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MSU / Biology / BIO 1144 / Why is it important for scientists to classify organisms?

Why is it important for scientists to classify organisms?

Why is it important for scientists to classify organisms?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: BIO II
Professor: Thomas holder
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: #Bio1144
Cost: 50
Name: Bio II, Midterm Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what's going to be on your next exam.
Uploaded: 09/08/2018
18 Pages 61 Views 2 Unlocks
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Exam #1 Study Guide (Chapters 26-35)


Why is it important for scientists to classify organisms?



● Taxonomy

○ Science of describing, naming, and classifying living and extinct organisms and viruses

■ Otherwise known as grouping

○ Hierarchical system involving successive levels

■ Each group is called a taxon

■ The highest level being a Domain

● All of life belongs to 1 of 3 Domains

○ Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

■ Eukarya involves humans

■ Figure 26.1 in textbook

● Systematics

○ Study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among organisms


What names are used in binomial nomenclature?



■ Including extinct and modern organisms

○ Taxonomy groups are based on hypothesis regarding evolutionary relationships and derived from systematics

● 4 Kingdom Concept

○ Domain Bacteria and Archaea

■ Prokaryotic cells

○ Domain Eukarya

■ Eukaryotic cells

● Kingdom Protista Don't forget about the age old question of What is cell body or soma?

● Kingdom Fungi

● Kingdom Plantae

● Kingdom Animalia

● Types of Cells

○ Prokaryotic

■ “Before nucleus”

■ lack of nucleus


What data is used to construct phylogenetic trees?



■ Lack of membrane bound organelles If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between a theory, a hypothesis, and a principle?

○ Eukaryotic

■ “True nucleus”

■ Well-defined nucleus

■ Membrane-bound organelles (internal)

■ Membrane system (spaced compartments)

● Binomial Nomenclature

○ The Genus name and the specific epithet

■ Ex. Homo sapiens (“wise human”) We also discuss several other topics like What is the simple definition of density?

■ Both names either italicized or underlined

● Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753

○ 2 worded scientific name

○ “artificial”

○ Genus name

■ Always a capitalized noun

○ Specific epithet name

■ Never capitalized

● Phylogenetic Trees We also discuss several other topics like What are the consequences when there are two or more quarters of negative growth in gdp?
If you want to learn more check out What are the buying behaviors of the customer?

○ Phylogeny

■ Evolutionary history of a species or group of species

■ To propose a phylogeny biologists use the tools of systematics ● Based on morphological and genetic data We also discuss several other topics like Which viewpoint emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers?

○ A diagram that describes phylogeny

■ A hypothesis of evolutionary relationships among various species ● Based on available information

○ Monophyletic Group or Clade

■ Groups, species, and taxon consisting of the most recent common ancestor and all of its ancestors

● Smaller group and much more recent

○ Paraphyletic Group

■ Contains a common ancestor and some ancestors, but not all, but not all descendants

● Overtime taxonomic groups will be reorganized so only

monophyletic groups are organized

○ Reptiles were a paraphyletic group

■ Due to birds were excluded

■ But still involving turtles, lizards, snakes, and

crocodiles

■ Figure 26.6 in textbook

● Morphological Analysis

○ First systematic studies focused on morphological features of extinct and modern species

■ Most of early classification methods utilized morphological features as well

● Molecular Systematics

○ Analysis of genetic data

■ DNA and amino acid sequences to identify and study genetic similarities and propose phylogenetic trees

■ DNA and amino acid sequences from closely related species are more similar to each other than to sequences from more distantly related species

● Horizontal Gene Transfer

○ Any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism ■ NO sexual reproduction

● Vertical Evolution

○ Changes in groups due to descent from a common ancestor ■ Involves sexual reproduction

