Ethnic Studies Final Study Guide
Ethnic Studies Final Study Guide ETST 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ETST 001 at University of California Riverside taught by Macias in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethnic Studies in Culture at University of California Riverside.
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Ethnic Studies Study Guide Racial Worldview a way of perceiving the world’s peoples as being divided into exclusive and discrete groups that are ranked hierarchically against one another Race exclusive and discrete groups, represented an ideology created to stratify colonial society so that unequal social divisions appeared to be based on nature Racism elites were threatened by the dangerous unity of blacks, white servants and poor freed men which resulted in racism as the solution to the problem Racial Formation The sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed and destroyed Racial Project Simultaneously an interpretation, representation or explanation of racial dynamics and an effort to reorganize and redistribute resources along particular racial lines U.S Census the census has functioned to secure recognitions and material benefits for groups otherwise ignored or undercounted American Paradox the idea of freedom was rooted in the institution of slavery Indentured Servants poor young men and women served 47 years to the people who paid for their trip from Europe Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, servants and the freed poor from indentured servitude threatened the destruction of the colonies. Led by Nathanial Bacon targeting local Indians, killing and enslaving them and looting their villages Thomas Jefferson, on Blacks one of the first public figures to raise the issue that slaves would never rise and be anything more than inferior. Helped make the idea of black inferiority part of public consciousness. Wealthy slave owner, owned 2 plantations with over 250 slaves Thomas Jefferson, on Indians “in leading them to agriculture, to manufacture and civilization, in bringing together their and our sentiments, and in preparing them ultimately to participate in the benefits of our Government, I trust and believe we are acting for their greatest good” Slave Laws First quarter of the 18 century, slavery was already institutionalized by hundreds of restrictive laws. Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Made federal government responsible for tracking and apprehending runaway slaves in the North and returning them to the South. Those who refused were fined $1000. Allowed the government to deputize “bystanders” forcing them to join and recover runaway slaves “What, to the Slave, is the 4 of July?” [What is Douglass’ relationship to America?] Proslavery Ideology Herrenvolk Ideology Southern belief that the white race is the citizen and master race and all whites are equal and that the negroes are the inferior race Miscegenation the interbreeding of people considered to be different racial types. Those married into different races were banished from the colonies 1857 Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision Blacks, slave or free, could never be US citizens and could not sue in federal courts. Because Scott was black and not a citizen, he had no right to sue. But it was overturned by the 14 amendment Craniometry (aka Phrenology) Created by Samuel Morton who believed brain size correlated with intelligence and found that Africans had the smallest brains and that white people had the largest. Affirmed the notion of intellectual inequality among races Iroquis Confederacy 5 major Indian tribes of upper New York State, their language, their 4,000+ year old matrilineal culture and their farming longhouse society. o Participatory democracy o Two house legislature o Fifth tribe representatives break ties, veto power o Each member was heard until they all reached a unanimous decision Civilization Policy Christianity + education and individual land as private property Indian Removal Act passed by Congress and authorized by President Andrew Jackson to negotiate with Indian tribes in the South for their removal to federal territory in exchange for their ancestral homelands. Indians who remained in the southeast automatically became members of their state Trail of Tears only 2000 Cherokee had voluntarily migrated and 16,000 remained on their land. The US government sent 7,000 troops and they were forced to market into the West to the Indian Territory in Arkansas and Oklahoma Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848, ended the MexicanAmerican War, guaranteed Mexicans in the former Mexican territories that right to become US citizens, granted them all the rights of American Citizenship Chinese Exclusion Act Barred entry of Chinese and “Mongolians”. Federal courts ruled that the Chinese are ineligible to become citizens. Forbade US court from granting citizen to the Chinese. California passed the nation’s first Chinese Exclusion Act in 1858 Post1848 status of Mexicans in the United States Mexicans were lynched. Rate of 473 per 100,000 population, higher than other racial group. Nonwhite and Mexicans were essentially Indians and should be denied the right to vote even if they were taxpayers. Manifest Destiny Not simply a question of land hunger or of ports on the Pacific, involved a belief in the destiny of a superior AngloSaxon race. America on a divine mission to expand westward across North American to spread democratic and Protestant ideals from sea to shining sea AngloSaxonism purest of the pure, the finest Caucasians. Term of people who originated from England, then referred to white, Englishspeaking people. All other races are inferior. 