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UCMERCED / Science / Sci 01 / Where can dna be found in a plant cell?

Where can dna be found in a plant cell?

Where can dna be found in a plant cell?


School: University of California - Merced
Department: Science
Course: General Biology
Professor: Laura jones
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology, final, Ecology, phylums, and Biodiversity
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide
Description: All learning objective answered. ecology biodiversity phylum
Uploaded: 05/03/2018
20 Pages 246 Views 4 Unlocks

FINAL Study Guide  

Where can dna be found in a plant cell?

● Outline the taxonomic naming hierarchy.

- Hierarchy:  


enus> species

- Do Kings Play Chess On Fridays, Generally Speaking? - Naming, describing, classifying species

- Three Domain theory of Biodiversity

- 1) Bacteria

- 2) Archaea

- 3) Eukarya

● Identify features and relationships of a phylogenetic tree. - Phylogenetic systematics – classification and study of organisms  

based on their evolutionary relationships

- Hypothesis of evolutionary history of species or group of species,

shows similarities and differences

- Relationships within a tree:

What forces explain the flow of water through the xylem?

- Time axis

- Branch point/node

- Tips

- Clades/monophyletic groups

- Taxon: each tip on a phylogeny•

- Root: the hypothesized position of the common ancestor for all  We also discuss several other topics like What causes problems according to daoism?


- Interior nodes: ancestral populations/ species

- Nodes represent hypotheses about common ancestors - Monophyletic group/clade: All descendants of the group’s  

common ancestor, no others, nothing left out If you want to learn more check out What are the muscles of respiration?
If you want to learn more check out What is the nomenclature of benzene?

- Paraphyletic group: Some descendants of the group’s common  

ancestor, with some left out

- Polyphyletic group: a group not representing a proper clade or  

monophyletic group

● Understand cladistics.

What are the stages of the alternation of generations life cycle of a flowering plant?

- Cladistics compares homologous characteristics in a cladogram• - Cladogram:

- Shared primitive characters

- Shared derived characters

- Branch points

- Ingroup

- Outgroup

● Skim molecular clocks.


- A way of dating when divergence events occurred

- Molecular clocks rely on neutral mutations and a relatively  

constant rate of mutation

- Mutation rates differ between genes, so different genes are used  

for measuring divergence dates between different taxa

- Molecular clocks need to be “calibrated” using independent data  

points, such as fossils

● Understand the implications of horizontal gene transfer. - Obtaining genetic material from another organism without being  

an offspring.

- Bacteria—conjugation, transformation, transduction. We also discuss several other topics like What are the methods used by the courts to appoint counsel to indigent defendants?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the three major jewish religious movements and how have the impacted women within them?

- Common in unicellular world

- 80% bacterial/archaeal genes transferred

- Contributes to antibiotic resistance

● What are microbes? If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between sex & gender?

- Communities of microorganisms that live in or on other  

organisms (hosts)

- Tens of trillions of microbes from hundreds of different species  live inside each person, conferring beneficial services such as  

synthesizing vitamin K and fighting pathogens

- This association is a type of symbiosis (“together  

life”)•Obviously, such associations are of key medical interest - •Microbiomes foster the exchange of genetic material through  

horizontal gene transfer (HGT)

- New metabolic capabilities are conferred by HGT

- HGT is particularly prevalent among bacteria and archaea ● Understand the Archaea

- Share a number of features with eukaryotes that they tend not to

share with bacteria, suggesting they together comprise a clade - The Archaea includes many extremophiles: organisms adapted to

extremes of salinity, temperate, acidity, methane level, and  

other conditions that would typically kill bacteria and eukaryotes - Learning about extremophiles can help us to understand the  

origin of life and the possibilities for extraterrestrial life

- Archaea have distinctive membrane lipids formed with ether  bonds rather than ester bonds; these are more resistant to  


extremes of heat and other conditions

- Most have a wall made of protein instead of peptidoglycan - Several groups occupying watery habitats produce methane,  

which is a powerful greenhouse gas; this needs to be studied to  

help deal with climate change

● Know about the diversity of bacterial phyla

- Cyanobacteria show the variety of body types possible in  


- Unicells: single-celled

- Colonies: groups of cells held together with mucilage

- Filaments: cells attached end-to-end; can display features  of true multicellularity, such as specialization, cell-to-cell  

communication, and programmed cell death

● Understand the diversity in bacterial cell structures

- Variation in cell shape:

