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MU / History / HST 296 / What do primary sources or documents explore?

What do primary sources or documents explore?

What do primary sources or documents explore?


School: Miami University
Department: History
Course: History After 1945
Professor: Erikjensen
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: HST 296 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide goes over weeks 8-14 lecture material!
Uploaded: 05/13/2018
3 Pages 102 Views 7 Unlocks

HST 2966

What do primary sources or documents explore?

* Final Exam-Study Guide *

3126 Primary v. Secondary Documents

* Terñs + definition's *

· Ch.14-17

Epilogue Kaffir Boy

· Spider Eater

Primary Source: Evidence historians use to understand If you want to learn more check out How does a theory function in close reading?

the past, usually produced during the period the historian Lis exploring; Includes: eyewitness accounts, land deeds government statistics, advertisements, tree rings, tools,

What does a memoir account for?

If you want to learn more check out What are some examples of intensive and extensive properties?

toys, games, etc.

Secondary Source: what other historians have said If you want to learn more check out How many groups of electrons are separated during hybridization?
If you want to learn more check out In what way does the unemployment rate affect the market?

about that particular period or to pic; Historical debates happen in secondary sources.


Memoirs as Historical Sources

* Terms + definitions *

How many countries signed the helsinki accords?

Memoir : Historical account or biography, woitten from a personal knowledges can be used to entertain, eroke emotion, expurgate quilt, impress, mobilize for awareness, inspire, to sell. ; Must be aware that authors do not remember everything exactly, but do reflect a spirit. If you want to learn more check out What responsibilities are involved in managerial accounting?
We also discuss several other topics like How do cells move?

Valentino Achak Deng: Subject of Dave Eggers novel

" What Is The what'', Sudanese "Lost Boy displaced during the Sudanese civil war between North - South

Sudan North was Arab + Muslim south was Blackt Christian; Valentino was a refugee for a decades.


The Promise of Change _ *Terms, definitions, + key concepts * Hen: Swedish gender neutralipronoun; displays sudden change in

society+ cultural norms i n

Valery Chalid ze : USSR physicist who helped found the

Committee on Human Rights ; sought to use Soviet Union's

own laws against it; set model used by later dissidents. Helsinki Accords: 1975 document signed by 35 countries

including Russia; Article 7: respect for human rights, freedome

thought, beliet u religion ; Article 8: equal rights + Self determination 5 things that led to fall of Communis:

Domestic calls for human rights

• Increased awareness of relative destitution between them +

the western world

• Increasing economic hardship

• Gorbacher as an individual agent of change o 'Brezhner Doctrine' repeal

→ Eastern Europe could do as they wished + the Soviets

wouldn't intervene Dismantling the Wall – 1989 + Beyond

*terms, definitions , + key concepts *


Contingency: An event that is not certain /predetermined or

that is possible but only as a consequence of an interconnected set of prior conditions #China was exception to fall of communism

protests began t were violently suppressed by the Chinese

government - Tiananmen Square incident on June 45145th 1989 Domino Theory: Theory_about spread of communism, any

state next to a communist one, would also fall actually explained how communism falls + collapses ; not an accurate model for spread of communism - Countries that left communism before Russia's fell

• Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia +

Romania - all different & significant . * Media allowed the domino effect to take place

expedited the process of the fall of Communism * Dec. 315* 1989 - USSR ceased to exist


Apartheid In A Global Context

*Terms, definitions, + key concepts.*

Apartheid: The policy of segregation – political leconomic

discrimination against non-white people of South Africa Why South Africa had a large white population :

Ĉlimate, resources, hospitable, mostly malania-free, good rainfall, farmland + diamonds (1867) + gold (1873) discoveries orew white immigrants with large Asian + Indicen populations brought in as workers for the mines. Pass system: Documents that controlled where blacks canti

can't go - Cntical to moving anywhere in South Africat

controlled blacks further via marriage regulations National Party (HNP): Conservatives who campaigned

on systematic racism / Apartheid. Racial divisions: Blacks, whites, Asians + Coloreds - 4 groups

* US, UK gave little support /hollow support to anti

apartheid movement because they were anti- communist + South Africa was abigned with communist nations (China)

