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FAU / CLPS / CLP 4144 / What is the meaning of the word symptom?

What is the meaning of the word symptom?

What is the meaning of the word symptom?

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: CLPS
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Larry miller
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3 Notes
Description: These notes cover week 3 of class.
Uploaded: 09/09/2018
16 Pages 27 Views 12 Unlocks
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CLASSIFICATION & DIAGNOSIS


What is the meaning of the word symptom?



Tuesday, September 4, 2018

8:05 AM

∙ Categorical-dimensional

∙ Reliability- validity

∙ DSM- 1952

∙ DSM II- 1968

∙ DSM III- 1980 (First major rework)  

∙ DSM III-R- 1987

∙ DSM IV-1994

∙ DSM IV-TR-2000

∙ DSM V- 2013

∙ ID-10

∙ Sign: Objective, observable feature, characteristic, lab  finding, or behavior of a patient (anything that is observable  by someone else)

o Ex. Mr. Flag is talking to an inanimate object  ∙ Symptom: subjective experience reported by the patient ∙ Syndrome- set of regularly occurring signs and symptoms  with a common etiology and predictable course


Delusions



o Example: Mr. Knee might have had the pain building up  for a while, which could be osteotomies  Don't forget about the age old question of Carbohydrates are made of what?

∙ Disorder- syndrome that causes significant distress to the  patient or others

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ∙ General inappropriateness of behavior

∙ Disorientation for:  

o Time  

∙ Ex. Loses track of time, dates, events in time o Place If you want to learn more check out What type of biomolecules are sex hormones?

∙ Ex. Don’t know where you are, generally and/or  specifically

o Person

∙ Ex. Doesn’t remember autobiographical details i.e. date of birth, name, mother's name, number of  

siblings, etc.  

∙ Impaired cognition


Hallucinations



o Perception: is the individual perceiving things correctly  (or commonly)

∙ Perception can be in any sense, i.e.  

∙ Ex. Is the patient seeing you as a clinician or  something else

o Memory: inability to remember things

∙ inorganic brain damage can cause severe memory damage

∙ Ex. People experiencing stress or depression may  have impaired memory

o Thinking: confusion

∙ Speech: what the person's mental state is like o Tangentiality: Can't stay on track, jumps from one thing  to another

o Circumstantiality: returning to the same topic or theme ∙ Often in things that are important to them If you want to learn more check out How does kepler's laws apply?
We also discuss several other topics like What is sociology?

o Perseveration: Never get off the topic/ behavior  regardless of roadblocks or obstacles

∙ Ex. Standing in front of a door that won't happen  when there's another door that leads to the same  place

o Pressure: the person is talking abnormally fast, the  person can't get the words out fast enough

o Slowness: speech that is abnormally slow or scarce ∙ Aphasia  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of grunig and hunt's model of public relation?

o Expressive - cant produce language

∙ Knew what they wanted to say but the words  couldn’t come out

o Receptive- lack of ability to understand the meaning of  what people tell you or what you read

∙ Hear the sound but sounds like a foreign language

o Aprosodia- inability to understand the tone in which the  word or words are used which effects how you perceive  the meaning

∙ Thinking

o Flight of ideas: the person is talking about one thing  and jumps to talking about something else where the  theme is commonly the same

o Paranoia: believing that someone is out to get you even though there is no objective sign

o Grandiosity: inflated sense of one's importance or  abilities that can not be verified  

∙ Ex. A person saying, "I am a famous author and I  discovered the cure for polio" Don't forget about the age old question of Carbohydrates (cho) are made of what?

o Ideas of reference: inappropriately conclude that things  that are objectively neutral are associated with you ∙ Hearing something on the radio and construing  that it is referring to you, i.e. a advertisement for a  new cancer test and the person says, "how did they  know I got tested last week".

o Delusions: a mistaken idea (unreal or unsubstantiated  idea or thought) *thinks*

∙ Person believes that someone wants them do  something bad

o Hallucinations - a mistaken, unsubstantiated perception *perceives*

∙ Person is hearing someone tell them to do  something bad

∙ Mood

o Mood vs. affect: Mood-  

∙ Mood: long-term, Overarching mood

∙ Affect: short-term, Moment to moment  

o Elevated/expansive  

o Depressed- talks slow, moves slow, looks depressed o Angry, irritable- externalize, project, angry

o Flat- mood doesn't change, usually no emotion or  expression

o Constricted- mood changes only a little bit  

o Labile- mood changes a little too fast

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

∙ Presenting problem: reason for referral

∙ History of the presenting problem

∙ Background history: medical, educational, vocational, family, etc.  

