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CSU / Psychology / PSY 100 / What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?

What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?

What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?

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Psych Final Study Guide 


What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?



Cumulative (10­15 Questions) 

Psychology: Science of behavior and mental processes

Comparison between:

­ Correlation: how strongly two variables predict each other or relate to each other 

(NOT CAUSATION)

­ Experiment: method used to determine causal relationships by manipulating one

factor thought to produce change in another

­ Case Study: intensive study of an individual or small group

­ Naturalistic Observation: systemic observation and recording of haviors as they occur in their natural setting

4 Lobes of the Brain

­ Temporal: auditory, language, some memory (bottom of the brain) ­ Occipital: visual (back of the brain)


Generally speaking, do you have an internal or and external locus of control?



­ Parietal: somatosensory

­ Frontal: executive functioning; planning, organizing decisions

Perspectives:

­ Behavioral: neuroscience

­ Evolutionary: wants to see what psychological traits are evolutionary/ evolved 

adaptations

­ Humanistic: how do we help people fulfill their potential

­ Psychoanalytic: surface vs. subconscious

­ Positive psychology: learn from happy people; help people flourish ­ Cognitive: some/ most ideas require thought before action

Nature: genetic inheritance, “pre­wiring”,  

Nurture: influence of external factors

Emerging Adulthood:

­ Between adolescence and adulthood


Who decides if diagnoses go into the dsm?



o 20­29 range

o identity exploration

o instability

o self­focus

o feeling in­between in everything in life

o endless possibilities If you want to learn more check out What is histodifferentiation?

o relentless hope

­ Multi­cultural exposure

o Different form parents

o Adapt quickly

o Civic engagement

Confirmation bias: seek and favor evidence that supports our personal evidence Belief perseverance: cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence Fundamental Attribution Error: evaluating others in terms of enate enduring qualities  not considering circumstances

Cognitive Dissonance: anxiety that comes up when new information conflicts with your  beliefs

Social Loafing: decreased effort or diminished feelings of responsibility when not  individually accountable

In­group Bias: being partial to the opinions that are said by the group you identify with,     rather than looking at a different point of view

Ecopsychology: studies the interdependent relationship between humans and nature and  the implications for well­being

Module 33: Stress and Illness: 

Stress: appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event; not always  harmful?

Cognitive Appraisal Model: our experience of stress depends on our thoughts about an     event and the resources we have to deal with it

Psychoneuroimmunology: sympathetic nervous system that is triggered Stressors: situations that produce stress

When are students more likely to get a cold? Finals Week; mostly due to stress  suppressing our immune system (take care this week BTW!!)

Module 34 ­ Health and Happiness: 

These are more personal questions for you to answer: We also discuss several other topics like Who is maximilien robespierre?

­ Give personal examples of when you’ve used problem­focused and emotion focused coping strategies.

­ What is the significance of “perceived control” on health? 

­ Generally speaking, do you have an internal or and external locus of control?    Consider your perceptions related to your academic progress, your relationships  with family and friends, your living situation, etc. We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of diversity and culture?

­ Describe an experiment in which researchers randomly assigned mildly depressed  college women to an aerobic exercise condition, a relaxation condition, or to a no  treatment control group.  What was the result?

­ During the past five decades, people in the U.S., Japan, Australia, and many other  “affluent” countries have had more disposable income.  Has this average increase  in wealth resulted in more people saying they are very happy?

­ Give personal examples of the adaptation­level phenomenon and the relative  deprivation 

principle.

Module 40­ Intro to Psychopathology: 

4 or (5) D’s:

­ Deviance: unusual; doesn’t fit the norms

­ Distress: upsetting If you want to learn more check out It is a movement of water due to a gradient. what is it?

­ Dysfunction: interferes with daily life (MOST IMPORTANT)

­ Danger: (potential) harm

­ Duration: length it occurs (10­15 minutes or 1­2 weeks)

Psychological disorder Perspectives:

­ Bio­psycho­social perspective: all three components (biological, social,        psychological) contribute; can’t be equal; 

close to        the threshold, but something has to  happen in the        other areas that pushes it over

Psychopathology: clinically significant disturbance in a person’s cognition, emotion, or          behavior that is dysfunctional

Abnormal psychology: study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict,       explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning

Disorder: cluster of symptoms 

Who decides if diagnoses go into the DSM?

­ APA task force

­ Task force is informed and influenced by advisors

o Examine literature, get feedback, do field trials

o Revising diagnoses: consider rationale, impact, research, clarity, utility How do we diagnose someone?