● To be a species it must sexually reproduce

● Prokaryotic Diversity

○ Prokaryotic fossils

■ Dated a 3.5 billion years

○ Modern prokaryotes

■ Most abundant, lacking sexual reproduction

● Domain Bacteria

○ Proteobacteria

■ True bacteria

○ Cyanobacteria

■ Blue green bacteria

● Photosynthesis: capture some light

● Domain Archaea

○ Have an “almost” nucleus

○ Specialized membranes

○ Surrounded by wall

■ Not the same as the cell wall

● Eukaryotic Diversity

○ Kingdom Protista

■ Earliest eukaryotes in fossil record

■ Most are microscopic and found in moist environments

● DNA

○ Shows there are separate groups

■ Artificial catch all category

■ Algae

● 10 Groups

● Autotrophic (“self-feeding”)

○ Most abundant photosynthetic; few ingest food

● Unicellular through large multicellular

● Contain a cell wall with cellulose (not completely)

■ Protozoans

● “Animal-like” organisms

● Mostly heterotrophic

○ Amoeba

■ Fungal-like Protists

● Mostly saprotrophic (“absorb feeling”)

● Mostly unicellular (not all)

○ Slime Molds (associated with water)

○ Kingdom Fungi

■ Largest living organism (??possibly??)

■ “Conspicous” portion of the organism is the mushroom, yeast, mold, etc.

● Saprotrophic (some heterotrophic)

● Nature’s “recyclers”

■ Characteristics

● Body

○ Mycelium

■ Compacted mass of tubular filaments called

hyphae

● “Fruiting Body”

○ Site of spare production

● Cell Wall

○ Composed of muramic acid and chitin

● Plant Diversity

○ Kingdom Plantae

■ >330,000 species

■ Eukaryotic and multicellular (all)

■ Mostly autotrophic (“self-feeding”)

● Capture sunlight energy by photosynthesis

■ Food storage compound

● Starch

■ Cell wall

● Composed of cellulose

○ Most abundant carbohydrate in the world

■ Photosynthetic pigments

● Chlorophylls A and B, beta-carotene

■ Referred to as “land plants”

● Fossils

○ Dated to about 40 million years before present

● Ancestor Stock?

○ Probably group of algae? Green algae?

● Life on Land

○ Must get water, requires special innovations

■ Ex. roots --> tree

○ Kingdom Plantae

■ 10 Phyla

● Divisions in Kingdom

● Typically “combine” these into 4 broad categories for

convenience and due to similar characteristics

■ “Bryophytes”

● Phyta- means plant

■ Phylum Hepatophyta

● Liverworts - 6,500 species

■ Phylum Anthocerophyta

● Hornworts - 100 species

■ Phylum Bryophyta

● Mosses - 12,000 species

○ Due to similarities between these 3 groups, often

discussed together as “mosses and their allies”

■ Characteristics of the Above Phylums^

● Reproduce by spores (NO seeds)

● Non-vascular plants

○ Lack conducting tissues

■ Xylem and Phloem

● Require water for reproduction

● “Pteridophytes”

○ Phylum Lycopodiophyta

■ Lycophytes - 1,000 species

○ Phylum Pteridophyta

■ Ferns and Allies - 12,000 species

● Due to similarities between two

■ Characteristics of the Above Phylums^

● Reproduce by spores (NO seeds)

● Vascular plants

○ Conducts water, minerals, phloem

■ Conducts food and salutes

● “True” roots, stems, and leaves

○ Due to being vascularized

● Vascular tissues allow for large size

● Require water for reproduction

● “Gymnosperms”

○ Phylum Cycadophyta

■ Cyoads - 300 species

○ Phylum Ginkgophyta

■ Ginkgo - 1 species

○ Phylum Gnetophyta

■ Gnetophytes - 300 species

○ Phylum Coniferophyta

■ Conifers - 500 species

● Known as the “naked seed”

● Due to similarity of seeds, these 4 groups, often discussed

together as the Gymnosperms

■ Characteristics of the Above Phylums^

● Biggest group are the conifers

○ “Cone-bearing” trees

● Includes the following living organisms

● Oldest

○ Bristlecone Pine

● Biggest

○ Giant Sequoia

● Tallest

○ Coastal Redwood

● Vascular Plants

○ Contain conducting tissues

■ Xylem and phloem

● More advanced than the pteridophytes

● Seeds

○ Advanced characters

○ NOT enclosed inside a structure

○ Seed has a “survival value”

