* Final Exam-Study Guide *
3126 Primary v. Secondary Documents
* Terñs + definition's *
Epilogue Kaffir Boy
· Spider Eater
Primary Source: Evidence historians use to understand
the past, usually produced during the period the historian Lis exploring; Includes: eyewitness accounts, land deeds government statistics, advertisements, tree rings, tools,
toys, games, etc.
Secondary Source: what other historians have said
about that particular period or to pic; Historical debates happen in secondary sources. We also discuss several other topics like How does a theory function in close reading?
Memoirs as Historical Sources
* Terms + definitions *
Memoir : Historical account or biography, woitten from a personal knowledges can be used to entertain, eroke emotion, expurgate quilt, impress, mobilize for awareness, inspire, to sell. ; Must be aware that authors do not remember everything exactly, but do reflect a spirit. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the correlation between chemical and physical change?
Valentino Achak Deng: Subject of Dave Eggers novel
" What Is The what'', Sudanese "Lost Boy displaced during the Sudanese civil war between North - South
Sudan North was Arab + Muslim south was Blackt Christian; Valentino was a refugee for a decades. If you want to learn more check out Which bonds are involved in hybridization?
The Promise of Change _ *Terms, definitions, + key concepts * Hen: Swedish gender neutralipronoun; displays sudden change in
society+ cultural norms i n
Valery Chalid ze : USSR physicist who helped found the If you want to learn more check out Why is gpd important in macroeconomics?
Committee on Human Rights ; sought to use Soviet Union's
own laws against it; set model used by later dissidents. Helsinki Accords: 1975 document signed by 35 countries
including Russia; Article 7: respect for human rights, freedome If you want to learn more check out What are the duties of audi committee?
thought, beliet u religion ; Article 8: equal rights + Self determination 5 things that led to fall of Communis: Don't forget about the age old question of How do cells move?
Domestic calls for human rights
• Increased awareness of relative destitution between them +
the western world
• Increasing economic hardship
• Gorbacher as an individual agent of change o 'Brezhner Doctrine' repeal
→ Eastern Europe could do as they wished + the Soviets
wouldn't intervene Dismantling the Wall – 1989 + Beyond
*terms, definitions , + key concepts *
Contingency: An event that is not certain /predetermined or
that is possible but only as a consequence of an interconnected set of prior conditions #China was exception to fall of communism
protests began t were violently suppressed by the Chinese
government - Tiananmen Square incident on June 45145th 1989 Domino Theory: Theory_about spread of communism, any
state next to a communist one, would also fall actually explained how communism falls + collapses ; not an accurate model for spread of communism - Countries that left communism before Russia's fell
• Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia +
Romania - all different & significant . * Media allowed the domino effect to take place
expedited the process of the fall of Communism * Dec. 315* 1989 - USSR ceased to exist
Apartheid In A Global Context
*Terms, definitions, + key concepts.*
Apartheid: The policy of segregation – political leconomic
discrimination against non-white people of South Africa Why South Africa had a large white population :
Ĉlimate, resources, hospitable, mostly malania-free, good rainfall, farmland + diamonds (1867) + gold (1873) discoveries orew white immigrants with large Asian + Indicen populations brought in as workers for the mines. Pass system: Documents that controlled where blacks canti
can't go - Cntical to moving anywhere in South Africat
controlled blacks further via marriage regulations National Party (HNP): Conservatives who campaigned
on systematic racism / Apartheid. Racial divisions: Blacks, whites, Asians + Coloreds - 4 groups
* US, UK gave little support /hollow support to anti
apartheid movement because they were anti- communist + South Africa was abigned with communist nations (China)
Civil Rights In A Global Context
*Terms, definitions, + key concepts_*
* race is a social construct, not a genetic difference ;
each culture + society has different definitions *
ANC- African National Congress ; organized protests. +
helped to undermine apartheid - eventually left non-violence
ideal behind – Nelson Mandela + Walter Sisulu headed this PAC- Pan African Congress, Africanists. wanted the
whites in South Africa to leave -led protest on pass laws where 69 are killed during the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960 - forces both ANC + PAC to go underground
Soweto Student Uprising: 1976 protests against -mandatory instruction of Afrikaans in schools;
seen as the symbol of the wrongs of apartheid,
language of the white Dutch oppressors ; 600 deaths International protest/pressure: Nobel Prizes awarded
to South Africans, suspended from the UN, + banned from the Olympics + ÈLFA (soccer). Divestorent movements (not investing with anyone doing business in South Africa North Africa bans the South from their airspace
Crimes Against Humanity * Terms, definitions, + key concepts *
Rwandan Genocide: 1994; 800,000 people killed in 3 months ; Huto group killing Hargeting Tutsi group
icide Genocide: Killing of a race or people i coined by
Raphael Lemkin, a polish Jew, when describing the systematic Killing of Jews by the Nazis, during the Holocaust UN declares it a crime + signatories will intervene if one anses
why it happened: Belgian terntory i divided igroups into _Hutó, Tutsi, + Twa ; _French Belgium associated with Tutsi's : + Dutch (Flemish) Belgium associated with the Hutu's.