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition Helped “White” Americans tell the story of a bloody conquest in a way that justified their presence as well as their privileges. Displayed people from all over the world, human zoo. Allowed them to see the different “savages” they conquered White Man’s Burden Poem written to talk about how all white people are kind and helpful because they want to civilize other races and savages to help them live a better life. But then everyone hates them and then they have the burden, as the superior race, to do this regardless of the reactions that are solicited. 13 Amendment Outlawed slavery th 14 Amendment Due process and equal protection under the law Audrey Smedley Science and the Idea of Race: A Brief History 1. What event or “discovery” began to question ideas of monogenesis? Define monogenesis. a. “The discovery of the hitherto unknown people naturally led to questions about who they (the different types of human beings) were, the cause of their divergence from the European “norm” and how they fit into the scheme of the world history as different Europeans had understood it” b. Theory of Monogenesis God created humankind in a single act and Adam and Eve were thought to be the progenitors of all human groups. Focused on the single origin of all human beings. 2. According to Smedley, what ideas were used to justify the treatment, genocide and enslavement of indigenous people? a. The people who were captured weren’t fully human, but animals that could legitimately be forced to work or be exterminated 3. Define polygenesis and one of its progenitors. a. The idea of more than one creations b. Isaac de la Peyrere suggested that there might have been separate origins for Indians, Africans and Asians with Adam the progenitor of only Jews c. Considered antithetical to the teachings of the Bible 4. According to Smedley, what does she define as racial worldview? a. A way of perceiving the world’s peoples as being divided into exclusive and discrete groups that are ranked hierarchically against one another 5. Who were the first slaves in the Americas? Name some of the reasons why this group did not make “good slaves”. a. The Indians b. They either died in war with the Europeans or died of imported diseases to which they had no immunities. Weakened by strife with the colonists and ran away and forever disappeared. 6. Who were “indentured servants” and what relationship did they have to Bacon’s Rebellion? a. The first slaves in the Americas were indentured servants who came to America to serve the people who funded their trip. b. This group did not make “good slaves” because they began to demand land and equipment to establish themselves of free men of property. They were dissatisfied and revolted in Bacon’s Rebellion, threatened the destruction of the colony 7. What were some of the ideas used to justify the importation of African slaves? a. Africans made better workers, had knowledge of growing crops in tropical lands and many skills and crafts. Had immunities, nowhere to run or hide once placed into slavery 8. Who was the founder of craniometry and what did this field of study assert? a. Samuel Morton b. Believed brain size correlated with intelligence and found that Africans had the smallest brains and that white people had the largest c. Affirm the notion of intellectual inequality in races 9. What were the three different races of Europe that was developed in the midnineteenth century? Why is this important to note? a. Nordies, Alpines, and Mediterraneans b. Beliefs about the different abilities of European races were woven into European history to account for the differential achievements of varying peoples 10. Name some of the policy changes that were directly influenced by Eugenics. a. Influenced immigration policies to prevent or restrict immigrants not originating from Western and Northern Europe b. Advocated sterilization for the mentally defective or feeble minded Michael Omi and Howard Winant Racial Formation 1. Race is defined by Omi and Winant as? a. A concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies 2. What do they say about race and its relationship to biology? a. Invokes biologically based human characteristics but choosing which characteristics to focus on for racial signification is social and historical 3. How do Omi and Winant define racial formation? a. The sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed and destroyed b. Argues that racial formation is a process of historically situated projects in which human bodies and social structures are represented and organized c. Link racial formation to the evolution of hegemony the way in which society is organized and ruled 4. What is a racial project? How do they define a racial project as being racist? a. Simultaneously an interpretation, representation or explanation of racial dynamics and an effort to reorganize and redistribute resources along particular racial lines b. Racial formation is always historically situated, our understanding of the significance of race and of the way race structures society is constantly changing c. Crates or reproduces structures of domination based on essentialist categories of race 5. What do Omi and Winant mean by calling the U.S. a racial dictatorship? Name 2 of the consequences of this dictatorship? a. Most nonwhites were firmly eliminated from the sphere of politics b. Defined “American” identity as white c. Organized the “color line” rendering it the fundamental division in US society d. Consolidated the oppositional racial consciousness and organization originally framed by maroonage and slave revolts 6. How do Omi and Winant define racism and what do they specifically say about racism today? a. There is conflict in the meaning of racism, they believe that racism has changed over time b. Attitudes, practices and institutions of racism back then no longer exist today c. Not all racism is the same Edmund S. Morgan “Toward Slavery” and “Toward Racism” in American Slavery American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia How and why racism was developed in Virginia The need for oppression Slavery required new methods of discipline which created methods