History 108 - Final Exam Study Guide
∙ Key Terms and Vocabulary (defined with historical significance) o Encyclopedie
A book created by Denis Diderot that collected and
organized information into one volume
Importance: it was the first book to collect information on so many individuals and create a general system of
Carl Von Linneaus was the father of modern taxonomy who created the classification of species still used today
Importance: inspired the common practice of cabinets of curiosity among wealthy men
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, characterized by analogy and metaphor
Importance: stressed the skepticism of objective
knowledge and truth which led to a personal version of
reality focused on emotion.
The expression or measurement of the quantity of
Importance: Quantitative Experimentalism was used to distinguish the measurement of the world versus
phenomenon leading to the development of statistics
The practice or science of collecting and analyzing
numerical data in large quantities
Importance: came from the idea of quantitative
o Industrial Revolution
The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the
introduction of machinery.
Importance: rearranges society and creates a shift in the need for human labor
a government authority or license conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the sole right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention.
Don't forget about the age old question of tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________ that trap bacteria and particulate matter.
Importance: allows people to profit from innovation and promotes the advancement of ideas
o Steam Engine
An engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power
Importance: James Watt’s steam engine could power mills and helped work both ends of supply and demand while
increasing owner profit
the ethical consideration that maximizes utility and
Importance: is opposite to the categorical imperative
principle and stresses the good of society with the least
amount of harm
o Absolute Zero
The lowest temperature that is theoretically possible at which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would
Importance: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) created the scale of absolute zero and contributed to the laws of
thermodynamics which are tied to absolute zero
A physical phenomenon produced by the motion of electric charge, resulting in attractive and repulsive forces between objects
Importance: First discovered in Greek times then again in the 18th century by Mezmer who said that all living things Don't forget about the age old question of chem 111 quizlet
possess a magnetic living force
The branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy
Importance: came about through Joseph Black’s theory of latent heat; there are three related laws that many
scientists contributed to (Nicolas Carnot, James Joule, Lord Kelvin)
o Acquired characteristics
The theory that if an organism changes during its life to adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to its offspring
Importance: the theory was put forth by Jean-Baptiste
Lamark and attempted to expand on the idea of evolution
The process of change that has transformed life on earth from simple to more complex life forms
Importance: this is the theory that Darwin discovered and developed during his studies on the Galapagos Islands
Thomas Malthus’ theory of population growth said that the population will always outrun the food supply and that the betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits on reproduction
Importance: this view is along the same lines as Eugenics practices
o Natural Selection If you want to learn more check out ub 401
Nature’s way of selecting the best adapted individuals
among all and promoting them to the next generation
Importance: survival of the fittest was not Darwin’s original attempt or idea, instead the idea of “survival of the fit
The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
Importance: allowed for the understanding of the building blocks of life Don't forget about the age old question of ucsb chem
A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to
offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of
Importance: aided in the understanding of genetic code and where it is stored
A microorganism, especially one that causes disease
Importance: helped understand where disease came from and how to treat it. Replaced the idea the miasmas were
the cause of disease
A vaporous exhalation formerly believed to cause disease
Importance: this was an erroneous belief that diseases like cholera could be transmitted by the air, later replaced by
the germ theory
A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium and
cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell
Importance: the discovery of the virus began the We also discuss several other topics like elizabeth griffith umd
development and research into vaccines.
The science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics
Importance: the idea came about through Sir Francis
Galton (Darwin’s cousin) who believed that the reason for social status could be found in the gene. He thought he
could find statistics to justify claims of racial superiority. We also discuss several other topics like vast amounts of sand are moved by ____.