∙ Prior examinations and/or tests

∙ Prior treatment history  

∙ Appearance and behavior

∙ Mental state

∙ Psychological testing

∙ Results & diagnostic conclusions

∙ Recommendations:  

Psychotherapy: Models

∙ Transformative: make fundamental changes in the person's  psyche. EX. Psychodynamic and existential therapies.  ∙ Corrective: patient learns more productive ways of thinking,  reacting, & behaving, ex. Cognitive-behavioral therapies ∙ Adaptational: patient Is helped to cope with minimally  changeable circumstances. Ex/ supportive-expressive  therapies

Psychotherapy: Applications

∙ Individual  

∙ Couples

∙ Child  

∙ Family

∙ Groups

∙ Combinations

∙ Special populations & applications

∙ Validity & flexibility  

Psychotherapy

Thursday, September 6, 2018

8:07 AM

Psychotherapy: Common Factors in Success

∙ Working alliance- feel comfortable working with one another ∙ Agreement on therapeutic goals

∙ Perceived positive qualities of therapist- liking your therapist  ∙ Therapist's knowledge & flexibility- basic understanding of  problem or of what he/she is doing; has a range of ways or  approaches in which to help

o Diagnosis & assessment

o Psychotherapeutic techniques

o Interpersonal skill & maturity

∙ Rationale for the change process- giving the patient a reason for whatever it is that you are doing

∙ Realistic goals- client and therapist both have realistic goals  and expectations that can be met

∙ Patient's positive expectations- give the patient positive  expectations that you can actually do

∙ Patient's ability/willingness to change- patient has to be  willing to change behaviors or thoughts

∙ Patient's opportunity for catharsis & expression- patient has  to be able to tell you what they are thinking and feeling ∙ Opportunity to learn and practice new attitudes & behaviors changing for the better, client can walk away with something  new, something learned,  

∙ Insight, understanding, and creation of a meaningful  narrative

Forensic Psychology: Civil Law System

*Both law and psychology are preoccupied with things, minds,  thoughts*

 Civilian against another civilian (s) 

∙ Contracts and wills

∙ Estates and inheritances

∙ Family law: marriage, divorce, custody

∙ Civil Competencies and capacities

∙ Torts (- damage or hurt): Workers compensation, personal  injury, etc.

Criminal Law System

Defendant is charged 

∙ Criminal competencies: "proceed."- psychological evaluation  of if the person underrated their rights, their competencies,  their ability to understand what is going on

∙ NGRI: insanity defense

∙ Diminished capacity and mitigation

∙ Prediction of dangerousness & future offending determination for parole  

Civil Competencies 

∙ Presumption of competency -Presumed competent until  someone challenges it

∙ Individual vs. plenary- incompetence with one function vs.  incompetent with everything

∙ Guardianship or ward of the court:  

∙ Mental skills relevant to competency

o General abilities

o Specific cognitive skills

∙ Clinical syndromes relevant to competency-.  

o Stable, permanent

o Progressive

o Potentially recoverable

Criminal competency to proceed 

Understand the nature of the charges

Understand the rang of possible penalties

Be able to assist one's attorney in one's defense

Requirements documentation of mental impairment, but no  specific diagnosis

Insanity Defense

∙ Frequency of use of the insanity defense- Actually more rare  than we think (only raised in about 1 out of 100 cases, most  are unsuccessful)

∙ Presumption of competency  

∙ Actus reus & mens rea.- there has to be evidence that you  committed the crime; there has to be an intention to commit  the crime

∙ Insanity defense standards: cognitive vs. volitional prongs.  o Requires diagnosis of "Mental disease of defect" and  didn’t understand what you were doing or that it was  wrong

o Unable to control it even if they understood the  consequence  

∙ Relatively strict standard of impairment

∙ Insanity defense vs. diminished capacity

The Brain & Behavior

Thursday, September 6, 2018

9:05 AM

Central & Peripheral Nervous System

 Nervous System  

CNS

Brain & Spinal Cord

PNS 

 Somatic | Automatic

Somatic

Automati c

Sympathetic- arousal function (fight or  flight) ; activation

Parasympathetic- everyday functions such as  digestion

Brainstem- pons: bridges coming from cerebellum and nuclei to cranial nerves,  Midrange- posture, etc.  

