KIN 223 Exam 1 Study Guide
Chapters 1 & 3
Chapter 1: Intro to A&P
a. Bio: “life, biology, or biological, pertaining to living organisms”
o from the Greek bios, "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime" b. Anatomy: “a cutting up” (dissection) structure
o from late Greek anatomia for classical anatome "dissection," literally "a
cutting up," from ana "up" + temnein "to cut"
c. Physiology: "science of the normal function of living things" function o from Greek physiologia "natural science, inquiry into nature," from
physio "nature" + logia "study"
1. The basic approach in A&P is summed up by the questions: We also discuss several other topics like What are the freedoms guaranteed by the 1st amendment?
“What is that?” and “How does it work?”
2. Anatomical position of the human body
Standing upright with its arms and legs straight down and palms, face, and
toes facing anteriorly (forward)
∙ A standard frame of reference for the description and orientation of
3. The seven common characteristics essential to living things:
I. Composed of one or more cell
II. Organization of molecules to form cellular structures (e.g. tissues) III. Responsiveness to stimuli via sensors (nerves)
IV. Regulation with homeostasis
V. Growth and development – an increase in size and physical maturation VI. Reproduction Don't forget about the age old question of smant
VII. Metabolism (the synthesis and breakdown of large molecules for energy) 4. The four “basic processes that support the demands of living organisms”: I. Respiration: brings/inhales oxygen from the environment into the
cardiovascular system, removes/exhales carbon dioxide as waste. II. Circulation: the distribution of oxygen, cellular waste, and the products of
We also discuss several other topics like Why is crystallized intelligence important?
digestion through the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems.
III. Digestion: the process of taking food and breaking it into simpler
substances the body can absorb to maintain cells and generate energy. IV. Excretion: to maintain homeostasis, wastes, leftovers, and toxic
byproducts of metabolism are removed through the respiratory, digestive,
and urinary systems.
5. Two relevant types of anatomy:
Macroscopic (gross) anatomy and microscopic anatomy
6. Form (structure) must support/follow function:
For example, the jaw is on a hinge, allowing it to go up and down for the If you want to learn more check out Why are some defenses induced and some constitutive?
We also discuss several other topics like 1101 numerology
mechanical stage of digestion (chewing food).
7. Six levels of organization in the human body
I. Chemical: atoms to molecules to macromolecules (e.g. proteins) II. Cellular: living units and organelles with functions (e.g. the nucleus) III. Tissue: a collection of cells performing a specific function (e.g. muscle
IV. Organ: a collection of two or more tissues working performing
nonspecific functions (e.g. the stomach)
V. Organ system: a collection of organs working together (e.g. the endocrine
VI. Organism: a collection of organ systems working together to support life
(e.g. a human being)
8. How many cells and types of cells are there? If you want to learn more check out bio 369 study guide
There are tens of trillions and 200 different types of cells in the human body. 9. Four main types of tissue:
I. Nervous tissue: transmits electrical signals throughout the body. II. Muscle tissue: contracts and relaxes to produce force and heat. III. Epithelial tissue: covers exposed body surfaces or lines body cavities. IV. Connective tissue: forms blood and bones (internal support and
10. Eleven organ systems:
I. Integumentary: protects against the environment, controls body
II. Skeletal: provides structure, protects tissues, forms blood, stores minerals
III. Muscular: generates force, movement, and heat
IV. Nervous: transmits electrical signals, immediate responses to stimuli V. Endocrine: directs longterm body changes via hormones and glands VI. Cardiovascular: transports cells and minerals through the bloodstream VII. Lymphatic: defends against infection
VIII. Respiratory: carries oxygen to gas exchange sites, produces sound IX. Digestive: breaks food down in order to absorb nutrients
X. Urinary: removes waste and excess products (e.g. water and salt) XI. Reproductive: produces sex cells and hormones
11.What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a steady internal environment state in a range, and the
physiological processes thereof.
homeo, “man” + stasis, “steady”
12. What are the three parts to a homeostatic regulator mechanism, or feedback
Receptor (receives the stimuli) ➝ Control center (receives/processes info
from the receptor)➝ Effector (responds by opposing/enhancing the stimulus) 13. Explain a negative feedback loop (NFL).
In an NFL, homeostasis is reestablished to the desired range without needing to solve the stimuli. The receptor, or nerves, receive a signal, sending information to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) where it is processed. The CNS then sends commands to the effectors (signal ➝ tissue), which act in opposition to the stimulus (e.g. sweating in hot
o This is the ideal loop for homeostasis.
14. Explain a positive feedback loop (PFL).
PFLs accelerate to completion and take the body away from homeostasis as it must to remove or correct the original stimulus. In a PFL, the effector
amplifies the stimuli instead of working against it.
o For instance, if your blood vessel is punctured, chemicals are released to signal platelets. Clotting forms and continues to release chemicals,
accelerating the process until the bleeding stops completely.
