

“Sense of Ethnicity”  

• A low sense of ethnicity  

• A numerical majority  

• Greater Power

• No Discrimination  

• A higher sense of ethnicity  

• Smaller numbers  

• Lesser Power  

• Discrimination

Slavery System  

• Slavery involves the ownership of a category of people by another  category of people…  

• And it was common among early agricultural societies • Four bases of Slavery:  

• Debt, Crime, War (conquest), Racism

Endogamy  

• The practice of marrying within one’s own group

False Class Consciousness  

• Workers that identify with the interests of capitalists  

• For example, workers with a few dollars in the bank may forget that  they are workers and instead see themselves as investors, or as  capitalists who are about to launch a successful business

Social Class

• Max Weber:

• Social class is a large number of people who rank closely to one another in  wealth, power and prestige

Richest Country in the World  

• Answer to this will be given in class on Wednesday  • Most industrialized Nation: Luxembourg

Matriarchy  

• A society in which women-as-a-group dominate men-as-a-group;  authority is vested in females

Internal Colonialism  

• The policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain

Accommodation  

• A minority group adopts, but does not fully participate in the  dominant culture  

• In a sense they “accommodate” the dominant culture, but elements of their  own culture are more important

Ideology  

• Beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social  arrangements

Culture of Poverty

• Some countries have a “way of life” (culture) that perpetuates  poverty

• People in the world’s poor nations are tied to the land in ways that leave little  room for error  

• Because innovation could lead to starvation, traditional ways are encouraged  • Religious beliefs of these nations teach fatalism – the belief that all that  happens is “God’s will” and nothing can be done to change or improve life

Underclass  

• No chance for improvement of condition  

• Concentrated in the inner-cities  

• Few are employed  

• Those who are employed work in menial jobs that pay VERY little  • About 4% of the US population  

• The homeless and disenfranchised  

• Modern society has little use for unskilled labor  • Thus, the underclass has little to offer

Structural Social Mobility  

• Changes in society that result in large numbers to “climb” up or  “slide” down class ladder  

• Industrial revolution  

• Technology revolution

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