○ Contains embryo, stored food, and integument

● Does NOT require external water for reproduction, pollen

tube delivers sperm to egg location

● “Angiosperms”

○ “Means enclosed seeds”

○ Phylum Anthophyta

■ > 300,000 species

■ Produce flowers and fruits

● Most advanced vascular tissues and seeds

■ Seeds

● Advanced character

● Seed is enclosed in a vessel (fruit)

● Seed has extra “survival value”

■ Contains embryo, stored food, 2 integuments

■ Does NOT require external water for reproduction, pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location

■ Flowers

● Attract pollinators

■ Fruits

● Enclose and protect seeds and assist with seed dispersal

○ Kingdom Animalia

■ Over 1.5 million species (> 3 million)

■ 35 Phylums

● More similarity within animal genomes than other Kingdoms ■ Characteristics

● Multicellular (“meta”)

● NO cell wall

○ Possess more flexibility

● Sexual reproduction (mobile)

○ Small sperm, and larger, non-mobile egg

● Nervous system

○ Complexity (responsiveness)

● Hox genes (vertebrates have more)

○ Found in all animals (only) function in body axis

○ Table 32.1 and Figure 32.3 in textbook

● “Metazoans” (multicellular animal)

○ Parazoans

■ Sponges

■ Phylum Porifera

○ Eumetazoans

■ “True” multicellular animals

● Morphological and Developmental Features

○ 1. Body Symmetry

■ Balanced proportions of body on sides of a plane

○ 2. Number or Tissue Layers

○ 3. Patterns of Embryonic Development

■ Symmetry

■ Eumetazoa

● Divided by symmetry

■ Radiata (radially symmetric)

● Can be divided equally by an longitudinal plane

● Often circular or tubular in shape with a opening at one end

■ Bilateria (bilaterally symmetric)

● Can be divided along a vertical plane to produce 2 halves

● Have cephalization and dorsal and ventral sides

● Have anterior and posterior end

■ Tissues

● Metazoa (all animals)

○ Divided based on whether they have specialized

tissues

● Parazoa

○ Without specialized tissues and organs

○ Porifera (sponges)

○ Have distinct cell types

● Eumetazoa

○ Radiata (2 tissue types)

○ Bilateria (3 tissue types)

○ Figure 32.5 in textbook

● Germ Layers

○ “Tissue layers”

○ Radiata

■ 2 Layers

● Diploblastic

○ Endoderm and Ectoderm

○ Bilateria

■ 3 Layers

● Triploblastic

○ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

■ Differ in number of embryonic cell layers (germ

layers)

○ Cell Layers develop during “Gastrulation”

■ Inner

● Endoderm

■ Middle

● Mesoderm (bilateria)

● Figure 32.6 in textbook

■ Outer

● Ectoderm

● Embryonic Development

○ Protostome

■ “First opening”

■ Blastopore becomes mouth

■ Cleavage is determinate

● Fate of embryonic cell is determined early

○ Deuterostome

■ “Second opening”

■ Blastopore becomes anus

● 2nd comes mouth

■ Cleavage is undetermined

● Each cell produced only cleavage can develop into a complete embryo

● Morphological Characteristics used in Classification

○ In the past, presence, and absence of a coelom or body segmentation was used in construction of phylogenies

○ Molecular data suggest these features these features are unreliable in terms of understanding evolutionary history

● Body Cavity

○ Coelom

■ Fluid-filled body cavity

■ Coelomate and Eucoelomate

● Eu: meaning true

○ Coelomate completely lined with mesoderm

■ Pseudocoelomate

● Pseudo: meaning false

○ Rotifers and Roundworms

■ Acoelomate

● Lack of body cavity and instead of mesenchyme

○ Flatworms

○ Figure 32.8 in textbook

● Functions of the Coelom

○ Cushions internal organs

○ Enables movement and growth of internal organs independent of the body wall

○ Fluid acts as a simple circulatory system

● Segmentation

○ Body may be divided into regions

■ Segments

● Occurs in annelid worms, arthropods, and chordates

● Allows specialization of body regions

● Table 32.2 in textbook

● Molecular View of Animal Diversity

○ Scientists now use a molecular techniques to classify animals

■ Compare similarities in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequences ■ Closely related to organisms have fewer differences than those more distantly related