- Cocci: spherical; maximize surface-to-volume ratio

- Bacilli: elongate rods; can store more nutrients

- Vibrios: comma-shaped

- Spirochetes: spiral shaped and flexible

- Spirilla: spiral shaped and rigid

● Understand the ecological and medical importance of bacteria - •Bacteria undergo binary fission, allowing them to rapidly  

increase in number

- Some bacteria can survive harsh conditions as akinetes(thick walled, food-filled cells) or endospores(protective walls that form  around DNA and other materials within the cytoplasm)

● List as many plant adaptation to land as you can.

- Seeds  

- Vascular  

- Green  

- Land  

- Flowers

● Identify the most ancient and the most recent plants on earth today. - Ancient- Liverworts (land plants)

- New: Angiosperms (seed/flowering plants)

● Name key innovations that gave rise to new groups of plants. - Seeds  

- Vascular  

- Green  

- Land  


- Flowers

● Outline the plant life cycle (AKA: alternation of generations).


● Discuss possible reasons why angiosperms are the most diverse group  

of plants.  

- They are seed plants and flowering plants  

● Describe the characteristics of a fungus.

- Energy and Carbon source

- Extracellular digestion breaks down molecules, absorb small  


- Cell walls w/ chitin  

- Body form

- Hyphae-filament  

- Mycelium-network

- Fruiting body–Spores

- Reproduction

- Sexual

- Asexual (conidia, budding)

- Spore dispersal

- By wind  

- By animals

● Explain the roles of fungi in the natural world.

- Fungi + animals  

- Break down cellulose for grazers, ants, termites


- Mycorrhizal (fungi + vascular plants)

- Endo

- Ecto

- Lichen (Fungi + green algae/cyanobacteria)

- Fungi provides:

- Protection (chemical, pigments)

- Water, minerals

- Algae/cyanobacteria provides:–Carbon compounds,  


- Different forms: crustose, foliose, fruticose

- Pioneer species

- Air quality monitors

● Identify major fungal lineage groups.

- Cryptomycota—ancient, live in water/soil

- Chytrids—live in water/soil

- Microsporidia—small, single cell, reproduce inside animal cells - Zygomycetes—terrestrial, persist through unfavorable conditions

via zygospores.

- AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) fungi—symbiotic w/ plants, supply  

minerals & nutrients.

- Ascomycetes (sac fungi)—produce sexual spores in sac-like  

asci(Ex: yeast, molds, morels, truffles)

- Basidiomycetes (club fungi)—wood decomposers, produce sexual fruiting bodies called basidiocarps(Ex: mushrooms, puffballs,  shelf fungi, rusts, smuts!)

● Describe the characteristics of an animal.

- Tissues

- Absent/present

- Symmetry

- None

- Radial

- Bilateral

- Germ layers

- Diploblast

- Triploblast

- Developmental features

- Blastopore fate

- Cleavage patterns

- Segmentation

- Absent/present

- Body cavity


- Acoelomates

- Pseudocoelomates

- Coelomates

- Molecular:  

- Genomes

- Genes

- Proteins

- Signaling pathways

● List the features used to classify animals into groups.

- Several characteristics that will be examined in each phylum - Tissues 

- Absent/present 

- Symmetry 

- No symmetry 

- Radial symmetry (can cut along any plane and it will  

look the same) 

- Bilateral symmetry (Can only cut down the middle) 

- Germ layers (developmental embryo layers) 

- Diploblast - 2 layers in embryo 

- Triploblast - 3 layers in embryo 

- Developmental feature 

- Protostome - mouth develops first 

- Deuterostome - anus develops first 

- Body cavity 

- Acoelomate - no body cavity 

- Pseudocoelomate - partial body cavity 

- Coelomate - body cavity 

- Segmentation 

- Absent - body is not segmented in anyway 

- Present - repeated sections of the body  

- Molecular 

- Genes 

- Genomes 

- Proteins 

- Signaling pathway 

● Name some of the major invertebrate animal phyla and describe their  defining characteristics. 

