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UT / Psychology / PSYC 110 / What is Empirical method?

What is Empirical method?

What is Empirical method?


School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Elizabeth cooper
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, memory, and Studyguide
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Psychology 110 Exam on 9/12
Description: Main concepts such as memory, research design, and more needed to help on the exam.
Uploaded: 09/08/2018
3 Pages 5 Views 6 Unlocks

Psych Exam 1 Study Guide

What is Empirical method?

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Terms to Know

- Psychology - ​The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

- Empirical method​ - acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities - Introspection ​ which is a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible, making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed

- Structuralism ​- finding observable (repeatable) patterns during several experiments through introspection

- Functionalism​ - psychology’s purpose was to study the functions of behavior in the world - Psychoanalytic Theory ​- focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious mind, as well as early childhood experiences, and dominated clinical psychology for several decades

What is Introspection?

- Gestalt Psychology​ - although sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, the way they react as a whole determines perception

- Classical Conditioning​ an approach where a learned behavior is developed by an animal or human that produces an unconscious response, such as smiling when you see someone, overtime and are conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus, such as smiling when you see a family member of the original person

- Behaviorism ​- observing and controlling behavior

- Operant Conditioning​ - conditioning learned behavior based on reinforcement and punishment - Humanism​ - perspective that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans - unconditional positive regard - ​I accept you no matter what you say or do - Biopsychology​ - explores how our biology influences our behavior Don't forget about the age old question of what is Archaea?

- Sensations​ - sensory information (sight, taste, touch, hear, smell)

What is Structuralism?

- Perception​ - your experience of these things (what you pay attention to)

- object permanence​ - when you hide a toy from a young child they think it doesn’t exist, but an adult would know that it is just hidden

- Social Psychology​ - how we relate and interact with others

- Biopsychosocial model​ - biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that are believed to determine health and illness

- Clinical Psychology​ is the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior

- Counseling Psychology ​- focuses on the emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes in individuals who are considered psychologically healthy

- Dissertation​ - essentially a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training

- A PsyD degree​ is a doctor of psychology that places less emphasis on research and more on the applications in a clinical context

- Confirmation bias​ - looking for proof of your side only; this is one reason why over reliance on anecdotes is a problem

- Belief Perseverance​ - have disconfirming evidence but still have belief

- Scientific Thinking Principles

- 1. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence

- 2. Parsimony (Occam’s Razor)

- 3. Replicability

- 4. Falsifiability Don't forget about the age old question of empiricism defined as what?

- Is it possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false?

- False = not true

- Falsified = demonstrated to be untrue

- Falsifiable = possible to be untrue and testable Don't forget about the age old question of What is periodization?

- Not falsifiable = not testable

- 5. Ruling out rival hypotheses

- Correlation is not Causation

- Encoding strategies​: rehearsal

- 1. Maintenance rehearsal- repeating

- 2. Elaborative rehearsal- thinking about the meaning

- Visualization

- Organization We also discuss several other topics like What are monosaccharides made of?

- Chunking

- Hierarchies

- Levels of Processing

- Deeper - longer lasting memory codes

- Semantic Network

- All the information in your head is connected

- Algorithm​ - step by step formula that provides you with step by step instructions used to achieve a desired outcome

- Heuristic​ - general problem solving framework

- Mental Set​ - where you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now

- Functional Fixedness ​- type of mental set where you can not perceive an object being used for something other than what it is designed for

- Holds true in all cultures

- Anchoring Bias​ - occurs when you focus on one piece of information when making a decision or solving a problem

- Confirmation Bias​ - tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs - Hindsight Bias​ - leads you to believe that the event you just experienced was predictable even though it wasn’t

- Representative Bias​ - describes a faulty way of thinking in which you unintentionally stereotype someone of something

- Availability Heuristic​ - heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is readily available to you even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision

_____________________________________________________________ Important People

- Jean Piaget ​discovered object permanence and was a developmental psychologist - Abraham Maslow ​created the hierarchy of needs

- As long as your basic needs are met, you can move up the pyramid to reach your full potential

- Carl Rogers ​emphasized the good in all people If you want to learn more check out What is Fructose?

- Believed a therapist needed to give unconditional positive regard (I accept you no matter what you say or do), genuineness, and empathy

- B.F. Skinner​ believed punishment and reinforcement were major factors in driving behavior; came up with operant conditioning

- John Watson ​focused directly on observable behavior and controlling it (behaviorism) - Ivan Pavlov​ created Classical Conditioning We also discuss several other topics like what is Syntax?

- Sigmund Freud​ was an Austrian neurologist fascinated by the “crazy” people suffering from things like hysteria

- William James​ decided psychology should operate according to functionalism - Wilhelm Wundt ​was a German scientist and was the first person to be called a psychologist. He used introspection, and was the founder of Structuralism

____________________________________________________________ Overview

***** Make sure you know the research process, experimental design process, what psychology is, basic memory, and studying strategies

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