Eugenics appears in the U.S. in programs to get rid of the
“undesirable”, in Nazi Germany, and in France to identify
students who needed help
o Scientific Racism
The pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism
Importance: this was a key idea in the practice of eugenics and was a belief of Sir Francis Galton as well
o Social Darwinism
The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are
subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals
Importance: Used to justify political conservatism,
imperialism, and racism (discredited)
o Alternating Current
An electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at regular intervals, typically used in power
Importance: Nikola Tesla believed the alternating current was better. He made Westinghouse get the U.S. to accept AC as its main system
o Direct Current
An electric current flowing in one direction only
Importance: Thomas Edison said that this type of current was safer because it had a lower voltage. George
Westinghouse said that the DC system wasn’t efficient
o Assembly Line
A series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled
Importance: Ford created the first MOVING assembly line which revolutionized mass production. The car would come to the worker so the worker never had to move.
The system of mass production that was pioneered in the early 20th century by the Ford Motor Company
Importance: Ford improved mass production by improving the assembly line, with the goal of eliminating unnecessary labor
o Mass Production
The manufacture of large quantities of standardized
products, frequently using assembly line or automation
Importance: mass production was an essential piece of the technological revolution and was used for cars, lightbulbs, power utilities and much more
The principles or practice of scientific management created by Frederick Winslow Taylor
Importance: Taylorism created a hierarchy of labor and replaced the need for the skilled worker
A stable subatomic particle with a negative charge, found in all atoms
Importance: scientists were trying to prove the existence of atoms. Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, Thomson confirmed that electrons were particles
The action of dividing or splitting something into two or more parts
Importance: Thomson was the first to say that the atom was divisible. Nuclear fission was discovered by the
Germans prior to WWI.
A discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents
Importance: Max Planck created the concept of quanta and was met with resistance by other scientists. Einstein later wrote a paper on Quantum Physics. Niels Bohr pioneered
o Manhattan Project
The name for the project that developed atomic bombs for the U.S. during World War II
Importance: Established by Roosevelt as a secret project. Largest funded project by the government
An electromagnetic wave, shorter than a normal radio
wave but longer than those of infrared radiation
Importance: used in the microwave radio, first created in Silicon Valley for the military
o Operations Research
The application of scientific principles to business
management, providing a quantitative basis for complex
Importance: Applied to the U.S. military during WWII
A system that sends out electromagnetic wave to detect the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft,
ships, and other objects
Importance: first used in the military to detect enemy
aircraft and ships. The British heled the U.S. solve the pulse system issues with radar
o Medical Ethics
A system of moral principles that apply values to the
practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research
Importance: widely discussed because of the scientific
atrocities conducted by Nazi scientists on humans
o Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial
A series of trials held in which the allies prosecuted
German military leaders, officials, and industrialists for
crimes they had committed during World War II
Importance: raised the issue of ethical acquisition of
o Big Science
Scientific research that is expensive and involves large teams of scientists
Importance: WWII called for Big Science because there were scientific endeavors that private enterprises couldn’t carry out and had to be funded by the federal government. Manhattan Project is an example.
A self-replicating material present in nearly all living
organisms that carries genetic information
Importance: the purpose of genetics research was to
discover the structure of DNA to understand the building
blocks of live
o Military Industrial Complex
A country’s military establishment and those industries producing arms or other military materials, regarded as a
powerful vested interest
Importance: Eisenhower warns against this in his farewell speech
o Protein Structure
The 3D arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain
Importance: Linus Pauling thought the structure was triple helical. Crick and Watson discovered the double helix
A series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which was the first satellite to be placed in orbit
Importance: began the Race for Space. Was a conflict of ethics because the Soviets put a Dog in Sputnik II
o Bell Labs
An American research and scientific development company
Importance: Responsible for the transistor, the
quantification of information, and the first device of
o Moore’s Law
The prediction by Gordon Moore that the number of
transistors per square inch on an integrated circuit would
double every year
Importance: Moore’s law meant that over time, systems would continue to get faster and more efficient
The branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerances of less than 100 nanometers, especially the
manipulation of individual atoms and molecules
Importance: Is considered the next big step for technology and has its origins in atomic research from the 50s.
o Silicon Valley
The area in northern California that is home to the world’s largest technology corporations and thousands of
technology-related startup companies
Importance: first used for defense spending for the
military, later known for its electronic revolution
A semiconductor device with three connections, capable of amplification in addition to rectification
Importance: The Transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices and allowed for the
storage of data electronically
∙ Big Picture Questions
o What is the enlightenment?
