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USC / History / HIST 108 / What is the meaning of linnaeus?

What is the meaning of linnaeus?

What is the meaning of linnaeus?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: Science and Technology in World History
Professor: November
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history, worldwar2, enlightenment, Genetics, spacerace, Einstein, HenryFord, Eugenics Movement, Darwinism, evolution, IndustrialRevolution, and Romanticism
Cost: 50
Name: History 108 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide goes through defining all terms and answering all Big Picture Questions from week 8 (after the mid-term) on. The material begins with the enlightenment and finishes with Post WWII Consumerism. It also includes the exam format with specifics on the possible essay topics.
Uploaded: 05/01/2018
18 Pages 229 Views 24 Unlocks

History 108 - Final Exam Study Guide  

What is the meaning of linnaeus?

∙ Key Terms and Vocabulary (defined with historical significance) o Encyclopedie

 A book created by Denis Diderot that collected and  

organized information into one volume  

 Importance: it was the first book to collect information on  so many individuals and create a general system of  


o Linneaus

 Carl Von Linneaus was the father of modern taxonomy who created the classification of species still used today

 Importance: inspired the common practice of cabinets of  curiosity among wealthy men

o Romanticism

 A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, characterized by analogy and metaphor

What is the meaning of romanticism?

 Importance: stressed the skepticism of objective  

knowledge and truth which led to a personal version of  

reality focused on emotion.  

o Quantification

 The expression or measurement of the quantity of  


 Importance: Quantitative Experimentalism was used to  distinguish the measurement of the world versus  If you want to learn more check out What is secondary research?

phenomenon leading to the development of statistics

o Statistics  

 The practice or science of collecting and analyzing  

numerical data in large quantities

 Importance: came from the idea of quantitative  


o Industrial Revolution

 The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain  in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the  

What is industrial revolution?

introduction of machinery.

 Importance: rearranges society and creates a shift in the  need for human labor Don't forget about the age old question of What are missile defenses?

o Patent  

 a government authority or license conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the sole right to exclude others  from making, using, or selling an invention. 

 Importance: allows people to profit from innovation and  promotes the advancement of ideas  

o Steam Engine  

 An engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power  

 Importance: James Watt’s steam engine could power mills  and helped work both ends of supply and demand while  We also discuss several other topics like What were the very earliest uses of radio technology?

increasing owner profit  

o Utilitarianism

 the ethical consideration that maximizes utility and  

reduces suffering  

 Importance: is opposite to the categorical imperative  

principle and stresses the good of society with the least  

amount of harm

o Absolute Zero

 The lowest temperature that is theoretically possible at  which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would  

be minimal

 Importance: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) created the  scale of absolute zero and contributed to the laws of  If you want to learn more check out What are the spheres of physical activity?

thermodynamics which are tied to absolute zero

o Magnetism  

 A physical phenomenon produced by the motion of electric  charge, resulting in attractive and repulsive forces between objects

 Importance: First discovered in Greek times then again in  the 18th century by Mezmer who said that all living things  

possess a magnetic living force

o Thermodynamics  


 The branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy  We also discuss several other topics like Who are quakers?

 Importance: came about through Joseph Black’s theory of  latent heat; there are three related laws that many  If you want to learn more check out What is the sequence of spectral types?

scientists contributed to (Nicolas Carnot, James Joule, Lord  Kelvin)

o Acquired characteristics  

 The theory that if an organism changes during its life to  adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to  its offspring

 Importance: the theory was put forth by Jean-Baptiste  

Lamark and attempted to expand on the idea of evolution

o Evolution

 The process of change that has transformed life on earth  from simple to more complex life forms  

 Importance: this is the theory that Darwin discovered and  developed during his studies on the Galapagos Islands  

o Malthus  

 Thomas Malthus’ theory of population growth said that the  population will always outrun the food supply and that the  betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits  on reproduction

 Importance: this view is along the same lines as Eugenics  practices  

o Natural Selection  

 Nature’s way of selecting the best adapted individuals  

among all and promoting them to the next generation

 Importance: survival of the fittest was not Darwin’s original attempt or idea, instead the idea of “survival of the fit  


o Cell  

 The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism

 Importance: allowed for the understanding of the building  blocks of life

o Gene  


 A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to  

offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of  

the offspring  

 Importance: aided in the understanding of genetic code  and where it is stored  

o Germ  

 A microorganism, especially one that causes disease  

 Importance: helped understand where disease came from  and how to treat it. Replaced the idea the miasmas were  

the cause of disease  

o Miasma  

 A vaporous exhalation formerly believed to cause disease

 Importance: this was an erroneous belief that diseases like  cholera could be transmitted by the air, later replaced by  

the germ theory

o Virus  

 A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium and  

cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell

 Importance: the discovery of the virus began the  

development and research into vaccines.

o Eugenics  

 The science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable  characteristics

 Importance: the idea came about through Sir Francis  

Galton (Darwin’s cousin) who believed that the reason for  social status could be found in the gene. He thought he  

could find statistics to justify claims of racial superiority.  