that linked to “racial contempt” White servants and black slaves initially saw no differences in one another. They believed they shared more commonalities, their work situation, than differences. Skin color was seen as only “skin deep” Discrimination was never uncommon in the colonies; the poor were severely discriminated against. The societal view of the poor and sick were very similar to how black slaves were viewed. They were seen as “vicious, idle, and dissolute.” The discrimination against the poor is seen in “the great confinement” in which the sick, the criminal, and the poor were forced to “contribute to the national wealth” by being put to work. Just as the poor were segregated from the working class black slaves began to be segregated from white servants Virginians were threatened by the allegiance of white servants and black slaves as seen in Bacon’s Rebellion. The answer to the problem was Racism. By a series of acts, the assembly deliberately fostered contempt of whites for blacks. The term “negro” was used specifically in context to relate blacks to heathen like individuals. Virginia also specifically outlined differences between servants and slaves. They protected the property of servants while seizing the property of slaves to make them feel inferior. Interracial relations of any kind were also punishable by law. “Slavery” and “Slave Law” in Documenting American Violence 1. What are slave codes? What are some examples of slave codes? a. Every slave state maintained a slave code, a set of laws intended to govern slavery and began in the colonies b. Slaves must never leave their plantations or farms without a pass from their owners, no slaver should ever “presume to lift up his hand” against any white person c. Slave codes represented whites’ fantasy rather than reality because the slaves made their own culture anyway and constantly tried to undermine their masters 2. What does it mean to say that slavery was a lawless institution? a. Legislators and the courts hesitated to interfere in the relationship between master and slave b. White men could do almost anything they wanted to their human property c. Slavery planted in the minds of whites a deep distrust of law and legal process, they came to believe that blacks could only be disciplined outside the law Slave Laws showed various laws governing the actions of slaves. Most important ones for the midterm: If a slave assaults with the intent to kill, he will be put to death Should never raise his hand against his master Most importantly, has no right to own property George M. Fredrickson, “Revolution, Rebellion, and the Limits of Equality” 1. Who was Edward Long? 2. What is the American dilemma as described by Fredrickson? 3. What did Jefferson say about the possibility of emancipating slaves? Did he favor this? George M. Fredrickson, “White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History” 4. On what concentration were abolitionists able to garner support? 5. What were some of the Northern arguments opposing abolition? Why is this important to note? a. They had little use for blacks b. They just didn’t want blacks, in general, to be in the US but slavery would keep them there c. They did not believe that blacks were equal to them but they also didn’t want to be hypocrites to their own Constitution and Christianity had taught them that the strong had no right to oppress the weak 6. What is Herrenvolk Equality? How did this ideology garner support of slavery from non slave holding whites? a. Built on two ideas, that white race is the citizen and master race and that they are equal to other white men but that the negro is the inferior race b. 7. Was abolition popular in the North? Fredrick Douglas, “What, to the Slave, is the Fourth of July” How does Douglass view the United States? And how does he view the founding statemen? o Frederick Douglass was an AfricanAmerican social reformer, orator, abolitionist, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing. In this speech, Douglass discussed how the Fourth of July is a reminder to slaves how oppressed they are. He also talked about the institution encouraged slavery, as the church did not + how the church was basically twisting the whole religion on itself b/c of how the people who ran the church refused to help the poor, clothe those who didn’t have any, etc. etc. o Criticized how the whites were celebrating the Fourth of July, a holiday commemorating freedom yet blacks were still in slavery Andrew Jackson, “Condition and Ulterior Destiny of the Indian Tribes” 1. What did Thomas Jefferson advocate for as a way of civilizing Indians? a. Advocated for the teaching of agricultural techniques and the establishing of trading houses b. Increasing their readiness to cede their lands by participating “in the benefits of our Government” but as they became educated, they wanted to hold onto their lands even more 2. What did Jackson say about the Cherokee nation and the relationship between the states of Georgia and Alabama? a. They are kept in a wandering state and been led to look upon “us” as unjust and indifferent to their fate. Thus they are receding farther and farther to the west and have retained their savagery b. Some went to the south and achieved some form of civilization. Tried to erect an independent government within the limits of these states who extended their laws to the Indians. The states then called the US for protection 3. What is the irony behind removing the Cherokees? a. The emigration should be voluntary but clearly, it was all forced. They claim to protect them but they isolated them instead. Said it would be “cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land” AS they were doing just that by being there in the first place. Andrew Jackson, “Indian Removal and the General Good” 1. According to Jackson, what would be the benefits of removal for the Indians? a. Puts an end to all possible danger of collisions between the authorities of