­ DSM – 5

­ Disorders

­ Assessment If you want to learn more check out Define management.

o Interview

o Observation

o Informants

o Projective and objective tests

Why do we diagnose?

­ Simple communication between professionals

­ Prediction: to understand likely courses and outcomes of an individual ­ To help choose a treatment

­ Source of concepts for research and theories

How are diagnoses helpful?

­ to help clients understand, not feel alone or broken

What are the drawbacks of diagnosing?

­ Doesn’t always answer the question “why”

What was the Rosenhan study?

­  Sane people attempted (and always succeeded) to get admitted into psych wards  at hospitals

o stayed in the wards between 7­52 days

o other patients noticed the participants of the study weren’t mentally ill  before the staff noticed

What are some myths about mental illness? What are the consequences of believing  these myths? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the unit of unit vector?

­ Myths

o Mental illness doesn’t equal violence

o Mental illness is preventable

o Mental illness isn’t always visible

o Mental illness isn’t a character flaw

­ Consequences

o Symptoms worsen

o People might not seek treatment

o Others might treat the individual differently (think about the doctors in the  Rosenhan study)

Module 41 ­ Anxiety Disorders: 

Anxiety disorders:

- Fear, anxiety, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., avoidance)

- Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry about many things - Panic attacks (specifier): abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort, lasting 

minutes

o People go to the emergency room the first time because they think that they are having a heart attack

Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder (OCD): 

- Obsessions: persistent and unwanted thought that the person tries to suppress - Compulsion: repetitive behaviors to reduce anxiety or prevent a dreaded situation - Perfectionistic, “neat freak”, etc. IS NOT OCD!!! 

PTSD: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; follows the experience or witnessing of a life threatening event such as combat, natural disasters, terror incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood

Module 42 ­ Major Depressive Disorder:

Depression: lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, unable to 

concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent  thoughts of death or suicide; most common mental disorder Grief: fluctuating pleasure, intact self­esteem, identifiable loss

Bipolar Disorder:

- Mania: elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and increased energy - May include depression

- Switch slowly between moods

Module 43 – Schizophrenia and Other disorders: 

Schizophrenia: split from reality; NOT “split personalities”

Cultural differences on schizophrenia:

- Ghana and India: the voices people hear are playful, maybe voices of deceased 

family members; schizophrenia is seen as a positive thing

- United States: the voices are violent and not pleasant; seen as a sign of illness/  very negative

Dissociative Identity Disorder:

- Has multiple personalities (previously called Multiple Personality Disorder) - Based on repression: personality “splits” as a defense

- 2+ personality states

o different memories (some remember the trauma, some don’t), mannerisms, 

preferences, attitudes, handedness (go from right to left with no problems) o Memory gaps 

o Host is unaware of alters (until therapy)

- Highly debated diagnosis

o Some people don’t believe that people (or their brains) are capable of  having more than 1 or maybe 2 personalities

Personality Disorders: Enduring and inflexible patterns, difficult to treat Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder: preoccupation with orderliness,           perfectionism, and control; high 

rigidity

Histrionic Personality Disorder: pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking; sexually inappropriate; 

shallow expressions of emotions; sudden changes of emotion; theatricality; perceives intimacy when  it’s not there;

Schizoid personality Disorder: lack of interest in social relationships, tendency towards         solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, 

emotional         coldness, detachment, and apathy Antisocial Personality Disorder: disregard for laws, safety and others, lack empathy; no  real guilt; a.k.a sociopath or psychopath; 

arguably hardest to treat

Eating Disorders:

- Binge­eating disorder: out­of­control, excessive eating 

- Bulimia­nervosa: binge­eating + compensatory behaviors

- Anorexia nervosa: restricting intake, low weight, intense fear or gaining weight, 

low insight

o Most fatal diagnosis (highest death rate)

Autism: most severe developmental disability; involves impairments in social    interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication

Module 44 ­ Intro to Therapy and Psychological Therapies: 

Therapy/ psychotherapy: interaction with a trained professional using research based psychological techniques to overcome difficulties 

and/or to improve well­being; helps people improve more quickly and lower relapse risk

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: short –term, goal oriented, psychotherapy; has a hands           on, practical approach to problem solving; goal 

is to          change patterns of thinking or behavior that are  behind          people’s difficulties

Horticulture Therapy: the engagement of a person in gardening and plant­based       activities, facilitated by a trained therapist, to achieve 

specific       therapeutic treatment goals

Module 45 – Biomedical Therapies (Independent Study Module): Placebo Effect:

- Substance with no known medical effects (like a sugar pill); fake treatment that is  given to people in an experiment; can sometimes produce very real responses  despite having no medicine

SSRI: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders

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