Eugenics appears in the U.S. in programs to get rid of the  

“undesirable”, in Nazi Germany, and in France to identify  

students who needed help

o Scientific Racism  

 The pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists  to support or justify racism  

 Importance: this was a key idea in the practice of eugenics  and was a belief of Sir Francis Galton as well


o Social Darwinism  

 The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are  

subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as  plants and animals

 Importance: Used to justify political conservatism,  

imperialism, and racism (discredited)  

o Alternating Current  

 An electric current that reverses its direction many times a  second at regular intervals, typically used in power  


 Importance: Nikola Tesla believed the alternating current  was better. He made Westinghouse get the U.S. to accept  AC as its main system

o Direct Current  

 An electric current flowing in one direction only

 Importance: Thomas Edison said that this type of current  was safer because it had a lower voltage. George  

Westinghouse said that the DC system wasn’t efficient

o Assembly Line  

 A series of workers and machines in a factory by which a  succession of identical items is progressively assembled

 Importance: Ford created the first MOVING assembly line  which revolutionized mass production. The car would come to the worker so the worker never had to move.

o Fordism  

 The system of mass production that was pioneered in the  early 20th century by the Ford Motor Company

 Importance: Ford improved mass production by improving  the assembly line, with the goal of eliminating unnecessary labor

o Mass Production

 The manufacture of large quantities of standardized  

products, frequently using assembly line or automation  



 Importance: mass production was an essential piece of the  technological revolution and was used for cars, lightbulbs,  power utilities and much more  

o Taylorism  

 The principles or practice of scientific management created by Frederick Winslow Taylor

 Importance: Taylorism created a hierarchy of labor and  replaced the need for the skilled worker  

o Electron

 A stable subatomic particle with a negative charge, found  in all atoms

 Importance: scientists were trying to prove the existence of atoms. Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect,  Thomson confirmed that electrons were particles

o Fission

 The action of dividing or splitting something into two or  more parts  

 Importance: Thomson was the first to say that the atom  was divisible. Nuclear fission was discovered by the  

Germans prior to WWI.

o Quanta  

 A discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to  the frequency of the radiation it represents  

 Importance: Max Planck created the concept of quanta and was met with resistance by other scientists. Einstein later  wrote a paper on Quantum Physics. Niels Bohr pioneered  

its’ development.

o Manhattan Project

 The name for the project that developed atomic bombs for  the U.S. during World War II

 Importance: Established by Roosevelt as a secret project.  Largest funded project by the government  

o Microwave  

 An electromagnetic wave, shorter than a normal radio  

wave but longer than those of infrared radiation


 Importance: used in the microwave radio, first created in  Silicon Valley for the military  

o Operations Research

 The application of scientific principles to business  

management, providing a quantitative basis for complex  


 Importance: Applied to the U.S. military during WWII

o Radar

 A system that sends out electromagnetic wave to detect  the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft,  

ships, and other objects

 Importance: first used in the military to detect enemy  

aircraft and ships. The British heled the U.S. solve the pulse system issues with radar  

o Medical Ethics  

 A system of moral principles that apply values to the  

practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research  

 Importance: widely discussed because of the scientific  

atrocities conducted by Nazi scientists on humans  

o Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial

 A series of trials held in which the allies prosecuted  

German military leaders, officials, and industrialists for  

crimes they had committed during World War II

 Importance: raised the issue of ethical acquisition of  

scientific knowledge  

o Big Science  

 Scientific research that is expensive and involves large  teams of scientists

 Importance: WWII called for Big Science because there  were scientific endeavors that private enterprises couldn’t  carry out and had to be funded by the federal government. Manhattan Project is an example.

o DNA  

 A self-replicating material present in nearly all living  

organisms that carries genetic information  


 Importance: the purpose of genetics research was to  

discover the structure of DNA to understand the building  

blocks of live  

o Military Industrial Complex

 A country’s military establishment and those industries  producing arms or other military materials, regarded as a  

powerful vested interest  

 Importance: Eisenhower warns against this in his farewell  speech

o Protein Structure  

 The 3D arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain  


 Importance: Linus Pauling thought the structure was triple  helical. Crick and Watson discovered the double helix  


o Sputnik

 A series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which was  the first satellite to be placed in orbit  