Reticular Formation- it enables you to direct and utilize all the functions of the  nervous system, it enables you to remain consciousness or focus the attention on  something

Limbic system- functions involved in emotion and memory  

Amygdala- involved with experiencing emotions

Hippocampus- brain formatting; consolidation of information from short term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory

CLASSIFICATION & DIAGNOSIS

Tuesday, September 4, 2018

8:05 AM

∙ Categorical-dimensional

∙ Reliability- validity

∙ DSM- 1952

∙ DSM II- 1968

∙ DSM III- 1980 (First major rework)  

∙ DSM III-R- 1987

∙ DSM IV-1994

∙ DSM IV-TR-2000

∙ DSM V- 2013

∙ ID-10

∙ Sign: Objective, observable feature, characteristic, lab  finding, or behavior of a patient (anything that is observable  by someone else)

o Ex. Mr. Flag is talking to an inanimate object  ∙ Symptom: subjective experience reported by the patient ∙ Syndrome- set of regularly occurring signs and symptoms  with a common etiology and predictable course

o Example: Mr. Knee might have had the pain building up  for a while, which could be osteotomies  

∙ Disorder- syndrome that causes significant distress to the  patient or others

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ∙ General inappropriateness of behavior

∙ Disorientation for:  

o Time  

∙ Ex. Loses track of time, dates, events in time o Place

∙ Ex. Don’t know where you are, generally and/or  specifically

o Person

∙ Ex. Doesn’t remember autobiographical details i.e. date of birth, name, mother's name, number of  

siblings, etc.  

∙ Impaired cognition

o Perception: is the individual perceiving things correctly  (or commonly)

∙ Perception can be in any sense, i.e.  

∙ Ex. Is the patient seeing you as a clinician or  something else

o Memory: inability to remember things

∙ inorganic brain damage can cause severe memory damage

∙ Ex. People experiencing stress or depression may  have impaired memory

o Thinking: confusion

∙ Speech: what the person's mental state is like o Tangentiality: Can't stay on track, jumps from one thing  to another

o Circumstantiality: returning to the same topic or theme ∙ Often in things that are important to them

o Perseveration: Never get off the topic/ behavior  regardless of roadblocks or obstacles

∙ Ex. Standing in front of a door that won't happen  when there's another door that leads to the same  place

o Pressure: the person is talking abnormally fast, the  person can't get the words out fast enough

o Slowness: speech that is abnormally slow or scarce ∙ Aphasia  

o Expressive - cant produce language

∙ Knew what they wanted to say but the words  couldn’t come out

o Receptive- lack of ability to understand the meaning of  what people tell you or what you read

∙ Hear the sound but sounds like a foreign language

o Aprosodia- inability to understand the tone in which the  word or words are used which effects how you perceive  the meaning

∙ Thinking

o Flight of ideas: the person is talking about one thing  and jumps to talking about something else where the  theme is commonly the same

o Paranoia: believing that someone is out to get you even though there is no objective sign

o Grandiosity: inflated sense of one's importance or  abilities that can not be verified  

∙ Ex. A person saying, "I am a famous author and I  discovered the cure for polio"

o Ideas of reference: inappropriately conclude that things  that are objectively neutral are associated with you ∙ Hearing something on the radio and construing  that it is referring to you, i.e. a advertisement for a  new cancer test and the person says, "how did they  know I got tested last week".

o Delusions: a mistaken idea (unreal or unsubstantiated  idea or thought) *thinks*

∙ Person believes that someone wants them do  something bad

o Hallucinations - a mistaken, unsubstantiated perception *perceives*

∙ Person is hearing someone tell them to do  something bad

∙ Mood

o Mood vs. affect: Mood-  

∙ Mood: long-term, Overarching mood

∙ Affect: short-term, Moment to moment  

o Elevated/expansive  

o Depressed- talks slow, moves slow, looks depressed o Angry, irritable- externalize, project, angry

o Flat- mood doesn't change, usually no emotion or  expression

o Constricted- mood changes only a little bit  

o Labile- mood changes a little too fast

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

∙ Presenting problem: reason for referral

∙ History of the presenting problem

∙ Background history: medical, educational, vocational, family, etc.  