Civil Rights In A Global Context

*Terms, definitions, + key concepts_*

* race is a social construct, not a genetic difference ;

each culture + society has different definitions *

ANC- African National Congress ; organized protests. +

helped to undermine apartheid - eventually left non-violence

ideal behind – Nelson Mandela + Walter Sisulu headed this PAC- Pan African Congress, Africanists. wanted the

whites in South Africa to leave -led protest on pass laws where 69 are killed during the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960 - forces both ANC + PAC to go underground

Soweto Student Uprising: 1976 protests against -mandatory instruction of Afrikaans in schools;

seen as the symbol of the wrongs of apartheid,

language of the white Dutch oppressors ; 600 deaths International protest/pressure: Nobel Prizes awarded

to South Africans, suspended from the UN, + banned from the Olympics + ÈLFA (soccer). Divestorent movements (not investing with anyone doing business in South Africa North Africa bans the South from their airspace

- 4/16

Crimes Against Humanity * Terms, definitions, + key concepts *

Rwandan Genocide: 1994; 800,000 people killed in 3 months ; Huto group killing Hargeting Tutsi group

icide Genocide: Killing of a race or people i coined by

Raphael Lemkin, a polish Jew, when describing the systematic Killing of Jews by the Nazis, during the Holocaust UN declares it a crime + signatories will intervene if one anses

why it happened: Belgian terntory i divided igroups into _Hutó, Tutsi, + Twa ; _French Belgium associated with Tutsi's : + Dutch (Flemish) Belgium associated with the Hutu's.

Originally in favored positions of power, the French ruled

through the Tutsi; power shifted to the Dutch & Hutu's Ruandese. Ideal: Huto propagated ideal from 1950-1994 saying the Tutsi were immigrants from the North + weren't

true Rwandans not welcome & some fled to Uganda Rwandan Patriotic Front Civil War : Tutsi refugees formed an arme

to seize. Control + make Rwanda inclusive to all - held responsible for death of president + became excuse to begin genocide of Tutsi:

*RPF* ___

How it happened: Decades long construction of 'sub-humani

racial category - Tutsi, opportunism - people able to take coveted lands + territories.; moral authonties either participated or remained neutral lie Church leadership) 'West refused to acknowledge it as a genocide French_complicity: supplied arms to Hutus ; mad the Tutsi moved to an english speaking country thought it they

gained control, they would lose french cultural influence

in Rwanda End of Genocide : RPE takes control of government ; new

flag + reconciled villages created (different groups made to live together) + now illegal to identify/refer to as Tutsi,

Hutu, or Twa. International Crimes Court created in Tanzania Gacaca : local courts held for those who participated

in the genocide (génocidaires) where they could confess + receive punishment; offical records made; allowed process of grieving + forgiveness to begin – brought about healing Cultural Revolution in China


Utopianism: Movement that calls for the creation of an ideal

society, perhaps an impossibly ideal society, especially in terms of social organization, pursuing human equality, cooperation, tself-actualization.

Mao's return in 1966: Great Leap Forward ends in 1961 +

Mao goes into seclusion; Issues a call for a return to punity + ousted leaders for being "bourgeois", capitalist or counter - revolutionary -; empowered young people to lead the charge Hoverturn useless Leaders via a grassroots youth organization: Red Guards

"Four Olds*: Old : ideas, customs, cultures, + habits. Mas

called for their destruction; red quard went after the -remnants of old society (confucianism + intellectuals)

"Sent Down Generation : Mao lost control + instituted a

-policy in 1968 to send red guard youth to rural areas to learn from the peasants" on collectivized farms.-done to diffuse tensions

Mao's Death: 1976; Venerated as part.of China's identity,

cultural Revolution critisized, but'a hushed topic

Deng Xiaoping: Mao's successor ; one of 3 men left in --charge during Mao's seclusion i made major economic

reforms, creates special economic Zones -1980 ist in Shenzhen , allowed foreign exports - commerce.

4/23 Confronting The Past

Self-critical history: History that illuminates darker '.

sides + allowed criticism. Call for it to not just tell what we're proud of , but also what we can't help seeing

- emerged in Germane post 1945 rare most self criticali imposed at_first then later embraced.

Kniefall" : 1970, Chancellor Willy Brandt knelt at a Warsaw Ghetto memorial, expressing sorrow + hunnility - launched

debate on how much they were responsible for acts committed in WWII on behalf of the German nation.