15. Know these body regions (layman term, noun):
a. Cephalic (head, cephalon)
b. Cervical (neck, cervicis)
c. Axillary (armpit, axilla)
d. Brachial (arm, brachium)
e. Antecubital (elbow, antecubitis)
f. Antebrachial (forearm, antebrachium)
g. Pollex & Hallux (thumb & big toe)
h. Umbilical (belly button, umbilicus)
i. Inguinal (groin, inguen)
j. Femoral (thigh, femur)
k. Crural (lower leg, crus)
l. Carpal & Tarsal (wrist & ankle, carsus & tarsus)
m. Pedal (foot, pes)
n. Dorsal (back)
o. Lumbar (loin, lumbus)
p. Gluteal (buttocks, gluteus)
q. Popliteal (back of the knee, popliteus)
r. Sural (calf, sura)
s. Palmar & Plantar (palm & sole of foot, palma & planta)
16. Clinicians separate and simplify the abdominopelvic region into four quadrants to
find the causes of illness:
I. Right upper quadrant (RUQ): liver, gallbladder, right kidney II. Left upper quadrant (LUQ): spleen, stomach
III. Right lower quadrant (RLQ): appendix, reproductive organs IV. Left lower quadrant (LLQ): urinary bladder, reproductive organs ∙ Anatomists prefer to separate the region into nine quadrants for the sake of
specificity and organ location and direction.
17. Directional terms are used to locate parts of the body in relation to each other. Superficial: at or relatively close to the surface of the body
Deep: toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface
Superior: above, toward the head
Inferior: below, toward the feet
Cranial, or Cephalic: toward the head
Caudal: toward the coccyx (tail, bottom)
Anterior, or Ventral: the front of the body
Posterior, or Dorsal: the back of the body
Lateral: away from the midline
Medial: toward the midline
Proximal: toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
Distal: away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
18. Three sectional planes are used to aid in internal body visualizations (cross
I. Sagittal plane (cuts the body so there is a left and a right side) II. Frontal, or coronal, plane (cuts the body so there is an anterior and a
posterior half) – front and back
III. Transverse, or horizontal, plane (cuts the body so there is a superior and
an inferior half) – top and bottom
19. There are two main body cavities of the human trunk:
o Contains the lungs and the heart within three subdivisions
o Contains the many digestive glands and organs, urinary bladder, and
the reproductive organs
∙ The diaphragm, a muscular sheet, separates these two cavities. Chapter 3: Intro to A&P
1. Cells are bound by a cell membrane made up of a phospholipid bilayer. 2. Identify the following structures:
b. Rough ER
c. Smooth ER
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Lysosomes & Peroxisomes
3. The phospholipid bilayer consists of:
A polar, hydrophilic phosphate
o Inters with cytosol and
interstitial fluid to permit cellular
A nonpolar, hydrophobic lipid tail
o Separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid.
o Amphipathic cholesterol (having polar and nonpolar portions) stiffens the cellular membrane by aligning with both the polar
head and nonpolar tail of the bilayer.
4. Difference between integral and peripheral proteins:
Integral proteins are vital parts of the cell membrane (most are
transmembrane) and cannot be removed without causing damage. Peripheral proteins are bound to the surface and easily separated. 5. Functions of the…
a. Proteoglycan: a large molecule (aggrecan) made up of proteins and
sugar that makes up cartilage; cushioning, squishy.
6. Functional Classes of membrane proteins:
I. Anchoring: attaches the plasma membranes to extracellular
structures, stabilizes the cell.
II. Recognition: allows identification by immune cells.
III. Enzyme: a catalyst (can be integral or peripheral).
IV. Receptor: binds to ligands to send chemical messages/signaling
V. Carrier: binds and transports solutes through the cell.
VI. Channel: a pore/protein that permits water and small solutes
through the cell membrane.
7. What are microvilli and cilia?
Microvilli are hairlike extensions of the cell membrane that increase the cell’s surface area to enable nutrient absorption through more
Cilla are the same, except they move.
8. Mucociliary transport moves mucus out of our respiratory systems. The cilia of epithelial cells pick up bacteria and carries it out of the
trachea and lungs, moving it toward the throat to be swallowed or spat. Toxins from smoking slowly damage and can eventually kill cilia,
inhibiting mucocilary transport.
9. Cytoskeleton structures:
a. microfilaments: the smallest element; provides strength, alters cell
shape, and binds the cytoskeleton to the membrane
b. terminal web: a layer of microfilaments at the cell’s surface c. intermediate filaments: the strongest element; provides strength and
move materials through the cytoplasm
10. When are centrioles most active?
Centrioles are groups of microtubules, and they are most active during
cell division where they move DNA strands.
11. What do ribosomes do?
Ribosomes are complex cellular machines that synthesize protein from
There are two types of ribosomes:
o Free ribosomes found floating in the cytoplasm
o Attached ribosomes found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are made of rRNA which is synthesized in the nucleolus. 12. Describe the endoplasmic reticulum.
The ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope, surrounding the
There are smooth ER (SER) and rough ER (RER):
o Smooth ER synthesizes: phospholipids and cholesterol needed for cell maintenance and growth; reproductive steroid hormones;
glycerides and glycogen.
o Rough ER chemically modifies and packages proteins to export them to the Golgi apparatus, requiring fixed ribosomes to its double
13. How do transport vesicles move throughout the cell?
Transport vesicles use motor proteins and move along the
14. Describe the Golgi apparatus (the “post office” of the cell). An organelle made of flattened discs (cisternae) with three functions: I. Renew/modify the plasma membrane
II. Package hormones and enzymes for release outside the cell III. Package enzymes within vesicles (lysosomes) for the cytosol Has two parts:
o The cis side (receiving side), where transport vesicles bring some
proteins and glycoproteins.
o The trans face (shipping side), where the product can be sent to one of three places (the membrane renewal vesicles, secretory vesicles, or lysosomes).
15. Describe lysosomes.
The lysosome has three basic functions, all to breakdown organic molecules or organelles. It does this via enzymes and toxic chemicals
within a vesicle to keep from damaging the rest of the cell.
I. Removal of damaged organelles: the lysosome fuses with another
organelle’s membrane and activates the enzymes.
II. Destruction of foreign material: the lysosome fuses with a vesicle
containing extracellular material.
III. Autolysis: the lysosome membrane breaks down following the injury or death of the cell and releases its digestive enzymes upon the
cytoplasm. Here they are called “suicide packets.”
Lysosomes are made when endosomes that fuse with vesicles of the
16. Describe the mitochondria.
The powerhouse of the cell, generating about 95% of the ATP it needs
to stay alive.
Like the nucleus, has a double membrane and contains its own DNA
(known as mtDNA) and ribosomes.
17. Describe the functions of:
a. The nucleus: the control center for cellular homeostasis.
o Controls communication between the cytoplasm and nucleus o Stores the genetic information of the cell, instructions for
protein synthesis (DNA)
DNA strands are coiled around histone molecules,
When not dividing, nucleosomes are and form a filament
tangle called chromatin.
When dividing, DNA coils tighter, forming chromosomes,
holding the two strands together at the centromere.
b. The nucleolus:
o A nuclear organelle that synthesizes the ribosomal RNA
o Assembles ribosomal subunits, sent out through nuclear pores 18. Describe a gene.
A functional unit of heredity. It contains the DNA nucleotides necessary
to produce specific proteins.
19. What is the relationship between nucleotides, codons, and amino acids? Nucleotides are the subunits (monomers) of DNA and RNA. Codons are triplets of RNA nucleotides that code for specific amino
acids, which form the polypeptide chains of proteins.
20. How does DNA in the nucleus get unzipped for replication? A helicase enzyme.
21. Describe transcription (to copy, rewrite).
The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
RNA polymerase unwinds DNA, binds to the promoter
RNA polymerase forms mRNA using codons
A DNA “stop” signal terminates the process
DNA strands reassociate, the RNA molecule is released
mRNA leaves through a nuclear pore for the cytoplasm
22. Describe translation.
Building polypeptides from an mRNA strand
mRNA binds to a small ribosomal subunit mRNA
tRNA anticodon pairs to the triplet code of the mRNA
New tRNA adds amino acids to the elongating polypeptide chain Termination occurs at the stop sequence
The polypeptide is released as a functional protein into the cell 23. The phospholipid bilayer has selective permeability.
The cell builds channels using proteins to allow specific materials to
24. Describe diffusion.
The net movement of a substance from high concentration to and area
of low concentration
Five factors that influence diffusion:
o Distance: Short distance quickly eliminates the concentration
o Size of the molecule: Large ions are more difficult to diffuse. o Temperature: Higher temperature equals a faster diffusion rate. o Concentration gradient: A steeper gradient means faster diffusion. o Electrical forces: Opposites attract, and like charges repel. Osmosis differs as specializes in moving water.
25. Hypertonic vs. hypotonic:
a. Hypertonic (more solute outside the membrane): the blood cell
shrivels as water leaves for the area of higher solute.
b. Hypotonic (less solute outside the membrane): the blood cell bursts
as water enters it rapidly.
c. Isotonic (equal amounts of solute): the blood cell is normal. 26. Describe facilitated diffusion.
A form of passive transport
Using a channel or carrier protein to move a molecule across the
plasma membrane down its concentration gradient
27. What’s the difference between a symporter and a countertransporter? Symporter: an integral membrane protein that moves two or more
different molecules across the membrane in the same direction. Countertransporter: does the same as the symporter but moves the
molecules in opposite directions.
28. Active vs. passive facilitated transport:
Passive facilitated transport doesn’t require ATP to move along the
Active facilitated transport requires ATP to move it against its
Endocytosis: a substance enters a cell without passing through the cell
membrane, ultimately forming an intracellular vesicle.
o Exocytosis: materials are exported via secretory vesicles
o Pinocytosis: brings in liquids by pinching and forming vesicles o Phagocytosis: ingesting a smaller cell or cell fragment
30. What’s the difference between a tumor and cancer?
Cancer is an illness that consists of mutations – permanent DNA changes that disrupt the regular rate of cell division.
A tumor (neoplasm) is a mass that results from abnormal cell division. These can be benign, meaning it doesn’t threaten life and can be surgically removed.