○ Advantage over morphological data in that genetic sequences are easier to quantify and compare

■ A, T, G, and C of DNA

■ Morphological data are more subjective

● Genes used in Molecular Systematics

○ Studies often focus on ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

■ Universal in all organisms

■ Changes slowly overtime

○ Hox Genes (often studied)

■ Found in all animals

■ Duplications in these genes may have led to evolution of complex body forms

○ Phylogenies constructed using rRNA and Hox Genes

■ Similarly and often agree with those based on morphology

● rRNA and Hox Genes

○ Show diversity in sponges

○ Show separation in protostome and deuterostome

● Phylum Porifera

○ Sponges

■ Invertebrates “without backbone”

○ Lack tissues and organs

○ ??Multicellular??

○ “Pores”

■ Used to filter water and food into the body and filter waste out ● 95% animal species are invertebrates

● Phylum Cnidaria and Phylum Ctenophora

○ Jellyfish, Corals, Anemones, and Comb Jellies

○ Diploblastic Development

■ Endoderm and ectoderm

○ Mesoglea (jellyfish)

■ Gelatinous covering

○ Nerve Net

■ Interconnected nerve cells, NO brain

○ 1 Opening with Gastrovascular Cavity

■ Release and take in

○ Protostomes

■ Invertebrates (radial symmetry)

● Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworm phylum)

○ Flatworms, Flukes, and Tapeworms

○ Triploblastic Development

■ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

● 50% more germ layers

○ Organs and organ systems

○ Enhanced nerve net with 2 cerebral ganglia

○ 1 opening with gastrovascular cavity

■ Protostomes

● Invertebrates (bilateral symmetry)

● Phylum Rotifera

○ Rotifers

○ Pseudocoelomate

■ False cavity

○ Complete gut tract

■ Alimentary Canal

○ “Corona”

○ Simple Brain

■ Invertebrates

● Phylum Mollusca

○ Snails, Slugs, Oysters, Octopus, and Squid ○ Triploblastic Development

■ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

● 50% more germ layers

○ Eucoelomate

■ True cavity

○ Complete Gut Tract

○ Protostomes

■ Invertebrates

○ 3 Part Body

■ Foot

■ Visceral Mass

■ Mantle

● Some with a shell

● Phylum Annelida

○ Segmented Ringworms

○ Triploblastic Development

■ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

● 50% more germ layers

○ Eucoelomate

■ True cavity

○ Complete Gut Tract

○ Protostomes

■ Invertebrates

○ Enhanced nervous system

● Phylum Nematoda

○ Roundworms

○ Triploblastic Development

■ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

● 50% more germ layers

○ Eucoelomate

■ True cavity

○ Complete Gut Tract

○ Protostomes

■ Invertebrates

● Phylum Arthropoda

○ Insects, Crustaceans, Lobster, Crabs, Spiders, Ticks

○ Highest species diversity of animals

■ Probably over 1.5 million species

○ Hardened Exoskeleton

○ Protostomes

■ Invertebrates

○ Eucoelomate

■ True cavity

○ Triploblastic Development

■ Endoderm, Ectoderm, and Mesoderm

● 50% more germ layers

○ Enhanced nervous system

■ Insects in particular, enhanced brain

○ Segmented appendages

● Phylum Echinodermata

○ Sea Stars, Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, and Sand Dollars

○ Eucoelomate

■ True cavity

○ Complete Gut Tract

○ Deuterostomes

■ Vertebrates

○ Endoskeleton

■ Series of plates

○ Few invertebrates, mostly vertebrates

○ 4 Critical Innovations of the Chordate

■ Body Design

● 1. Notochord

○ Cartilaginous supporting rod along dorsal axis

○ Replaced by jointed “backbone”