the General and State Governments on account of the Indians b. Place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters c. Strengthen the southwestern frontier and render the adjacent states strong enough to repel future invasions without remote aid d. Allow states to advance rapidly in population, wealth and power e. Free them from power of the sates, let them pursue their own happiness, allow them to cast off their savage habits and become civilized and Christian 2. What was Jackson’s view of true philanthropy? a. Reconciles the mind to these vicissitudes as it does to the extinction of one generation to make room for another 3. What comparison does Jackson make with Indians leaving their homelands? a. “Our children by thousands yearly leave the land of their birth to seek new homes in distant regions” b. It is a source of joy that our country affords scope where our young population may range unconstrained in body or in mind, developing the power and faculties of man in their highest perfection. Reginald Horsman, “Scientific Racism and the American Indian in the MidNineteenth Century” 1. Until the 1830s, American intellectuals regarded the Indians as having the same potential as whites. They believed that their “savageness” stemmed from what? a. Environment 2. The political rhetoric of 1800 was permeated with optimism of the human race and belief in racial improvability that of 1850 was filled with what types of thoughts about race? a. Pessimism for inferior races and a belief in ineradicable racial weakness 3. When improvement among the Indians occurred, it was to be ascribed chiefly to? a. Racial interbreeding 4. Opponents to acquiring territory in the Southwest were because of what ideas or beliefs? a. They didn’t want to mix Mexicans and Indians with their own b. Constituted about seveneighths of the population Reginald Horsman, “Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo Saxonism” 1. Horsman notes that 1850 American AngloSaxons were regarded as? a. Separate, innately superior people who were destined to bring good government, commercial prosperity and Christianity to the American continents and to the world b. Superior race and inferior races were doomed to subordinate status or extinction 2. According to Horsman, what two ideas were firmly engrained in American thinking by 1850 that directly affected their relationships with other peoples of the world? a. The idea of the Americans as a “chosen people” had permeated first Puritan and then American thought, destined to shape the destiny of much of the world b. Americans were encountering a variety of inferior races incapable of sharing in American’s republican system and doomed to permanent subordination or extinction “The Little Big Horn Massacre” Custer’s Seventh Calvary was responsible for enforcing President Grant’s “peace policy” which sought to keep all Indians on their reservations so that the white settlement of the West could proceed unhindered Rumors of gold in the Black Hills led the government to claim the Sioux/Cheyenne land 250 of Custer’s men died, the worst single defeat in history in Indian wars After Custer died, he was honored by being a brave man. They argued that the two important lessons to be learned was from underestimating the Indians and giving them ammunition in the first place Shari Huhndorf, “Imagining America: Race, Nation and Imperialism at the Turn of the Century” 1. According to Shari Huhndorf in Imagining America, what forms of popular culture did Europeans utilize to spread popular images and perceptions of native peoples? a. Television, novels, newspapers, films, world fairs 2. According to Huhndorf, what was the importance of World’s Fairs in the 19 century? a. First mass cultural event b. Created unity amongst different people and created a white identity of middle class 3. What did the World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893) celebrate or emphasize? What did is surprisingly not celebrate? a. Celebrated the 400 anniversary of Columbus’ discovery of the “New World” b. However, it did not celebrate the birth of America and independence from Britain itself c. Extending story all the way to Columbus who wasn’t even American 4. How did the Midway Plaisance at the World’s Columbian Exposition reflect the differences between Nonwesterners and Europeans? a. Nonwesterners were showcased like “zoo savages”, reflected differences by portraying people in certain ways juxtaposed to white people 5. What were some of the displays in Midway? a. Native people in villages as if that was their native habitat. They would perform rituals that were out of place as if they were “authentic”, “entertainment for white audience” 6. What was the last Indian military victory againth the US? a. Battle of Little Bighorn against the 7 Calvary and the Sioux/Cheyenne 7. Explain Lewis Henry Morgan’s theory on humanity. a. Narrative of progress b. Human societies inevitably progressed through various stages of savagery and barbarianism before finally breaking through civilization 8. What was the White City and what did it represent? a. Roman/Greek architecture, imitated because they were powerful at the time, symbol of power and empire; symmetrical and neoclassical b. Tribute to racial whiteness, centerpiece of the event; lauded the technological and intellectual achievements of the west 9. Explain the intersecting political purposes of the World’s Columbian Exposition. a. Constructed a white citizenry and justified its dominance over the colonial subjects on the Midway. b. Racialized class and ethnic struggles, extending this dominance to a series of domestic conflicts 10. What was Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis? a. About the US culture and identity that was founded through the frontier experiences b. Genocide, and slavery was overlooked in the process but it was for Manifest Destiny and the creation of America
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