Phylum Porferia = sponges 

- Tissues - no true tissue 

- Coanocytes - line the inside and ove water using flagella  - Amoebocytes 

- Symmetry - none 

- No germ layers 

- Reproduction 


- Asexual 

- Sexual -> sequential hermaphrodite (switches between male and female) 

- Release sperm into water which meet up with eggs of  

another sponge 

- Flagellated larvae -> single cell that can swim and move from  original 

Phylum Cnidaria = jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, coral  - Tissues  

- Epidermis (skin), gastrodermis (lining of gastrovascular cavity),  Nerves for contraction 

- Cnidocytes w/ nematocysts (specialized cell with microscopic  needle for stinging) 

- Symmetry - radial 

- Germ layers - diploblast 

- Mouth/anus is the same opening 

- Reproduction = asexual, sexual 

There are 3 clades of bilateral animals 

1. Lophotrocozoa - protostomes, triploblast 

a. Phylum Platyhelmenthes = flatworms 

i. Tissues - Epidermis, gastrovascular, nerves (contracting),  cerebral ganglia (rudimentary brain 

ii. Symmetry - bilateal 

iii. Germ layers - triploblast 

iv. Protostome (mouth first) 

v. Acoelomates 

vi. Reproduction - asexual, sexual (hermaphrodites) 

b. Phylum Mollusca = snails, chiton, shellfish, octopus, squid i. Tissues - 3 main parts 

1. Muscular foot -> movement, visceral mass containg  

rest of body sits on top 

2. Mantle -> skin ontop of visceral mass, secretes shell 

3. Mantle cavity -> houses gills, open circulatory  


ii. Symmetry - bilateral 

iii. Germ layers - triploblast 

iv. Protostome (mouth first) 

v. Coelomates  

vi. Reproduction - seperate sexes, external or internal  


c. Phylum Annelida = “segmented worms” earthworms, leeches,  tube worms 

i. Tissues  


1. Setae - chitin bristles (small hairs on outside that  

help with movement) 

ii. Symmetry - bilateral 

iii. Germ layers - triploblast 

iv. Protostome (mouth first) 

v. Coelomate 

vi. Reproduction  

1. Asexual  

2. Sexual - seperate sexes or hermaphrodite, internal  


2. Ecdysozoa - molting, shed exoskeleton, protostome, triploblast a. Phylum Nematoda = “round worms” - hookworms, pinworms i. Tissues 

1. Tough outer layer - cuticle 

2. Has a complete gut 

● Symmetry - bilateral 

ii. Germ layers - triploblast 

iii. Protostome (mouth first) 

iv. Pseudocoelomate 

v. Reproduction 

1. Sexual - male and females, or hermaphrodite 

2. Internal fertilization 

vi. C. elegans - used as a research animal 

b. Phylum Arthropoda = “jointed foot” - insects, spiders,  crustaceans, mili/centipedes 

i. Tissues 

1. Exoskeleton -> made of chitin and proteins 

2. Segmented 

3. Cephalization (distinct head) 

ii. Symmetry - bilateral 

iii. Germ layers - triploblast 

iv. Protostome (mouth first)  

v. Coelomates 

vi. Reproduction 

1. Seperate sexes, external or internal fertilization 

vii. 4 subphyla 

1. Chelicerata - Spiders, scorpions, 8 legged things 

a. 6 pairs of appendages 

i. 4 pairs of legs 

ii. 1 pair of fangs 

iii. 1 pair of pedipalps (similar to legs) 

2. Myriapoda - millipedes, centipedes 

a. Highly segmented trunk 

b. Milipedes 

i. 2 pairs of legs/segment 


c. Centipede 

i. 1 pair of legs/segment 

3. Hexapoda - insects 

a. 3 body parts 

b. 6 legs 

4. Crustacea - crabs, lobsers, shrimp 

a. 2-3 body parts 

b. 3+ pairs of legs 

c. 3+ pairs of mouth parts 

d. 2 pair antennae 

● Name the major phyla and sub-groups of the Ecdysozoa and  

Deuterostomia and describe their defining features. 