The enlightenment begins with a scientific revolution in the 16th century and ends with a French revolution at the end
of the 18th century. It is known as the age of reason and is characterized by the scientific method and a “release from immaturity”.
o Does science thrive better in a democracy?
Science tends to thrive better in places where there is
limited government control over the field. When there are restrictions by the government or by a church on what
citizens must believe, it is difficult for science to thrive.
o Which is better reason or received wisdom?
(This question could have multiple answers based on
opinion) Reason is “better” because it allows a person to
think for themselves through a situation. Reason relies on the individual’s ability to be independent and takes a step away from the idea of received wisdom, or believing
something because society/a group says it is correct.
o Where do we get our morality?
According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, our morality is
developed during the puberty stage of human
development based on the moral issues in the world and
religion. Morality also comes from a duty to justice and a
sympathy for others.
o How useful is collecting data and knowledge?
Collecting data and knowledge is useful but only to a
certain extent. If the data and knowledge is shared and
utilized for research and not just for the purpose of
collecting, it is very useful. This is the difference between
collecting specimen for a cabinet of curiosity and using the specimen for classification and display in a museum.
o How do we judge the authenticity of a primary source?
This question is in reference to the book written by Marco Polo. He wrote of his travels, specifically through China, but his name never appears in foreign records and he doesn’t mention the Great Wall. In this case, the authenticity must be compared to others who made similar travels and
observations at the time.
o Why did Europeans (and Africans) colonize the new world and not the other way around?
Europeans knew of other land masses around the world but had yet to figure out what they were like. They also had the navigational technology to be able to make expeditions
around the world, whereas other civilizations may not
o What standards do we use to determine how scientifically and technologically advanced a society is?
Unfortunately, many times we judge the advancement of a society in comparison to our own. However, this is
ignorance on our part, as they may be advanced in areas
that are more important to their society than ours. The
Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires were considered
scientifically advanced for their time. They were able to
build pyramids using man power alone, they charted
planetary movements, and discovered crop rotation. They used calendars based on planetary movement, had
centralized political structures, and performed brain
o Is there a place for emotion in science and technology?
Yes, there is a place for emotion in science and technology. As humans, we are emotional beings, and it is our
emotions/passions that motivate us towards innovation
and discovery in the field of science and technology. The
period of romanticism stressed the importance of self and emotions as well as a skeptical understanding of objective knowledge and truth.
o What does it mean to know something?
To know something is to understand the truth but also to be critical and have done your own research on the subject so that you understand all aspects of the thing that you
claim to know.
o What does the notion of data even mean?
Data can be single items or it can be a large collection of something. However, in the context of the enlightenment, the notion of data refers to quantitative experimentalism
and the measurement of the world versus phenomenon. It delves into accuracy versus precision and leads to the
development of statistics.
o Is it appropriate to call these distortions of scientific enterprise or is it false to think science has some sort of “natural” path?
Science is based on the natural world so to think that
science has a “natural path” would not be false. Especially in the theory of positivism, the basis on natural
phenomenon is present with a focus on what one can
experience and observe.
o What demands do the state and industry place on science and technology?
During the enlightenment, there is an increased demand by the state and industry for scientists who will be
commissioned to travel or to work for the state to be part of projects and make discoveries in the field.
o How do ideas become powerful forces driving societal change?
When an idea is put forth that seems serves the well-being of most society, it tends to be a driving force of change.
The idea of innovations that would increase both
production and profit appealed to many people and drove scientists into the industrial revolution.
o What are the effects of industrialization on society?
The effect of industrialization on the rest of society was not as appealing. As machines began to do more of the labor,
people began to lose their jobs and their skills were
devalued. People were paid for their time, not their skill
which meant that everyone was replaceable and labor was exploited.
o What is the responsibility of the scientist or engineer in recognizing the social implications of their work?