 Importance: began the Race for Space. Was a conflict of  ethics because the Soviets put a Dog in Sputnik II

o Bell Labs  

 An American research and scientific development company

 Importance: Responsible for the transistor, the  

quantification of information, and the first device of  

artificial learning  

o Moore’s Law  

 The prediction by Gordon Moore that the number of  

transistors per square inch on an integrated circuit would  

double every year

 Importance: Moore’s law meant that over time, systems  would continue to get faster and more efficient  

o Nanotechnology

 The branch of technology that deals with dimensions and  tolerances of less than 100 nanometers, especially the  

manipulation of individual atoms and molecules  


 Importance: Is considered the next big step for technology  and has its origins in atomic research from the 50s.

o Silicon Valley

 The area in northern California that is home to the world’s  largest technology corporations and thousands of  

technology-related startup companies  

 Importance: first used for defense spending for the  

military, later known for its electronic revolution

o Transistor

 A semiconductor device with three connections, capable of  amplification in addition to rectification  

 Importance: The Transistor is the fundamental building  block of modern electronic devices and allowed for the  

storage of data electronically

∙ Big Picture Questions

o What is the enlightenment?

 The enlightenment begins with a scientific revolution in the 16th century and ends with a French revolution at the end  

of the 18th century. It is known as the age of reason and is  characterized by the scientific method and a “release from  immaturity”.

o Does science thrive better in a democracy?

 Science tends to thrive better in places where there is  

limited government control over the field. When there are  restrictions by the government or by a church on what  

citizens must believe, it is difficult for science to thrive.

o Which is better reason or received wisdom?

 (This question could have multiple answers based on  

opinion) Reason is “better” because it allows a person to  

think for themselves through a situation. Reason relies on  the individual’s ability to be independent and takes a step  away from the idea of received wisdom, or believing  

something because society/a group says it is correct.  

o Where do we get our morality?

 According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, our morality is  

developed during the puberty stage of human  

development based on the moral issues in the world and  


religion. Morality also comes from a duty to justice and a  

sympathy for others.

o How useful is collecting data and knowledge?  

 Collecting data and knowledge is useful but only to a  

certain extent. If the data and knowledge is shared and  

utilized for research and not just for the purpose of  

collecting, it is very useful. This is the difference between  

collecting specimen for a cabinet of curiosity and using the  specimen for classification and display in a museum.

o How do we judge the authenticity of a primary source?  

 This question is in reference to the book written by Marco  Polo. He wrote of his travels, specifically through China, but his name never appears in foreign records and he doesn’t  mention the Great Wall. In this case, the authenticity must  be compared to others who made similar travels and  

observations at the time.

o Why did Europeans (and Africans) colonize the new world and not the other way around?

 Europeans knew of other land masses around the world but had yet to figure out what they were like. They also had the navigational technology to be able to make expeditions  

around the world, whereas other civilizations may not  


o What standards do we use to determine how scientifically and  technologically advanced a society is?

 Unfortunately, many times we judge the advancement of a  society in comparison to our own. However, this is  

ignorance on our part, as they may be advanced in areas  

that are more important to their society than ours. The  

Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires were considered  

scientifically advanced for their time. They were able to  

build pyramids using man power alone, they charted  

planetary movements, and discovered crop rotation. They  used calendars based on planetary movement, had  

centralized political structures, and performed brain  


o Is there a place for emotion in science and technology?

 Yes, there is a place for emotion in science and technology.  As humans, we are emotional beings, and it is our  


emotions/passions that motivate us towards innovation  

and discovery in the field of science and technology. The  

period of romanticism stressed the importance of self and  emotions as well as a skeptical understanding of objective  knowledge and truth.

o What does it mean to know something?

 To know something is to understand the truth but also to  be critical and have done your own research on the subject so that you understand all aspects of the thing that you  

claim to know.

o What does the notion of data even mean?

 Data can be single items or it can be a large collection of  something. However, in the context of the enlightenment,  the notion of data refers to quantitative experimentalism  

and the measurement of the world versus phenomenon. It  delves into accuracy versus precision and leads to the  

development of statistics.

o Is it appropriate to call these distortions of scientific enterprise or is it false to think science has some sort of “natural” path?

 Science is based on the natural world so to think that  

science has a “natural path” would not be false. Especially  in the theory of positivism, the basis on natural  

phenomenon is present with a focus on what one can  

experience and observe.

o What demands do the state and industry place on science and  technology?