- Ecdysozoa - molting, shed exoskeleton, protostome, triploblastic ­ Phylum Nematoda = “roundworms” - hookworms,  


- Tissues 

- Tough outer layer - cuticle 

- Has a complete gut 

● Symmetry - bilateral 

- Germ layers - triploblastic 

- Protostome (mouth first) 

- Pseudocoelomate 

- Reproduction 

- Sexual - male and females, or hermaphrodite 

- Internal fertilization 

- C. elegans - used as a research animal 

­ Phylum Arthropoda = “jointed foot” - insects, spiders,  crustaceans, mili/centipedes 

- Tissues 

- Exoskeleton -> made of chitin and proteins 

- Deuterostomes 

­ Phylum Echinodermata = “Spiny skin” - sea star, sea  urchins, sea cucumber 

- Tissues 

- Endoskeleton - calcareous plates 

- Water vascular system 

- Symmetry - bilateral as larvae, radial symmetry  

when grown 

- Germ layers - triploblastic 

- Deuterostome (anus first) 

- Coelomates 

- Reproduction 

- Separate sexes, external fertilization 

- Phylum Chordata  


- Tissues/anatomy 

- Notochord - cartilage like rod in embryos  

supporting the body 

- Pharyngeal slits  

- Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 

- Postanal tail 

- Symmetry - bilateral 

- Germ layers - triploblast 

- Dueterostome (anus first) 

- Coelomates 

- 3 subphylums 

- Cephalochordata - amphioxus 

- Urochordata - sea squirts 

- Vertebrata - talked about below 

● List the main distinguishing characteristics of vertebrates.  - living endoskeleton. internal skeleton that grows with the animal  

(there is no molting). …

- pharynx and efficient respiration. improved oxygen flow into the  


- advanced nervous system. large and complex brain and nervous  

system is present.

- paired limbs.

● Compare and contrast the features of the 7 major clades of vertebrates and the critical innovations of each group (Figure 26.1).

7 Vertebrate clades, must know all of them, Bold = clade, italicized =  group/development 

● Cycolstomes “circle mouth” 

a. Hagfish 

i. Jawless fishes 

ii. Lacks jaws, fins, or a vertebrae 

iii. Has a notochord (cartilige rod to support the body),  

cartilage skull 

b. Lampreys 

i. Notochord and rudimentary (very basic) vertebral column ii. Parasites as adults 

Gnathostomes => vertebrates with jaws 

● Clade Chondricthyes “chond” -> ‘cartilige’ = sharks, skates, rays a. Cartilaginous fish 

b. Sharks are the first to develop teeth 

c. Reproduction - internal fertilization 


i. Embryonic development 

1. Oviparious - lay eggs 

2. Ovoviparious - eggs stay in female, no placenta 

3. Viviparious - eggs develop, placenta nourishes young 

- Osteichthyans -> bony fish, 2 clades 

1. Bony skeleton 

2. Gill covering - operculum 

3. Swim bladder to help them stay a float 

● Clade Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fish 

○ No bones in the fin 

● Clade Sarcopterygii - lobe-finned fish 

○ Bones in the fin 

 - Tetrapods -> 4 limbed gnathostomes 

● Clade Amphibia -  

○ Can live on land, must reproduce in the water 

■ External fertilization of eggs, 

■ Larvae live in water 

- Amniotes - 

- Tetrapods with desiccation resistant egg (egg doesnt dry  out in wild) 

- Shelled egg protects embryo 

- Dessication resistant skin 

- Thoracic breathing - negative pressure sucks air in 

- Internal fertilization 

● Clade Reptilia - 4 classes 

○ Testudines - turtles 

○ Squamata - snakes and lizards 

○ Crocodilia - crocodiles, aligators 

○ Aves - birds 

● Clade Mammalia 

○ Mammary glands produce/secrete milk 

○ All have hair 

○ Enlarged skull (bigger brain) 

○ Only vertebrates with specialized teeth 

● Define the California Floristic Province and recognize the significance of

where you live!