Scientists and engineers must work toward the good of society and keep in mind the ethical considerations that
maximize utility and reduce suffering (utilitarianism). The intent of the work it essential.
o What is the difference between tinkering and experimenting?
The difference is in the purpose of the work. Tinkering is done out of curiosity whereas experimenting is done to
make a contribution to the science community.
Experimenting uses and acknowledges the work of those
who came before, whereas tinkering is not concerned with others work.
o What drives innovation?
There are two motives for innovation. The first is monetary. There are those who are looking to innovate strictly so that they can make a profit off their creation. There are also
those who are in the pursuit of knowledge and do not care whether their innovation benefits them. They are focused on furthering the field of science or technology and making strides for the sake of innovation.
o What questions is Darwin trying to answer?
Darwin was interested in the evolution of race theories, the importance of geographical locations of species, the
struggle of life to survive and reproduce, the disparity
between classes of people, and the survival of the fit
o How does religion influence Darwin’s views?
Darwin studied theology so his theory of evolution actually comes from his studies. However, he lost faith in
Christianity after his voyage and due to the death of his
o How does Darwin view and measure race?
Darwin believed that all races came from one origin, which was in concurrence with what the church was teaching. He
also saw first-hand the brutality of slavery during his
travels while on voyage with the HMS Beagle. He
condemned slavery and promoted the idea of descent with modification.
o What are the obligations of scientists in regards to informing and sharing information with the public?
It is irresponsible for scientist to ignore the implications of their work instead of addressing them, especially if it is
relevant to the public. They have an obligation to avoid
causing harm to others, to help others, and to share their
information with others due to their support from the
o What role should the state play in medicine?
(this is an opinion question and obviously varies depending on the culture and needs of society)
o Does the state have any responsibility for ensuring the health and welfare of its citizens (public health/social medicine)?
Yes, the state should have a concern for the health and welfare of it citizens. Especially in a society like the United States, which places value on the opinion and vote of its
citizens, the health and welfare of the people should be a
o What is eugenics?
Eugenics is the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of
desirable heritable characteristics
o How was eugenics promoted as a positive science?
Eugenics was promoted to create a stronger, more
intelligent, and more fit society. People were not told that
others would be wiped out but instead programs like the
Better Baby Contests and the Fitter Families Competitions were advertised.
o What role do competing scientific theories play in the
development of science, technology, and society?
Competing theories create competition and motivate those in the scientific community. The rivalry between Edison and Tesla allowed for greater investigation and experimentation on direct and alternating currents.
o How does industry/mass production at the turn of the twentieth century represent, but also push certain social values?
The values of society during the 20th century were focused on innovation and efficiency. Especially in the United States where the population was increasing exponentially, mass
production and big industry became essential. However,
mass production came with machines which reduced the
availability of jobs for the mass of people. Industry pushed social values because skills and jobs that were once valued and necessary for daily life, became unimportant and
eventually died out altogether.
o How far should a company’s/employer’s reach extend in relation to its employees?
A company should have reach into the employee’s
professional life, but should not extend into their personal life. Henry Ford took program too far and had someone
from the sociological department come into his employee’s home to check the requirements necessary to receive
incentives and bonuses.
o How do scientific truths come to be accepted in the early 20th century? In particular, how does Democritus’ ancient theory of the atom become a scientific truth?
Scientific truths come to be accepted through the success of multiple trials of experimentation and through the
confirmation from other scientists. Scientists were trying to prove the existence of atoms that Democritus based his
atomic theory off. The explosion of the field of chemistry
and the study of particles allowed for the confirmation of
o What role does failure play in the development of science? In quantum physics?
Failure is the process of trial and error for science. When something fails, it tells us how something does NOT work
as opposed to shutting an entire idea down. It is the basis for the scientific method that works to create a hypothesis and either prove or disprove something, and in that case,
re-evaluate the hypothesis and come up with a new theory. Quantum Physics revolves around experimental success
and application, but there are many failures before success is reached.
o How does Einstein’s theory of relativity finally cause science to supplant natural philosophy?