Other examples: Japan - Mitsubishi apology, Rwanda - Gacaca courts

China - museum to dead in Cultural Revolution = suppressed. by gov't US → Confederate statues, Lynching memorials, Japanese

internment camps



End of


Dialectical Process: Theory by_Hegel about underlying

history; history being about progress, working towards La better u better society; 3 part process : there's,

antithesis I synthesis. , Synthesis becomes new thesis + starts over until it reaches an end : absolute idea

An antithesis as a revolution movement Dialectics in Reynolds : Integration (one World) v. Fragmentation

(divisible) Francis Fukuyama: "The End of History?" ; argued the

fall of communism was end of process no alternative to the antithesis (communism) + thesis (democracy) won out → not only synthesis but absolute idea + end point of man's

idealogical debate. (one world) Samuel P. Huntington : "Clash of Civilizations"; opposing

view point to Fukuyama ; argued the ideological confrontation between democracy + communism not the big deal – deeper tendency to clash as civilizations, dominant one decides form of government + there is no end point labsolute idea. History is a continual conflict between civilizations over time i civilizations broken down into culturaliz religious groups

(Divisible) *all about perspective → too focused on conspicuous history;

too soon to tell who is right need to wait for submerged history to decide global trends *

4/30_The Neo-Liberal 1990's

Globalization: Integration of world market that focuses on

free trade, free capital foreign marketi Process by which businesses or organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale considered to be at the expense of national identity.

Classical Liberalism: 19th c emphasis on freedoms : _free speech, religion, press + markets w Limited gov't. Protectionism : 1846. doctrine that domestic indistries

should be protected from foreign competition by the

imposition of duties / quotas on foreign goods. Autarky: Doctrine of economic self - sufficiency in a

political unit; often associated with political isolationism.

+ fascism ~ ist used in 1934 Neo-Liberalism: late 20th c re-emergence of classical

Liberalism ; favored privatization, free trade, de regulation + small government, associated with Reagan + Thatcher. Differed from Classical by: more of the trade involved services!

intangible things → involved more countries in global economy European Union (EU) : Movement happened they trended

towards globalization, free trade +free labor, but about regulation a pouitics, not economics were primary motivation Britain leares ; Motto: "Unity in Diversity Bntain declines as a world power: Join's EU in 1973; | Europe not as great economically but very significant politically

Maastricht treaty: 1992; created the ỂU + committed

Europe to a single currency Brexit: 2016; Britain votes to leave EUreturn to

1950's - not wanting to be part of Europe


The Unmaking of The Middle


Where is it? Encompasses multiple regions_in geoscheme

map ; 1800's terminology - legacy of British Imperialism Becomes synonym for Muslim world

Diversity: Ethnic/linguistic-60 languages., Religious, Economic coil ve agn:culture nich vipoor, historical - colonization effects stability:

* suggests pattern: older nations who avoided

colonization & aligned with the West are more stable, while newer nations who were colonized + aligned with

communism are less stable

Synian conflict: Bashar al-Assad - authoritarian

president who refused to resign during Arab Spring

4 overlapping conflicts :

Assad va rebels

• Kurds, v. Turks: Kurdish mini state seen as threat t

set a precedent that could lose Turkey terntory o Islamic State (1515) v. literally everyone else -

• proxy war: Iran + Russia back Assad; US + Saudi Arabia

back the rebels * all divisions run through Synat effect it greatly *

resource poor,-population dense, Linguistic lethnic division; religious teconomic divisions, colonized set up Sunia

to be a perfect storm for failure & turmoil


Many Worlds, Unifiable?

2 competing divisions on lasting peace :

* National self-determination: A world of self

governing, sovereign states (US) * Imperial Internationalism: A world in whick key powers kept global order (Britain) Believed multiple states

would create chaos. (Bntain wanted to keep empire) Raphael Lemkin: best defense a body of international law Joseph Schechtman: best defense to not have minorities

in the 1st place t advocated population transfer + homogenous states ; never formally endorsed but could argue its still _most widely practiced

Emery Reves: advocated one world govt / authority: Clarence Streit: proposed federation of democratic states. Thomas Poqqe: world tax + revenue used to eradicate povert P.E.P.F.A.R.: "President Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief.

2003 Bush administration program to eradicate Ald's + other intectious diseases in impoverished countries. Linkages: transportation, communication, immigration,

economics + resources (interdependence :producer + consumer) branding (Starbucks + Coca Cola) + globalized language. *It's too soon to tell" - Zhou Enlai (1972)

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