Originally in favored positions of power, the French ruled
through the Tutsi; power shifted to the Dutch & Hutu's Ruandese. Ideal: Huto propagated ideal from 1950-1994 saying the Tutsi were immigrants from the North + weren't
true Rwandans not welcome & some fled to Uganda Rwandan Patriotic Front Civil War : Tutsi refugees formed an arme
to seize. Control + make Rwanda inclusive to all - held responsible for death of president + became excuse to begin genocide of Tutsi:
How it happened: Decades long construction of 'sub-humani
racial category - Tutsi, opportunism - people able to take coveted lands + territories.; moral authonties either participated or remained neutral lie Church leadership) 'West refused to acknowledge it as a genocide French_complicity: supplied arms to Hutus ; mad the Tutsi moved to an english speaking country thought it they
gained control, they would lose french cultural influence
in Rwanda End of Genocide : RPE takes control of government ; new
flag + reconciled villages created (different groups made to live together) + now illegal to identify/refer to as Tutsi,
Hutu, or Twa. International Crimes Court created in Tanzania Gacaca : local courts held for those who participated
in the genocide (génocidaires) where they could confess + receive punishment; offical records made; allowed process of grieving + forgiveness to begin – brought about healing Cultural Revolution in China
Utopianism: Movement that calls for the creation of an ideal
society, perhaps an impossibly ideal society, especially in terms of social organization, pursuing human equality, cooperation, tself-actualization.
Mao's return in 1966: Great Leap Forward ends in 1961 +
Mao goes into seclusion; Issues a call for a return to punity + ousted leaders for being "bourgeois", capitalist or counter - revolutionary -; empowered young people to lead the charge Hoverturn useless Leaders via a grassroots youth organization: Red Guards
"Four Olds*: Old : ideas, customs, cultures, + habits. Mas
called for their destruction; red quard went after the -remnants of old society (confucianism + intellectuals)
"Sent Down Generation : Mao lost control + instituted a
-policy in 1968 to send red guard youth to rural areas to learn from the peasants" on collectivized farms.-done to diffuse tensions
Mao's Death: 1976; Venerated as part.of China's identity,
cultural Revolution critisized, but'a hushed topic
Deng Xiaoping: Mao's successor ; one of 3 men left in --charge during Mao's seclusion i made major economic
reforms, creates special economic Zones -1980 ist in Shenzhen , allowed foreign exports - commerce.
4/23 Confronting The Past
Self-critical history: History that illuminates darker '.
sides + allowed criticism. Call for it to not just tell what we're proud of , but also what we can't help seeing
- emerged in Germane post 1945 rare most self criticali imposed at_first then later embraced.
Kniefall" : 1970, Chancellor Willy Brandt knelt at a Warsaw Ghetto memorial, expressing sorrow + hunnility - launched
debate on how much they were responsible for acts committed in WWII on behalf of the German nation.
