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ASU / Psychology / PSY 294 / What is cell body or soma?

What is cell body or soma?

What is cell body or soma?


School: Arizona State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
Professor: Samuel mcclure
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Pyscholgy
Cost: 50
Name: Psy 294 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the concepts that were in the review session. Look at pictures in the book to best learn the anatomy of the brain
Uploaded: 09/08/2018
7 Pages 106 Views 2 Unlocks

Exam  1 Study Guide 

What is cell body or soma?

∙ Half multiple choice, half short answer 

∙ Will have to label brain images from book (pp. 547 – 563)

∙ Practice looking at brain pictures in book 

Anatomy of a neuron 

­    Dendrites ­ receive info (neurotransmitters); postsynaptic 

­    Soma (cell body) 

∙    Axon hillock – action potentials start; cell body and axon meet 

How does a frontal or coronal plane separate the body?

­    Axon that is myelinated 

∙    Nodes of Ranvier – channels (sodium – potassium channels) are on

myelinated axon (gaps along axon) 

­    Split into terminal buttons 

o Practice labeling a blank neuron  

Views of the brain 

∙ Frontal plane (coronal) – cut in between ears, straight down  Don't forget about the age old question of What did pangaea split into 200 million years ago?

∙ Sagittal plane – cut along nose (helpful to see inner function) 

∙ Horizontal plane (axial) – horizontal cut (see layers of brain) 

CNS orientation  

What is the function of the sagittal midsagittal plane?

∙ Rostral – Caudal 

o Toward the nose vs toward the back 

∙ Anterior – Posterior 

o Toward the nose vs toward the back 

∙ Dorsal – Ventral 

o Toward the top vs toward the bottom 

∙ Superior – inferior 

o Toward the top vs toward the bottom (cerebrum)


*Look at the pictures from the book, those are likely to be used*  If you want to learn more check out What is the simple definition of density?

∙ Know 

o Postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory); right side of central sulcus 

o Precentral gyrus (primary motor); left side of central sulcus  o Types of questions to expect  

1. What ions are associated with a neuron?

(4 main ions)

1. Sodium (Na)

2. Potassium (K)

3. Calcium (Ca2) If you want to learn more check out What are the consequences when there are two or more quarters of negative growth in gdp?

4. Chloride (Cl) 

­ Na and K are action potential 

­ Ca2 and Cl are neurotransmission 

2. What is a cation or anion?

a. Cations are positive charged ions (Na, K, Cl) 

b. Anions are negative charged ions (Cl)

3. What is passive current flow vs active current flow? 

a. Passive current flow – slowly spreads; through dendrites (how you start) b. Active current flow – domino effect; through axon (already started)  4. Steps in an action potential  

1. Start at rest (­70 mV)  before reach threshold (­50 mV)

2. Na voltage­gated channels open 

3. K voltage­gated channels open  Don't forget about the age old question of Which term refers to a group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations?
If you want to learn more check out What are the benefits for salespeople when using an online crm system?

4. Na inactivates (completely off); hyperpolarization; Absolute Refractory Period  5. K closes 

6. Na reactivates, K leaves/diffuses (Relative Refractory Period); everything leaves  5. What are glutamate and GABA 

a. Glutamate – excitatory neurotransmitter 

b. GABA – inhibitory neurotransmitter 

6. Neurotransmissions process  

1. Action potential has reached terminal 

2. Action potential opens voltage­gated Ca2 channel 

3. Vesicles are released; Ca2 help them bind to presynaptic membrane  4. Neurotransmissions are released 

5. Reuptake (anything not used is sucked back in) or branch out and bind onto  postsynaptic membrane 

      7) Where is frontal lobe compared to the occipital lobe?

­ Anterior/rostral We also discuss several other topics like Who was defeated by the native americans at the battle of the little bighorn?

8) Where is the occipital lobe compared to the temporal lobe?  ­ Superior/dorsal 

*know the parts of the basal ganglia (be able to identify on picture)*       9) Basal Ganglia 

­ Caudate 

­ Putamen 

­ Globus pallidus 

o ∙ Thalamus – center of brain 

10) The functionality of different areas in cortex 

­ TMS 

11) The function of different medial brain regions 

­ fMRI 

12) How fast people respond using sensory processing tasks  ­ EEG 

13) Half­life of a new SSRI 

­ Half­life relates to drugs, so → PET 

14) Structures involved in motor control 

­ fMRI 

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