Week 1 Biology Notes
Words to Know:
Dehydration: the process of taking away water from something small and making it bigger.
Hydrolysis: adding water to something and breaking it down into smaller pieces.
Isomers: organic molecules that are the same according to their molecules but have different arrangements.
Starch: energy storage for plants.
Glycogen: energy storage in animals.
Cellulose: in the cell walls of plants.
Chitin: in cell walls of fungi & the exoskeleton of animals. Peptidoglycan: in the cell walls of bacteria.
Unsaturated: double bonds b/w carbons.
Saturated: NO double bonds b/w carbons. We also discuss several other topics like . what main region of the body would include the head, neck and trunk?
Nucleoid: has single circular DNA molecules.
Plasmids: small rings of DNA.
Ribosomes: tiny things in the cytoplasm the synthesize protein.
Conjugation Pili: ridged structures that uses DNA to pass to one cell to another (singular pilius)
Fimbriae: small, w/ a bristle-like cell surfaceWe also discuss several other topics like What are the different levels of saturation?
Flagella: gives off motility.
ATP: where the mitochondria is in animals
-contains hydrogen & carbon atoms.
4 different classes:
Carbohydrates, proteins, Lipids, nucleic acids
= all 4 are called biomolecules and are diverse
repeating units = monomers and a group of monomers = polymers (many parts) Carbon
-small w/ 6 electrons inner
-can form 4 covalent bonds outer
-carbon bonds good together w/:
Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
-C-C = STABLE
Two Types of reactions:
Dehydration and Hydrolysis. If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of psychoactive drugs?
Energy Storage &
Polymer of monosaccharides
Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose,
-tends to speed up chemical reactions
-majority of them are proteins
-are NOT changed by reactions.
-end in -ase.
-pepsin (a kind of enzyme)
-speeds up the metabolism
-large, nonpolar, insoluble in water
-Functions: long-term energy storage, heat retention, protection, cell communication & regulation, and structural components.
-Storage: fat has 2x as much energy
Long term energy storage and fat acids can be unsaturated or saturated. -Unsaturated example: plant oils, coconut oil = liquid @ room temp. -Saturated example: butter, lard = solid @ room temp.
-also called fats/ oils
-Function: energy storage/ insulation We also discuss several other topics like What were the pea characteristics that mendel studied?
-1 glycerol molecules linked w/ 3 fatty acids by dehydration synthesis. Cell Theory If you want to learn more check out Can strands run anti-parallel?
-all organisms contain cells
-cells come from preexisting b/c they are self- reproducing -Virchow (1821-1902)
-basic unit are cells. We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of strategic marketing management?
-1(mm) decreased to 1(µm) in diameter.
-needs a large surface area of plasma membrane to exchange materials. -surface-area-to-volume ratio requires that the cells be small. Microscopy Today: Compound Light Microscope -Light is passed through the specimen of the microscope.
-compound light = resolves obj. separated by the .2 µm.
-electrons are passed also through the specimen, and the magnetic lenses. Prokaryotic Cells
-lacks a membrane-bound nucleus
-simpler/ smaller than eukaryotic cells which do have a nucleus. -2 different taxonomic domains:
Bacteria: causes diseases but good for decomposers and could be used in products/ drugs.
Archaea: live in extreme habitats
-3 basic shapes: spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), spiral (spirillum = ridged) (spirochete = flexible)
-cell envelope: plasma membrane
-Glycocalyx: the layer that is on the outside of the cell.
-Extreme structures: Flagella, Fimbriae, Conjugation Pili
• Lipids are NOT polymers b/c of their 2 subunits.
• Enzymes contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms which turns their ratio into 1:2:1
• Glucose formula: C6OH12
• The brain and body use Glucose
• Glycogen is the storage for glucose which is then used in the liver & skeletal bones.
• Monosaccharide are sugar molecules = simple sugar • Hexoses: 6 carbon atoms
• Pentoses: 5 carbon atoms
• Ribose & deoxyribose: contain sugar in nucleotides/ monomers of DNA.
• Fatty acids =the tail: nonpolar and hydrophobic (likes water) • Head: polar and hydrophilic (fear of water)