Other examples: Japan - Mitsubishi apology, Rwanda - Gacaca courts
China - museum to dead in Cultural Revolution = suppressed. by gov't US → Confederate statues, Lynching memorials, Japanese
Dialectical Process: Theory by_Hegel about underlying
history; history being about progress, working towards La better u better society; 3 part process : there's,
antithesis I synthesis. , Synthesis becomes new thesis + starts over until it reaches an end : absolute idea
An antithesis as a revolution movement Dialectics in Reynolds : Integration (one World) v. Fragmentation
(divisible) Francis Fukuyama: "The End of History?" ; argued the
fall of communism was end of process no alternative to the antithesis (communism) + thesis (democracy) won out → not only synthesis but absolute idea + end point of man's
idealogical debate. (one world) Samuel P. Huntington : "Clash of Civilizations"; opposing
view point to Fukuyama ; argued the ideological confrontation between democracy + communism not the big deal – deeper tendency to clash as civilizations, dominant one decides form of government + there is no end point labsolute idea. History is a continual conflict between civilizations over time i civilizations broken down into culturaliz religious groups
(Divisible) *all about perspective → too focused on conspicuous history;
too soon to tell who is right need to wait for submerged history to decide global trends *
4/30_The Neo-Liberal 1990's
Globalization: Integration of world market that focuses on
free trade, free capital foreign marketi Process by which businesses or organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale considered to be at the expense of national identity.
Classical Liberalism: 19th c emphasis on freedoms : _free speech, religion, press + markets w Limited gov't. Protectionism : 1846. doctrine that domestic indistries
should be protected from foreign competition by the
imposition of duties / quotas on foreign goods. Autarky: Doctrine of economic self - sufficiency in a
political unit; often associated with political isolationism.
+ fascism ~ ist used in 1934 Neo-Liberalism: late 20th c re-emergence of classical
Liberalism ; favored privatization, free trade, de regulation + small government, associated with Reagan + Thatcher. Differed from Classical by: more of the trade involved services!
intangible things → involved more countries in global economy European Union (EU) : Movement happened they trended
towards globalization, free trade +free labor, but about regulation a pouitics, not economics were primary motivation Britain leares ; Motto: "Unity in Diversity Bntain declines as a world power: Join's EU in 1973; | Europe not as great economically but very significant politically
Maastricht treaty: 1992; created the ỂU + committed
Europe to a single currency Brexit: 2016; Britain votes to leave EUreturn to
1950's - not wanting to be part of Europe
The Unmaking of The Middle
Where is it? Encompasses multiple regions_in geoscheme
map ; 1800's terminology - legacy of British Imperialism Becomes synonym for Muslim world
Diversity: Ethnic/linguistic-60 languages., Religious, Economic coil ve agn:culture nich vipoor, historical - colonization effects stability:
* suggests pattern: older nations who avoided
colonization & aligned with the West are more stable, while newer nations who were colonized + aligned with
communism are less stable
Synian conflict: Bashar al-Assad - authoritarian
president who refused to resign during Arab Spring
4 overlapping conflicts :
Assad va rebels
• Kurds, v. Turks: Kurdish mini state seen as threat t
set a precedent that could lose Turkey terntory o Islamic State (1515) v. literally everyone else -
• proxy war: Iran + Russia back Assad; US + Saudi Arabia
back the rebels * all divisions run through Synat effect it greatly *
resource poor,-population dense, Linguistic lethnic division; religious teconomic divisions, colonized set up Sunia
to be a perfect storm for failure & turmoil
Many Worlds, Unifiable?
2 competing divisions on lasting peace :
* National self-determination: A world of self
governing, sovereign states (US) * Imperial Internationalism: A world in whick key powers kept global order (Britain) Believed multiple states
would create chaos. (Bntain wanted to keep empire) Raphael Lemkin: best defense a body of international law Joseph Schechtman: best defense to not have minorities
in the 1st place t advocated population transfer + homogenous states ; never formally endorsed but could argue its still _most widely practiced
Emery Reves: advocated one world govt / authority: Clarence Streit: proposed federation of democratic states. Thomas Poqqe: world tax + revenue used to eradicate povert P.E.P.F.A.R.: "President Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief.
2003 Bush administration program to eradicate Ald's + other intectious diseases in impoverished countries. Linkages: transportation, communication, immigration,
economics + resources (interdependence :producer + consumer) branding (Starbucks + Coca Cola) + globalized language. *It's too soon to tell" - Zhou Enlai (1972)