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NIU / Engineering / BIOS 103 / What are the organic molecules?

What are the organic molecules?

What are the organic molecules?


Week 1 Biology Notes

What are the organic molecules?

Words to Know:

Dehydration: the process of taking away water from something small and making it bigger.

Hydrolysis: adding water to something and breaking it down into  smaller pieces.

Isomers: organic molecules that are the same according to their  molecules but have different arrangements.

Starch: energy storage for plants.

Glycogen: energy storage in animals.

Cellulose: in the cell walls of plants.

Chitin: in cell walls of fungi & the exoskeleton of animals. Peptidoglycan: in the cell walls of bacteria.  

Unsaturated: double bonds b/w carbons.

Saturated: NO double bonds b/w carbons.

Nucleoid: has single circular DNA molecules.

Plasmids: small rings of DNA.

What is the first principle of cell theory?

Ribosomes: tiny things in the cytoplasm the synthesize protein.

Conjugation Pili: ridged structures that uses DNA to pass to one cell  to another (singular pilius)

Fimbriae: small, w/ a bristle-like cell surface

Flagella: gives off motility.

ATP: where the mitochondria is in animals

Organic Molecules

-contains hydrogen & carbon atoms.

­4 different classes:

Carbohydrates, proteins, Lipids, nucleic acids 

= all 4 are called biomolecules and are diverse We also discuss several other topics like What word would describe the epithelium tissue the most?
Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to homogenous mixture of two or more things?

­repeating units = monomers and a group of monomers = polymers (many parts) Carbon

-small w/ 6 electrons inner


What is a compound light microscope used for?


Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to the folds on brain surface?

-can form 4 covalent bonds outer

-carbon bonds good together w/:

Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur


Two Types of reactions:

Dehydration and Hydrolysis.


Energy Storage &  

Structural Molecules  

Polymer of monosaccharides  

Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose,  We also discuss several other topics like What does the punnett square method show?

Chitin, Peptidoglycan


-tends to speed up chemical reactions  

-majority of them are proteins

-are NOT changed by reactions.

-are catalysts.

-end in -ase.

-pepsin (a kind of enzyme)

-speeds up the metabolism


-large, nonpolar, insoluble in water

-Functions: long-term energy storage, heat retention, protection, cell  communication & regulation, and structural components. If you want to learn more check out How did robert hooke come up with his cell theory?

-Storage: fat has 2x as much energy


Long term energy storage and fat acids can be unsaturated or saturated. -Unsaturated example: plant oils, coconut oil = liquid @ room temp. -Saturated example: butter, lard = solid @ room temp.

-also called fats/ oils

-Function: energy storage/ insulation

-1 glycerol molecules linked w/ 3 fatty acids by dehydration synthesis. Cell Theory  

-all organisms contain cells

-Schleiden (1804-1881)

-Schwann (1810-1882)

-cells come from preexisting b/c they are self- reproducing -Virchow (1821-1902)

-basic unit are cells.  

Cells Size

-1(mm) decreased to 1(µm) in diameter.

-needs a large surface area of plasma membrane to exchange materials. -surface-area-to-volume ratio requires that the cells be small. Microscopy Today: Compound Light Microscope -Light is passed through the specimen of the microscope. If you want to learn more check out What is the function of marketing cost analysis?

-compound light = resolves obj. separated by the .2 µm.

-electrons are passed also through the specimen, and the magnetic lenses. Prokaryotic Cells

-lacks a membrane-bound nucleus

-simpler/ smaller than eukaryotic cells which do have a nucleus. -2 different taxonomic domains:

 Bacteria: causes diseases but good for decomposers and could be used  in products/ drugs.

 Archaea: live in extreme habitats

-3 basic shapes: spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), spiral (spirillum = ridged) (spirochete = flexible)

-cell envelope: plasma membrane

-Glycocalyx: the layer that is on the outside of the cell.

-Extreme structures: Flagella, Fimbriae, Conjugation Pili

Extra Notes

• Lipids are NOT polymers b/c of their 2 subunits.  

• Enzymes contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms which turns  their ratio into 1:2:1

• Glucose formula: C6OH12

• The brain and body use Glucose

• Glycogen is the storage for glucose which is then used in the liver  & skeletal bones.

• Monosaccharide are sugar molecules = simple sugar • Hexoses: 6 carbon atoms

• Pentoses: 5 carbon atoms  

• Ribose & deoxyribose: contain sugar in nucleotides/ monomers of  DNA.

• Fatty acids =the tail: nonpolar and hydrophobic (likes water) • Head: polar and hydrophilic (fear of water)

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