■ Vertebral column of hardened cartilage or bone

● 2. Dorsal and Hollow Nerve Chord (with Brain)

○ Expanded at anterior end (brain)

○ Enclosed, supported, and protected by vertebral

column and notochord

● 3. Pharyngeal Gill Pouches

○ Pharynx

■ Back of mouth cavity

○ Inside of the pouches

■ Gill slits

● Where gas exchange occurs

● 4. Postanal Tail

○ Tail extends posterior of anus

■ 4 features are exhibited at some point of life and

history

■ Only some fish exhibit all 4 features as adults

● Humans

○ Notochord

■ Replaced as a series of bony elements (vertebrae) only “pieces” left are the intervertebral discs between vertebrae

○ Nerve Cord

■ Dorsal and hollow with the largest brain cavity

○ Pharyngeal Pouches

■ Embryonic Development

● 1 pair retained as eustachian tubes

○ Postanal Tail

■ 1 vertebra as tailbone

● Coccyx

● Phylum Chordata

○ Subphylum Urochordata (“tunicates”)

■ Figure 33.37 in textbook

■ Invertebrates

● Look “fish-like”

■ 3,000 species

■ Marine

● Salt-water

■ Filter feeders

○ Subphylum Cephalochordata (“lancelets”)

■ Figure 33.36 in textbook

■ Invertebrates

● Look “fish-like”

■ 25 species

■ Marine

● Salt-water

■ Filter feeders

○ Subphylum Vertebrata (“chordates with backbone”)

■ Figure and Table 34.1 in textbook

■ Chordate Features

● 1. Vertebral Column

○ Series of cartilaginous or bony elements

● 2. Cranium

● 3. Endoskeleton

● 4. Hox Genes (lots of them)

● 5. Neutral Crest (migrating nerves)

■ Class Myxini

● Cyclostomes (jawless fishes), Hagfishes

○ Figure 34.2 in textbook

○ Lack of jaws, eyes, fins, and vertebrae skeleton

comprised of notochord and cartilaginous skull

covered with slime

■ Class Cephalaspidomorphi

● Lampreys

○ Figure 34.3 in textbook

○ Have a notochord, cartilaginous vertebral column

○ Lack of jaws and appendages (fins)

■ Fossils

● Somphob

■ Class Chondrichthyes

● Sharks, Skates, and Rays (cartilaginous fishes)

○ Figure 34.5 in textbook

○ Cartilaginous skeleton and notochord as adults

○ “Jawed Fishes”

○ Paired Appendages (fins)

■ Class Osteichthyes

● Bony fishes

○ Figure 34.7 and 34.8 in textbook

○ Most diverse vertebrate group (over 26,000 species)

○ Bony skeleton (mostly)

○ Jawed Mouths

○ Paired Appendages (fins)

■ Osteo: means bone

● Tetrapods

○ Gnathostomes with 4 Limbs

■ “Jawed Mouth”

● Transition to Land

○ Involved adaptations for locomotion, reproduction, to

prevent desiccation and gas exchange

○ Sturdy Lobe

■ Finned fishes became animals with 4 Limbs

○ Vertebral column strengthened hip and shoulder bones

braced against backbone

○ Relatively simple changes in gene expression

■ Especially Hox Genes

○ Class Amphibia (> 4,000 species)

■ Amphibious

● “Living a double life”