- A zone of Mediterranean type climate

- Is one of several floristic provinces around the world which are  

biodiversity hotspots

- Hotspot vegetation remaining: 73,451 km2 from an original  11

293,804 km2

- 60% of the plants in this area are endemics, through a lot of  plants in California are invasives, meaning that among native  

plants, the proportion of endemics is significantly higher  - 37% of the province is under protection

- California has a wide variety of soils and geological formations,  

providing many different types of environments for plants ● Define ecology and place the study of ecology within the levels of  

biological organization.

- Ecological interactions are subject to evolutionary change, and  

form the context in which such change occurs

- Ecological interactions are also subject to change through the  extinction of species and communities, whether through  

background extinction or mass extinction

- The types of interactions that evolve can be very similar in  different time periods, but the species composition of  

ecosystems will change as some species become extinct and  

others survive

● Describe how abiotic factors affect organisms and ecological systems. - Light

- Temperature

- Water

- Salinity

- Wind

- pH

● Explain the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global  

climate change

- Greenhouse effect:

- Naturally occurring

- Atmospheric gases absorb infrared energy and radiate it  back to surface

● Explain the relationship of temperature and precipitation to the  

distribution of terrestrial biomes.

- Tropical

- Rainforest

- Deciduous forest


- Grassland (savannah)

- Temperate

- Rainforest  

- Deciduous forest

- Grassland

- Desert: Hot or Cold

- Taiga, Boreal forest or Coniferous forest

- Tundra

● Explain how global differences in temperature affect atmospheric  

circulation patterns.


- The middle will be hot due to the circulation and it is the equator. ● Describe how landmass features may influence climate.



- Rain shadow: a region having little rainfall because it is sheltered

from prevailing rain-bearing winds by a range of hills.

- One side is a desert and the is green and healthy  

- Adiabatic cooling

- Air pressure/volume relationship

- Rotating planet creates circular winds and currents

● Define terrestrial and aquatic biomes, using distinguishing  


- Terrestrial Biomes: they are land  

- Aquatic Biomes: they are water (lakes, Oceans, ponds) ● Explain why biodiversity is distributed in the way that it is - Proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace

- Has been updated since his time, but the basic idea remains the  

same: distributions of different organisms are confined to regions - These regions largely correspond to continents but more  

precisely to areas bounded by barriers to dispersal

- Biogeographical regions– regions containing assemblages of  unique fauna and flora, delineated by barriers to dispersal

● Describe and give examples of ways to estimate population size - Population Size/Abundance:

- number of individuals in a population

- Population density:

- number of individuals per unit area


- Immobile

- Quadrat

- Transect

- Mobile

- Pitfall

- Mist net

- Live trap

- Mark and recapture

● Calculate population density, given known parameters related to mark recapture data

-¿ marked∈ first catch Total Population(N)=  


¿ marked∈second catch

¿∈second catch ¿

● Calculate population growth and describe all of the components that  

underlie the exponential population growth equation

- Death

- Birth

Nt+1−Nt=Δ N

Δ N=+B−D

B= # of birth

D= # of deaths


dt = B - D

B= b(N)

b= BN

D= d(N)

d= DN


dt = B - D


dt = bN - dN= (b - d)N



dt = r (N)(1- NK)

● Describe the difference between exponential and logistic growth, and  

plot an example figure for each type of growth curve.

- Logistic has a carrying capacity (limitation)

- Exponential no limits unlimited resources

● Name and identify the different types of species interactions - Species Interaction: direct and indirect effects that organisms in  

a community have on one another.

Nature of Interaction

Species 1

Species 2




Predation, herbivory,  parasitism










Competition (negative/negative)

- Negative for both species

- Experiment: Grow 3 spp of Paramecium (a,b,c) in tubes with bacteria  

and yeast.  

