Psych Final Study Guide
Cumulative (1015 Questions)
Psychology: Science of behavior and mental processes
Correlation: how strongly two variables predict each other or relate to each other
Experiment: method used to determine causal relationships by manipulating one
factor thought to produce change in another
Case Study: intensive study of an individual or small group
Naturalistic Observation: systemic observation and recording of haviors as they occur in their natural setting
4 Lobes of the Brain
Temporal: auditory, language, some memory (bottom of the brain) Occipital: visual (back of the brain)
Frontal: executive functioning; planning, organizing decisions
Evolutionary: wants to see what psychological traits are evolutionary/ evolved
Humanistic: how do we help people fulfill their potential
Psychoanalytic: surface vs. subconscious
Positive psychology: learn from happy people; help people flourish Cognitive: some/ most ideas require thought before action
Nature: genetic inheritance, “prewiring”,
Nurture: influence of external factors
Between adolescence and adulthood
o 2029 range
o identity exploration
o feeling inbetween in everything in life
o endless possibilities If you want to learn more check out What is histodifferentiation?
o relentless hope
o Different form parents
o Adapt quickly
o Civic engagement
Confirmation bias: seek and favor evidence that supports our personal evidence Belief perseverance: cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence Fundamental Attribution Error: evaluating others in terms of enate enduring qualities not considering circumstances
Cognitive Dissonance: anxiety that comes up when new information conflicts with your beliefs
Social Loafing: decreased effort or diminished feelings of responsibility when not individually accountable
Ingroup Bias: being partial to the opinions that are said by the group you identify with, rather than looking at a different point of view
Ecopsychology: studies the interdependent relationship between humans and nature and the implications for wellbeing
Module 33: Stress and Illness:
Stress: appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event; not always harmful?
Cognitive Appraisal Model: our experience of stress depends on our thoughts about an event and the resources we have to deal with it
Psychoneuroimmunology: sympathetic nervous system that is triggered Stressors: situations that produce stress
When are students more likely to get a cold? Finals Week; mostly due to stress suppressing our immune system (take care this week BTW!!)
Module 34 Health and Happiness:
These are more personal questions for you to answer: We also discuss several other topics like Who is maximilien robespierre?
Give personal examples of when you’ve used problemfocused and emotion focused coping strategies.
What is the significance of “perceived control” on health?
Generally speaking, do you have an internal or and external locus of control? Consider your perceptions related to your academic progress, your relationships with family and friends, your living situation, etc. We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of diversity and culture?
Describe an experiment in which researchers randomly assigned mildly depressed college women to an aerobic exercise condition, a relaxation condition, or to a no treatment control group. What was the result?
During the past five decades, people in the U.S., Japan, Australia, and many other “affluent” countries have had more disposable income. Has this average increase in wealth resulted in more people saying they are very happy?
Give personal examples of the adaptationlevel phenomenon and the relative deprivation
Module 40 Intro to Psychopathology:
4 or (5) D’s:
Deviance: unusual; doesn’t fit the norms
Distress: upsetting If you want to learn more check out It is a movement of water due to a gradient. what is it?
Dysfunction: interferes with daily life (MOST IMPORTANT)
Danger: (potential) harm
Duration: length it occurs (1015 minutes or 12 weeks)
Psychological disorder Perspectives:
Biopsychosocial perspective: all three components (biological, social, psychological) contribute; can’t be equal;
close to the threshold, but something has to happen in the other areas that pushes it over
Psychopathology: clinically significant disturbance in a person’s cognition, emotion, or behavior that is dysfunctional
Abnormal psychology: study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
Disorder: cluster of symptoms
Who decides if diagnoses go into the DSM?
APA task force
Task force is informed and influenced by advisors
o Examine literature, get feedback, do field trials
o Revising diagnoses: consider rationale, impact, research, clarity, utility How do we diagnose someone?
DSM – 5
Assessment If you want to learn more check out Define management.
o Projective and objective tests
Why do we diagnose?