○ Most split their life between aquatic and terrestrial

stages

● Successfully invaded land, but reproduce in water

● Lungs are adaptation to a semiterristrial lifestyle

● 3-Chambered Heart

○ Fish: 2-Chambered Heart

● Amphibian Diversity

○ Order Anura

■ Figure 34.12 in textbook

■ Frogs and Toads

■ Nearly 90% of amphibians

■ Carnivorous adults, herbivorous tadpoles

○ Order Apoda

■ Figure 34.13 in textbook

■ Caecilians

■ Nearly blind tropical burrowers

■ Secondarily legless

○ Order Urodela

■ Figure 34.13 in textbook

■ Salamanders

■ Often have colorful skin patterns

■ Most have 4 limbs

● Amniotes

○ Tetrapods with a Desiccation-Resistant Egg

■ Egg holds water

○ Critical Innovation

■ Development of a shelled egg

○ Amniotic Egg broke tie to water

■ 3 internal membranes

○ Shell is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide

■ Bird Eggs

● Hard and calcareous

■ Reptile Eggs

● Soft and leathery

■ Most Mammals

● Figure 34.14 in textbook

● Embryo embeds in uterine wall and undergoes in fluid

○ “Amnion is the indoor pond”

■ Where water is held

○ Desiccation-Resistant Skin

■ Contains keratin (thicker)

○ Thoracic Breathing

■ Negative pressure sucks air in

○ Water-Conserving Kidneys

■ Concentrate waste prior to elimination

○ Internal Fertilization

● Class Reptilia

○ > 8,000 species

○ Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, and Crocodilians

■ Figure 34.15 and 34.16 in textbook

○ Live away from water

○ Thicker skin and scales

○ Larger brain

○ Larger limbs and muscles

○ Enhanced kidneys

○ Amniotic egg

■ “Indoor Pond”

● Vertebrate Reproductive Modes

○ 1. Oviparous

■ “Egg laying” outside of the body

● Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

○ 2. Ovoviviparous

■ “Life Bearing” with retention of eggs

■ NO maternal connection

● Fishes and Reptiles

○ 3. Viviparous

■ “Life Bearing” with retained eggs

■ Maternal connection (placenta)

● Reptiles and Mammals

● Class Aves

○ > 9,000 species

○ Figure 34.21 in textbook

○ Birds (oviparous)

■ Evolved from small dinosaurs

■ Fossils at 150 million years before present

■ Adaptations for Flight

● Feathers, Modified Forelimbs, Lightweight Skeleton, Organ

Reduction, Lungs, and Air Sacs

○ More gas exchange

■ Endothermic

● “Internal Temperature”

● Body temperature is primarily controlled by trapped

metabolic heat

○ Birds and Mammals

■ Exothermic

● “External Temperature”

● Body temperature is primarily related to external temperature ● Metabolic heat generated but different to capture and

maintain the heat

● Variable Temperature

○ Fishes, Amphibians, and Turtles

● Class Mammalia

○ > 6,000 species

○ “Milk-producing amniotes”

■ Evolved from amniote ancestors (reptile) earlier than birds

■ Appeared about 225 million years before present

● Evolved from small mammal-like reptiles

■ After dinosaur extinction mammals flourished

■ Range of sizes, body forms, and complexity unmatched

■ Fish-like mammals

● Marine mammals

■ Bird-like mammals

● Bats

■ Reptile-like mammals

● 3 egg layers

○ Distinguishing Characteristics^

■ Mammary glands

● Secrete milk

■ All mammals have hair

● More or less

■ Only vertebrates with multiple dentitions

■ Heterodont (Figure 34.22 in textbook)

● Types of teeth

○ Incisors, Canines, Molar, and Premolars

■ Thecodont (Figure 34.23 in textbook)

● Teeth with long roots embedded in sockets of the jawbone

■ Diphyodont (Figure 34.26 in textbook)

● 2 sets of teeth in a lifetime

■ Pinna

● Flap of loose connective tissue (ears)

○ Funnel soundwaves

■ 3 Middle Ossicles

■ Enlarged Skull

● Brain enlarged in large skull

○ Humans have the largest brain

■ Anucleate Red Blood Cells

● NO nucleus

● Order Primates

○ Primarily tree-dwelling species

○ Defining Characteristics

■ Grasping hands with opposable thumbs

■ Large brain

■ Some digits with flat nails

● Not claws

■ Binocular vision

■ Complex sensory of touch

■ Advanced parental system

● Taxonomy of humans

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