- A- logistic growth ( 3 grown alone)

- B- (grown with other species) smaller population

- C- (All together) smaller population

- Niche- Range of environmental condition that allows a species to  

persist (i.e., where species growth rate >0)

- Competitive exclusion principle: complete competitors cannot coexist - Resource partitioning: differentiation of niches, both in space and time,

that enables similar species to coexist  

Predation (Positive/ Negative)

- Classified by lethality (!) and length of interaction

- Herbivore low lethality short  

- Parasites (tapeworm) Not lethal

- Parasitoids lethal

- Positive and Negative interactions


- Against predation

- Coloration

- Behavioral

- Mimicry

- Mullerian

- Batsian  

 - Chemical

 - Armor

Against Herbivory

- Structure

- Secondary Metabolites


Commensalism (Positive/No effect)

- Barbed seed dispersal

- Barnacles on whales

Mutualism (Positive/Positive)

■ Pollination

■ Nitrogen Fixation

■ Mycorrhizae

■ Digestion of Cellulose  

● Describe how age structure and fertility play into human population  

growth around the world

- Relative numbers of individuals in each defined age group - Commonly displayed as population pyramid

- Helps predict future population growth

● Explain the concept of an ecological footprint

- Amount of productive land needed to sustain each person (at the average rate of consumption/resource use)

OLD Exam Questions:  

Exam #1

● What is an electronegative atom? (57% correct)

- Attracts electrons towards itself  

● Name a large biological molecule composed of amino acids. (52%  


- Proteins

● Where can DNA be found in a plant cell? (34%correct)

- Nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast

● Which plant features provide information to classify eudicots and  

monocots? (41%correct)

- Number of cotyledons, the root system pattern, the pattern of  veins and leaves, and the arrangement of vascular tissue in the  


● What forces explain the flow of water through the xylem?(31% correct) 18

- A water pressure gradient, cohesion of water molecules, and the  

evaporation from the leaves  

● What are the stages of the alternation of generations life cycle of a  

flowering plant? (51% correct)

- sporophytes-> meiosis-> spores > gametophytes-> gametes ->  fertilization -> diploid zygotes  

Exam #2

● Study the components of a homeostatic control system, especially the  

effector (25% correct)

- Homeostatic Control System (Negative Feedback Loop)

1. Homeostatic Challenge/ Set point (Cooling)

2. Sensory (Neurons)

3. Intergartar (brain/ set point: 37 C/ Input: <37 C)

4. Response / effector(shivering increases heat production) - Body temperature has to stay at a regular tempter or that could cause  

many harmful things to the body. When you get to hot you get sick and

same goes for when you get too cold.

● Identify the BEST definition of homeostasis. (37% correct) - Adapting to change in the environment and maintaining internal  

variables within physiological ranges

● Which type of muscle is under involuntary control AND controls the  

movement of contents within many organs? (58% correct)

- Smooth muscles  

● Define the relationship between the neuromuscular junction and  

transverse tubules? (37% correct)

- Stimulation of a muscle fiber by a motor neuron occurs at the neuromuscular junction and the action potential is conducted  from the outer surface of a muscle fiber to the inner myofibrils by

transverse tubules.

● Which characteristics match the anatomy of veins? (55% correct) - Few layers of smooth muscle and connective, wide lumen, one

way valves  


● Which nitrogenous waste requires the most energy to produce?  


- Uric acid (birds)

Exam #3

● Define centromere (43% correct)

- A region of DNA where sister chromatids associate  

● How many cells are produced in Meiosis I and II? Are the cells diploid  

or haploid? (44% correct)

- Meiosis I produces 2 haploid cells, and meiosis II produces 4  

haploid cells. 

● What is the main take-home message from Mendel’s single factor  

crosses? (37%correct)

- The two alleles for a given gene are distributed randomly among  

an individual’s gametes

● Which macromolecule do the majority of scientists favor as the “first”  

to be found in protobionts? (52% correct)


● How many pairs of autosomes do humans possess? (41%correct) - 22 ( 1 sex: 22 Autosomes)

● A species that has three pairs of homologous chromosomes can have  how many different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes?  


­ 8 (2^#OF PAIRS)


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