Simple communication between professionals
Prediction: to understand likely courses and outcomes of an individual To help choose a treatment
Source of concepts for research and theories
How are diagnoses helpful?
to help clients understand, not feel alone or broken
What are the drawbacks of diagnosing?
Doesn’t always answer the question “why”
What was the Rosenhan study?
Sane people attempted (and always succeeded) to get admitted into psych wards at hospitals
o stayed in the wards between 752 days
o other patients noticed the participants of the study weren’t mentally ill before the staff noticed
What are some myths about mental illness? What are the consequences of believing these myths? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the unit of unit vector?
o Mental illness doesn’t equal violence
o Mental illness is preventable
o Mental illness isn’t always visible
o Mental illness isn’t a character flaw
o Symptoms worsen
o People might not seek treatment
o Others might treat the individual differently (think about the doctors in the Rosenhan study)
Module 41 Anxiety Disorders:
- Fear, anxiety, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., avoidance)
- Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry about many things - Panic attacks (specifier): abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort, lasting
o People go to the emergency room the first time because they think that they are having a heart attack
Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder (OCD):
- Obsessions: persistent and unwanted thought that the person tries to suppress - Compulsion: repetitive behaviors to reduce anxiety or prevent a dreaded situation - Perfectionistic, “neat freak”, etc. IS NOT OCD!!!
PTSD: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; follows the experience or witnessing of a life threatening event such as combat, natural disasters, terror incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood
Module 42 Major Depressive Disorder:
Depression: lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, unable to
concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide; most common mental disorder Grief: fluctuating pleasure, intact selfesteem, identifiable loss
- Mania: elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and increased energy - May include depression
- Switch slowly between moods
Module 43 – Schizophrenia and Other disorders:
Schizophrenia: split from reality; NOT “split personalities”
Cultural differences on schizophrenia:
- Ghana and India: the voices people hear are playful, maybe voices of deceased
family members; schizophrenia is seen as a positive thing
- United States: the voices are violent and not pleasant; seen as a sign of illness/ very negative
Dissociative Identity Disorder:
- Has multiple personalities (previously called Multiple Personality Disorder) - Based on repression: personality “splits” as a defense
- 2+ personality states
o different memories (some remember the trauma, some don’t), mannerisms,
preferences, attitudes, handedness (go from right to left with no problems) o Memory gaps
o Host is unaware of alters (until therapy)
- Highly debated diagnosis
o Some people don’t believe that people (or their brains) are capable of having more than 1 or maybe 2 personalities
Personality Disorders: Enduring and inflexible patterns, difficult to treat Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder: preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control; high
Histrionic Personality Disorder: pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking; sexually inappropriate;
shallow expressions of emotions; sudden changes of emotion; theatricality; perceives intimacy when it’s not there;
Schizoid personality Disorder: lack of interest in social relationships, tendency towards solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness,
emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy Antisocial Personality Disorder: disregard for laws, safety and others, lack empathy; no real guilt; a.k.a sociopath or psychopath;
arguably hardest to treat
- Bingeeating disorder: outofcontrol, excessive eating
- Bulimianervosa: bingeeating + compensatory behaviors
- Anorexia nervosa: restricting intake, low weight, intense fear or gaining weight,
o Most fatal diagnosis (highest death rate)
Autism: most severe developmental disability; involves impairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication
Module 44 Intro to Therapy and Psychological Therapies:
Therapy/ psychotherapy: interaction with a trained professional using research based psychological techniques to overcome difficulties
and/or to improve wellbeing; helps people improve more quickly and lower relapse risk
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: short –term, goal oriented, psychotherapy; has a hands on, practical approach to problem solving; goal
is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people’s difficulties
Horticulture Therapy: the engagement of a person in gardening and plantbased activities, facilitated by a trained therapist, to achieve
specific therapeutic treatment goals
Module 45 – Biomedical Therapies (Independent Study Module): Placebo Effect:
- Substance with no known medical effects (like a sugar pill); fake treatment that is given to people in an experiment; can sometimes produce very real responses despite having no medicine
SSRI: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders