×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UT - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UT - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

UT / Psychology / PSYC 110 / What is Empirical method?

What is Empirical method?

What is Empirical method?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Elizabeth cooper
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, memory, and Studyguide
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Psychology 110 Exam on 9/12
Description: Main concepts such as memory, research design, and more needed to help on the exam.
Uploaded: 09/08/2018
3 Pages 5 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


Psych Exam 1 Study Guide


What is Empirical method?



____________________________________________________________________________ ____

Terms to Know

- Psychology - ​The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

- Empirical method​ - acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities - Introspection ​ which is a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed

- Structuralism ​- finding observable (repeatable) patterns during several experiments through introspection

- Functionalism​ - psychology’s purpose was to study the functions of behavior in the world - Psychoanalytic Theory ​- focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious mind, as well as early childhood experiences, and dominated clinical psychology for several decades


What is Introspection?



- Gestalt Psychology​ - although sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, the way they react as a whole determines perception

- Classical Conditioning​ an approach where a learned behavior is developed by an animal or human that produces an unconscious response, such as smiling when you see someone, overtime and are conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus, such as smiling when you see a family member of the original person

- Behaviorism ​- observing and controlling behavior

- Operant Conditioning​ - conditioning learned behavior based on reinforcement and punishment - Humanism​ - perspective that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans - unconditional positive regard - ​I accept you no matter what you say or do - Biopsychology​ - explores how our biology influences our behavior Don't forget about the age old question of what is Archaea?

- Sensations​ - sensory information (sight, taste, touch, hear, smell)


What is Structuralism?



- Perception​ - your experience of these things (what you pay attention to)

- object permanence​ - when you hide a toy from a young child they think it doesn’t exist, but an adult would know that it is just hidden

- Social Psychology​ - how we relate and interact with others

- Biopsychosocial model​ - biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that are believed to determine health and illness

- Clinical Psychology​ is the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior

- Counseling Psychology ​- focuses on the emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes in individuals who are considered psychologically healthy

- Dissertation​ - essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training

- A PsyD degree​ is a doctor of psychology that places less emphasis on research and more on the applications in a clinical context

- Confirmation bias​ - looking for proof of your side only; this is one reason why over reliance on anecdotes is a problem

- Belief Perseverance​ - have disconfirming evidence but still have belief

- Scientific Thinking Principles

- 1. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence

- 2. Parsimony (Occam’s Razor)

- 3. Replicability

- 4. Falsifiability Don't forget about the age old question of empiricism defined as what?

- Is it possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false?

- False = not true

- Falsified = demonstrated to be untrue

- Falsifiable = possible to be untrue and testable Don't forget about the age old question of What is periodization?

- Not falsifiable = not testable

- 5. Ruling out rival hypotheses

- Correlation is not Causation

- Encoding strategies​: rehearsal

- 1. Maintenance rehearsal- repeating

- 2. Elaborative rehearsal- thinking about the meaning

- Visualization

- Organization We also discuss several other topics like What are monosaccharides made of?

- Chunking

- Hierarchies

- Levels of Processing

- Deeper - longer lasting memory codes

- Semantic Network

- All the information in your head is connected

- Algorithm​ - step by step formula that provides you with step by step instructions used to achieve a desired outcome

- Heuristic​ - general problem solving framework

- Mental Set​ - where you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now

- Functional Fixedness ​- type of mental set where you can not perceive an object being used for something other than what it is designed for

- Holds true in all cultures

- Anchoring Bias​ - occurs when you focus on one piece of information when making a decision or solving a problem

- Confirmation Bias​ - tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs - Hindsight Bias​ - leads you to believe that the event you just experienced was predictable even though it wasn’t

- Representative Bias​ - describes a faulty way of thinking in which you unintentionally stereotype someone of something

- Availability Heuristic​ - heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is readily available to you even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision

_____________________________________________________________ Important People

- Jean Piaget ​discovered object permanence and was a developmental psychologist - Abraham Maslow ​created the hierarchy of needs

- As long as your basic needs are met, you can move up the pyramid to reach your full potential

- Carl Rogers ​emphasized the good in all people If you want to learn more check out What is Fructose?

- Believed a therapist needed to give unconditional positive regard (I accept you no matter what you say or do), genuineness, and empathy

- B.F. Skinner​ believed punishment and reinforcement were major factors in driving behavior; came up with operant conditioning

- John Watson ​focused directly on observable behavior and controlling it (behaviorism) - Ivan Pavlov​ created Classical Conditioning We also discuss several other topics like what is Syntax?

- Sigmund Freud​ was an Austrian neurologist fascinated by the “crazy” people suffering from things like hysteria

- William James​ decided psychology should operate according to functionalism - Wilhelm Wundt ​was a German scientist and was the first person to be called a psychologist. He used introspection, and was the founder of Structuralism

____________________________________________________________ Overview

***** Make sure you know the research process, experimental design process, what psychology is, basic memory, and studying strategies

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here