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NIU / Engineering / BIOS 103 / What are the organic molecules?

What are the organic molecules?

What are the organic molecules?


Week 1 Biology Notes

What are the organic molecules?

Words to Know:

Dehydration: the process of taking away water from something small and making it bigger.

Hydrolysis: adding water to something and breaking it down into  smaller pieces.

Isomers: organic molecules that are the same according to their  molecules but have different arrangements.

Starch: energy storage for plants.

Glycogen: energy storage in animals.

Cellulose: in the cell walls of plants.

Chitin: in cell walls of fungi & the exoskeleton of animals. Peptidoglycan: in the cell walls of bacteria.  

Unsaturated: double bonds b/w carbons.

Saturated: NO double bonds b/w carbons. We also discuss several other topics like . what main region of the body would include the head, neck and trunk?

Nucleoid: has single circular DNA molecules.

Plasmids: small rings of DNA.

What is the first principle of cell theory?

Ribosomes: tiny things in the cytoplasm the synthesize protein.

Conjugation Pili: ridged structures that uses DNA to pass to one cell  to another (singular pilius)

Fimbriae: small, w/ a bristle-like cell surfaceWe also discuss several other topics like What are the different levels of saturation?

Flagella: gives off motility.

ATP: where the mitochondria is in animals

Organic Molecules

-contains hydrogen & carbon atoms.

­4 different classes:

Carbohydrates, proteins, Lipids, nucleic acids 

= all 4 are called biomolecules and are diverse

­repeating units = monomers and a group of monomers = polymers (many parts) Carbon

-small w/ 6 electrons inner


What is a compound light microscope used for?


-can form 4 covalent bonds outer

-carbon bonds good together w/:

Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur


Two Types of reactions:

Dehydration and Hydrolysis. If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of psychoactive drugs?


Energy Storage &  

Structural Molecules  

Polymer of monosaccharides  

Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose,  

Chitin, Peptidoglycan


-tends to speed up chemical reactions  

-majority of them are proteins

-are NOT changed by reactions.

-are catalysts.

-end in -ase.

-pepsin (a kind of enzyme)

-speeds up the metabolism


-large, nonpolar, insoluble in water

-Functions: long-term energy storage, heat retention, protection, cell  communication & regulation, and structural components.

-Storage: fat has 2x as much energy


Long term energy storage and fat acids can be unsaturated or saturated. -Unsaturated example: plant oils, coconut oil = liquid @ room temp. -Saturated example: butter, lard = solid @ room temp.

-also called fats/ oils

-Function: energy storage/ insulation We also discuss several other topics like What were the pea characteristics that mendel studied?

-1 glycerol molecules linked w/ 3 fatty acids by dehydration synthesis. Cell Theory  If you want to learn more check out Can strands run anti-parallel?

-all organisms contain cells

-Schleiden (1804-1881)

-Schwann (1810-1882)

-cells come from preexisting b/c they are self- reproducing -Virchow (1821-1902)

-basic unit are cells.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of strategic marketing management?

Cells Size

-1(mm) decreased to 1(µm) in diameter.

-needs a large surface area of plasma membrane to exchange materials. -surface-area-to-volume ratio requires that the cells be small. Microscopy Today: Compound Light Microscope -Light is passed through the specimen of the microscope.

-compound light = resolves obj. separated by the .2 µm.

-electrons are passed also through the specimen, and the magnetic lenses. Prokaryotic Cells

-lacks a membrane-bound nucleus

-simpler/ smaller than eukaryotic cells which do have a nucleus. -2 different taxonomic domains:

 Bacteria: causes diseases but good for decomposers and could be used  in products/ drugs.

 Archaea: live in extreme habitats

-3 basic shapes: spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), spiral (spirillum = ridged) (spirochete = flexible)

-cell envelope: plasma membrane

-Glycocalyx: the layer that is on the outside of the cell.

-Extreme structures: Flagella, Fimbriae, Conjugation Pili

Extra Notes

• Lipids are NOT polymers b/c of their 2 subunits.  

• Enzymes contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms which turns  their ratio into 1:2:1

• Glucose formula: C6OH12

• The brain and body use Glucose

• Glycogen is the storage for glucose which is then used in the liver  & skeletal bones.

• Monosaccharide are sugar molecules = simple sugar • Hexoses: 6 carbon atoms

• Pentoses: 5 carbon atoms  

• Ribose & deoxyribose: contain sugar in nucleotides/ monomers of  DNA.

• Fatty acids =the tail: nonpolar and hydrophobic (likes water) • Head: polar and hydrophilic (fear of water)

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