∙ Prior examinations and/or tests

∙ Prior treatment history  

∙ Appearance and behavior

∙ Mental state

∙ Psychological testing

∙ Results & diagnostic conclusions

∙ Recommendations:  

Psychotherapy: Models

∙ Transformative: make fundamental changes in the person's  psyche. EX. Psychodynamic and existential therapies.  ∙ Corrective: patient learns more productive ways of thinking,  reacting, & behaving, ex. Cognitive-behavioral therapies ∙ Adaptational: patient Is helped to cope with minimally  changeable circumstances. Ex/ supportive-expressive  therapies

Psychotherapy: Applications

∙ Individual  

∙ Couples

∙ Child  

∙ Family

∙ Groups

∙ Combinations

∙ Special populations & applications

∙ Validity & flexibility  

Psychotherapy

Thursday, September 6, 2018

8:07 AM

Psychotherapy: Common Factors in Success

∙ Working alliance- feel comfortable working with one another ∙ Agreement on therapeutic goals

∙ Perceived positive qualities of therapist- liking your therapist  ∙ Therapist's knowledge & flexibility- basic understanding of  problem or of what he/she is doing; has a range of ways or  approaches in which to help

o Diagnosis & assessment

o Psychotherapeutic techniques

o Interpersonal skill & maturity

∙ Rationale for the change process- giving the patient a reason for whatever it is that you are doing

∙ Realistic goals- client and therapist both have realistic goals  and expectations that can be met

∙ Patient's positive expectations- give the patient positive  expectations that you can actually do

∙ Patient's ability/willingness to change- patient has to be  willing to change behaviors or thoughts

∙ Patient's opportunity for catharsis & expression- patient has  to be able to tell you what they are thinking and feeling ∙ Opportunity to learn and practice new attitudes & behaviors changing for the better, client can walk away with something  new, something learned,  

∙ Insight, understanding, and creation of a meaningful  narrative

Forensic Psychology: Civil Law System

*Both law and psychology are preoccupied with things, minds,  thoughts*

 Civilian against another civilian (s) 

∙ Contracts and wills

∙ Estates and inheritances

∙ Family law: marriage, divorce, custody

∙ Civil Competencies and capacities

∙ Torts (- damage or hurt): Workers compensation, personal  injury, etc.

Criminal Law System

Defendant is charged 

∙ Criminal competencies: "proceed."- psychological evaluation  of if the person underrated their rights, their competencies,  their ability to understand what is going on

∙ NGRI: insanity defense

∙ Diminished capacity and mitigation

∙ Prediction of dangerousness & future offending determination for parole  

Civil Competencies 

∙ Presumption of competency -Presumed competent until  someone challenges it

∙ Individual vs. plenary- incompetence with one function vs.  incompetent with everything

∙ Guardianship or ward of the court:  

∙ Mental skills relevant to competency

o General abilities

o Specific cognitive skills

∙ Clinical syndromes relevant to competency-.  

o Stable, permanent

o Progressive

o Potentially recoverable

Criminal competency to proceed 

Understand the nature of the charges

Understand the rang of possible penalties

Be able to assist one's attorney in one's defense

Requirements documentation of mental impairment, but no  specific diagnosis

Insanity Defense

∙ Frequency of use of the insanity defense- Actually more rare  than we think (only raised in about 1 out of 100 cases, most  are unsuccessful)

∙ Presumption of competency  

∙ Actus reus & mens rea.- there has to be evidence that you  committed the crime; there has to be an intention to commit  the crime

∙ Insanity defense standards: cognitive vs. volitional prongs.  o Requires diagnosis of "Mental disease of defect" and  didn’t understand what you were doing or that it was  wrong

o Unable to control it even if they understood the  consequence  

∙ Relatively strict standard of impairment

∙ Insanity defense vs. diminished capacity

The Brain & Behavior

Thursday, September 6, 2018

9:05 AM

Central & Peripheral Nervous System

 Nervous System  

CNS

Brain & Spinal Cord

PNS 

 Somatic | Automatic

Somatic

Automati c

Sympathetic- arousal function (fight or  flight) ; activation

Parasympathetic- everyday functions such as  digestion

Brainstem- pons: bridges coming from cerebellum and nuclei to cranial nerves,  Midrange- posture, etc.  

Reticular Formation- it enables you to direct and utilize all the functions of the  nervous system, it enables you to remain consciousness or focus the attention on  something

Limbic system- functions involved in emotion and memory  

Amygdala- involved with experiencing emotions

Hippocampus- brain formatting; consolidation of information from short term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory

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