 During the enlightenment, there is an increased demand  by the state and industry for scientists who will be  

commissioned to travel or to work for the state to be part  of projects and make discoveries in the field.

o How do ideas become powerful forces driving societal change?

 When an idea is put forth that seems serves the well-being  of most society, it tends to be a driving force of change.  

The idea of innovations that would increase both  

production and profit appealed to many people and drove  scientists into the industrial revolution.

o What are the effects of industrialization on society?

 The effect of industrialization on the rest of society was not as appealing. As machines began to do more of the labor,  


people began to lose their jobs and their skills were  

devalued. People were paid for their time, not their skill  

which meant that everyone was replaceable and labor was  exploited.  

o What is the responsibility of the scientist or engineer in  recognizing the social implications of their work?

 Scientists and engineers must work toward the good of  society and keep in mind the ethical considerations that  

maximize utility and reduce suffering (utilitarianism). The  intent of the work it essential.  

o What is the difference between tinkering and experimenting?

 The difference is in the purpose of the work. Tinkering is  done out of curiosity whereas experimenting is done to  

make a contribution to the science community.  

Experimenting uses and acknowledges the work of those  

who came before, whereas tinkering is not concerned with  others work.

o What drives innovation?

 There are two motives for innovation. The first is monetary. There are those who are looking to innovate strictly so that they can make a profit off their creation. There are also  

those who are in the pursuit of knowledge and do not care  whether their innovation benefits them. They are focused  on furthering the field of science or technology and making strides for the sake of innovation.

o What questions is Darwin trying to answer?

 Darwin was interested in the evolution of race theories, the importance of geographical locations of species, the  

struggle of life to survive and reproduce, the disparity  

between classes of people, and the survival of the fit  


o How does religion influence Darwin’s views?

 Darwin studied theology so his theory of evolution actually  comes from his studies. However, he lost faith in  

Christianity after his voyage and due to the death of his  


o How does Darwin view and measure race?

 Darwin believed that all races came from one origin, which  was in concurrence with what the church was teaching. He  


also saw first-hand the brutality of slavery during his  

travels while on voyage with the HMS Beagle. He  

condemned slavery and promoted the idea of descent with  modification.

o What are the obligations of scientists in regards to informing and  sharing information with the public?

 It is irresponsible for scientist to ignore the implications of  their work instead of addressing them, especially if it is  

relevant to the public. They have an obligation to avoid  

causing harm to others, to help others, and to share their  

information with others due to their support from the  


o What role should the state play in medicine?

 (this is an opinion question and obviously varies depending on the culture and needs of society)

o Does the state have any responsibility for ensuring the health  and welfare of its citizens (public health/social medicine)?

 Yes, the state should have a concern for the health and  welfare of it citizens. Especially in a society like the United  States, which places value on the opinion and vote of its  

citizens, the health and welfare of the people should be a  


o What is eugenics?  

 Eugenics is the science of improving a human population  by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of  

desirable heritable characteristics

o How was eugenics promoted as a positive science?

 Eugenics was promoted to create a stronger, more  

intelligent, and more fit society. People were not told that  

others would be wiped out but instead programs like the  

Better Baby Contests and the Fitter Families Competitions  were advertised.

o What role do competing scientific theories play in the  

development of science, technology, and society?

 Competing theories create competition and motivate those in the scientific community. The rivalry between Edison and Tesla allowed for greater investigation and experimentation on direct and alternating currents.  


o How does industry/mass production at the turn of the twentieth  century represent, but also push certain social values?

 The values of society during the 20th century were focused  on innovation and efficiency. Especially in the United States where the population was increasing exponentially, mass  

production and big industry became essential. However,  

mass production came with machines which reduced the  

availability of jobs for the mass of people. Industry pushed  social values because skills and jobs that were once valued and necessary for daily life, became unimportant and  

eventually died out altogether.  

o How far should a company’s/employer’s reach extend in relation  to its employees?

 A company should have reach into the employee’s  

professional life, but should not extend into their personal  life. Henry Ford took program too far and had someone  

from the sociological department come into his employee’s home to check the requirements necessary to receive  

incentives and bonuses.

o How do scientific truths come to be accepted in the early 20th century? In particular, how does Democritus’ ancient theory of  the atom become a scientific truth?

 Scientific truths come to be accepted through the success  of multiple trials of experimentation and through the  

confirmation from other scientists. Scientists were trying to prove the existence of atoms that Democritus based his  

atomic theory off. The explosion of the field of chemistry  

and the study of particles allowed for the confirmation of  

Democritus’ theory.

o What role does failure play in the development of science? In  quantum physics?