The theory of relativity states that motion is defined
relative to a frame of reference and that time does not
pass identical for everyone. This creates the realization
that intuitive though-based science, which was the basis of natural philosophy, is not enough if the goal is to be
precise and accurate. Instead, systematic empirical
measurements must be the focus.
o How do the rich fight wars?
The rich sponsored the production of military aircraft and tanks such as the B24 Bomber, the Sea Jeep, the M4A3
Sherman Tank, and the Willy’s Jeep.
o How did the US ramp up its war effort so quickly?
The US entered the war as one of the richest countries despite the Great Depression. They out-produce all the
other countries because they have the material and the
manpower, meaning more items are expendable. All the
big warehouses convert their bases to produce
automobiles for the war instead of civilian cars.
o What values does it take to develop a nuclear bomb? What values does one have to have to use it?
(This answer is based on opinion, there may be a more objective answer) The values behind developing a nuclear bomb and those behind using a nuclear bomb depend on
the intent. In the case of the United State, one of the
motivations was fear that an enemy country would develop and use it first. It was a desperate measure to protect our own country. However, there still must be a certain
disregard for life and the amount of destruction that the
bomb would cause when a country decides to build one.
The power to destroy an entire society of people is more
power than anyone should ever have. To use a nuclear
bomb one must be either completely desperate or
completely indifferent to the lives that it would destroy. For the US, the decision was based on many things such as: to force an early end to the war, to save many American lives, to assert military dominance, to keep Russia out of the war, and to justify their expenses.
o How does military science and technology translate into civilian science and technology?
Much of the technology that the military uses is created for them and then later introduced into civilian use.
Technology such as GPS, drones, microwaves, penicillin,
and radar were all created for the military and later trickled down into consumer society.
o Is there a relationship between ecology and politics?
Yes, there are ecological issues that impact politics and visa versa. The decisions that we make as a country do
effect the environment around us and there is a connection between the growth of society and the and the damage
cause to the environment.
o Is scientific data obtained by questionable means usable? Under what circumstances can we ignore the unethical collection and production of scientific data?
(this is another opinion piece, there can be multiple
responses to this question with the underlying
understanding of medical ethics) In the case of the Nazi's
we cannot and will not ever ignore the unethical means
that they obtained their data. However, in other situations I believe that it all depends on the intention behind the
experiments and how it effects those involved and beyond. If in any way the experiment has the power to harm
another life, it should not be condoned and should not be
accepted as scientific proof. When the intent, as in the case of the Nazi experiments, is to not only harm, but obliterate groups of people for personal benefit, we cannot in good
conscience agree with the means or the method. There is a reason that scientific experiments cannot be done on
human life. When this ethical issue is ignored, any results must be as well.
o How did the dropping of the atomic bomb impact science and technology in the cold war era?
After the dropping of the atomic bomb, many physicists fled the field and moved to the life sciences because they were horrified with the effects that the atomic bomb
produced and the life it destroyed.
o Who owns data of scientific research? Who deserves credit for a discovery?
Almost always, in addition to the scientist who made the discovery, the lab owner will be listed on the publication
because they funded and provided the space for the
research to be conducted. Otherwise, those who make
significant contribution to the discovery usually deserve
credit. In the case of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick, only Watson and Crick were given credit for
the discovery of the structure of DNA. Franklin gave Watson and Crick the photograph that aided in their discovery,
however, she stated that the structure couldn’t be helical
when they came up with their proposal.
∙ Exam Format
o 2 Sections
Key terms/concepts from the midterm forward
∙ 3 sentence answer [1st term, 2nd term,
historical significance of both]
∙ 9 pairs, choose 5
∙ 4 questions, choose 1
o Darwin and Evolution
o Industrial revolution (evaluate the
social, political, and economical
o Cause/Effect from WWII to the post
o Extra Credit
3 are 1 point, the 4th is 2 points
questions are based on trending news in science and technology