 Failure is the process of trial and error for science. When  something fails, it tells us how something does NOT work  

as opposed to shutting an entire idea down. It is the basis  for the scientific method that works to create a hypothesis  and either prove or disprove something, and in that case,  

re-evaluate the hypothesis and come up with a new theory. Quantum Physics revolves around experimental success  

and application, but there are many failures before success is reached.


o How does Einstein’s theory of relativity finally cause science to  supplant natural philosophy?

 The theory of relativity states that motion is defined  

relative to a frame of reference and that time does not  

pass identical for everyone. This creates the realization  

that intuitive though-based science, which was the basis of natural philosophy, is not enough if the goal is to be  

precise and accurate. Instead, systematic empirical  

measurements must be the focus.

o How do the rich fight wars?

 The rich sponsored the production of military aircraft and  tanks such as the B24 Bomber, the Sea Jeep, the M4A3  

Sherman Tank, and the Willy’s Jeep.

o How did the US ramp up its war effort so quickly?

 The US entered the war as one of the richest countries  despite the Great Depression. They out-produce all the  

other countries because they have the material and the  

manpower, meaning more items are expendable. All the  

big warehouses convert their bases to produce  

automobiles for the war instead of civilian cars.

o What values does it take to develop a nuclear bomb? What  values does one have to have to use it?

 (This answer is based on opinion, there may be a more  objective answer) The values behind developing a nuclear  bomb and those behind using a nuclear bomb depend on  

the intent. In the case of the United State, one of the  

motivations was fear that an enemy country would develop and use it first. It was a desperate measure to protect our  own country. However, there still must be a certain  

disregard for life and the amount of destruction that the  

bomb would cause when a country decides to build one.  

The power to destroy an entire society of people is more  

power than anyone should ever have. To use a nuclear  

bomb one must be either completely desperate or  

completely indifferent to the lives that it would destroy. For  the US, the decision was based on many things such as: to  force an early end to the war, to save many American lives, to assert military dominance, to keep Russia out of the war, and to justify their expenses.


o How does military science and technology translate into civilian  science and technology?  

 Much of the technology that the military uses is created for them and then later introduced into civilian use.  

Technology such as GPS, drones, microwaves, penicillin,  

and radar were all created for the military and later trickled down into consumer society.

o Is there a relationship between ecology and politics?  

 Yes, there are ecological issues that impact politics and  visa versa. The decisions that we make as a country do  

effect the environment around us and there is a connection between the growth of society and the and the damage  

cause to the environment.

o Is scientific data obtained by questionable means usable? Under  what circumstances can we ignore the unethical collection and  production of scientific data?

 (this is another opinion piece, there can be multiple  

responses to this question with the underlying  

understanding of medical ethics) In the case of the Nazi's  

we cannot and will not ever ignore the unethical means  

that they obtained their data. However, in other situations I believe that it all depends on the intention behind the  

experiments and how it effects those involved and beyond. If in any way the experiment has the power to harm  

another life, it should not be condoned and should not be  

accepted as scientific proof. When the intent, as in the case of the Nazi experiments, is to not only harm, but obliterate  groups of people for personal benefit, we cannot in good  

conscience agree with the means or the method. There is a reason that scientific experiments cannot be done on  

human life. When this ethical issue is ignored, any results  must be as well.

o How did the dropping of the atomic bomb impact science and  technology in the cold war era?

 After the dropping of the atomic bomb, many physicists  fled the field and moved to the life sciences because they  were horrified with the effects that the atomic bomb  

produced and the life it destroyed.

o Who owns data of scientific research? Who deserves credit for a  discovery?


 Almost always, in addition to the scientist who made the  discovery, the lab owner will be listed on the publication  

because they funded and provided the space for the  

research to be conducted. Otherwise, those who make  

significant contribution to the discovery usually deserve  

credit. In the case of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and  Francis Crick, only Watson and Crick were given credit for  

the discovery of the structure of DNA. Franklin gave Watson and Crick the photograph that aided in their discovery,  

however, she stated that the structure couldn’t be helical  

when they came up with their proposal.

∙ Exam Format  

o 2 Sections

 Key terms/concepts from the midterm forward

∙ 3 sentence answer [1st term, 2nd term,  

historical significance of both]

∙ 9 pairs, choose 5

 Essay

∙ 4 questions, choose 1

∙ topics:  

o Enlightenment

o Darwin and Evolution

o Industrial revolution (evaluate the  

social, political, and economical  


o Cause/Effect from WWII to the post  

WWII era

o Extra Credit

 4 questions  

 3 are 1 point, the 4th is 2 points


 questions are based on trending news in  science and technology  


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